श्वेत

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


श्वेतम्, क्ली, (श्वेतते इति । श्वित + अच् ।) रूप्यम् । इत्यमरः ॥

श्वेतः, पुं, (श्वेतते इति । श्वित शौक्ल्ये + पचाद्यच् ।) शुक्लवर्णः । द्वीपविशेषः (यथा, महाभारते । १२ । ३३५ । ८ । “क्षीरोदवेर्योत्तरतो हि द्वीपः श्वेतः स नाम्ना प्रथितो विशालः ॥”) पर्व्वतभेदः । इति मेदिनी ॥ (स तु जम्बुद्वीप- पर्व्वतानामन्यतमः । यथा, मार्कण्डेये । ५४ । ९ । “हिमवान् हेमकूटश्च ऋषभो मेरुरेव च । नीलः श्वेतस्तथा शृङ्गी सप्तास्मिन् वर्षपर्व्वताः ॥” श्वेतपर्व्वतस्य परिमाणादि यथा । “उत्तरोत्तरे णेलावृतं नीलः श्वेतः शृङ्गवानिति त्रयो रम्यकहिरण्मयकुरूणां मर्य्यादागिरयः प्रागा- यताः उभयतः क्षारोदावधयो द्विसहस्रयोजन- पृथव एकैकशः पूर्व्वस्मात् पूर्व्वस्मादुत्तरोत्तरो दशांशाधिकांशेन दैर्घ्य एव ह्रसन्ति । एवं दक्षिणेनेलावृतं निषधा हेमकूटो हिमालय इति प्रागायत्ना यथा नोलादयः । अयुतयोजनोत्सेधा हरिवर्षकिंपुरुषभारतानां यथासंख्यम् ।” इति श्रीभागवते ५ स्कन्धे १६ अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ कपर्द्दकः । इति हेमचन्द्रः ॥ शुक्रग्रहः । श्वेताभ्रः । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ शङ्खः । इति राजनिर्घण्टः ॥ जीवकः । इति जटाधरः ॥ शिवावतारविशेषः । यथा, -- “वेदव्यासावताराणि द्वापरे कथितानि तु । महादेवावताराणि कलौ शृणुत सुव्रताः ॥ आदौ कलियुगे श्वेतो देवदेवो महाद्युतिः । नाम्ना हिताय विप्राणामभूद्वैवस्वतेऽन्तरे ॥ हिमवच्छिखरे रस्ये छगले पर्वतोत्तमे । तस्य शिष्याः शिखायुक्ता बभूवुरमितप्रभाः ॥ श्वेतः श्वेतशिखश्चैव श्वेतास्यः श्वेतलोहितः । चत्वारस्ते महात्मानो व्राह्मणा वेदपारगाः ॥ सुभावो दमनश्चाथ सुहोत्रः कङ्कणस्तथा । लोकाक्षिरथ योगीन्द्रो जैगीषव्यस्तु सप्तमे ॥ अष्टमे दधिबाहुः स्यान्नवमे वृषभप्रभुः । भृगुस्तु दशमे प्राक्तस्तस्तादुग्रः परः स्मृतः ॥ द्वादशेऽत्रिः समाख्यातो बाली चाथ त्रयो- दशे । चतुर्दशे गौतमस्तु वेदशीर्प्रा ततः परम् ॥ गोकणश्चाभवत्तस्मात् गुहावासः शिखण्ड्यथ । जटामाल्यट्टहासश्च दारुको लाङ्गलो क्रमात् ॥ श्व तस्तथापरः शूली तिण्डी मुण्डी च वै क्रमात् साहष्णुः सोमशर्म्मा च नकुलीशोऽन्तिमे प्रभुः ॥ ववस्वतेऽन्तरे शम्भोरवतारास्त्रिशूलिनः । अष्टाविंशतिराख्याता ह्यन्ते कलियुगे प्रभोः ॥” इति कौर्म्मे ५० अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ राजविशेषः । यथा, -- ब्रह्मोवाच । “श्वेताभिजनसम्पन्नः सत्यवागनसूयकः । त्वयाधीतं हुतं दत्तं गुरवः परितोषिताः ॥ न ते दत्तं द्विजेभ्योऽन्नं कदाचिद्धि बुभुक्षिते । तस्मात्तोव्रेह संजाता क्षुधा ते नृपसत्तम ॥ अन्नदानादृते पुंसां न स्यात्तृप्तिर्महीतले । सर्गे वापि तथा नात्र अन्नदानं ततोऽधिकम् ॥” इति वह्निपुराणे अन्नदाननामाध्यायः ॥ (नागविशेषः । यथा, भागवते । ५ । २४ । ३१ । “ततोऽधस्तात् पाताले नागलोकपतयो वासुकि- प्रमुखाः शङ्खकुलिकमहाशङ्खश्वेतधनञ्जयधृत- राष्ट्रशङ्खचूडकम्बलाश्वतरदेवदत्तादयो महा- भोगिनो महामर्षा निवसन्ति ॥”)

श्वेतः, त्रि, (श्वेतो वर्णोऽस्यास्तीति । श्वेत + अर्श आद्यचु ।) शुक्लवर्णयुक्तः । इत्यमरः ॥ * ॥ (यथा, रघुः । १ । ८३ । “ललाटोदयमाभुग्नं पल्लवस्निग्धपाटला । बिभ्रती श्वेतरोमाङ्कं सन्ध्येव शशिनं नवम् ॥”) श्वेतवस्तूनि यथा । अथ श्वेतानि । “सुधांशूच्चैःश्रवः शम्भुकीर्त्तिज्योत्स्नाशरद्घनाः । प्रासादसौधतगरमन्दारद्रुहिमाद्रयः ॥ सूर्य्येन्दुकान्तकर्पूरकरम्भारजतं हली । हिर्म्मोकभस्म हिण्डीरचन्दनं करका हिमम् ॥ हारोर्णनाभतन्त्वस्थि स्वर्गङ्गेभरदाभ्रकम् । शेषाहिः शर्करा दुग्धं दधि गङ्गा सुधाजलम् ॥ मृणालसिकता हंसवककैरवचामरम् । रम्भागर्भपुण्डरीककेतकोशङ्खनिर्झराः ॥ लोध्रसिंहध्वजच्छत्रचूर्णसूक्तिकपर्द्दकाः । मुक्ताकुसुमनक्षत्रदन्तपुण्योशनोगुणाः ॥ कलासकासकार्पासहासवासवकुञ्जराः । नारदः पारदः कुन्दखटिका स्फाटिकादयः ॥” इति कविकल्पलतायां द्वितीये श्लेषस्तवके वर्णो नाम द्वितीयं कुसुमम् ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


श्वेत पुं।

शुक्लवर्णः

समानार्थक:शुक्ल,शुभ्र,शुचि,श्वेत,विशद,श्येत,पाण्डर,अवदात,सित,गौर,अवलक्ष,धवल,अर्जुन

1।5।12।2।4

पूतिगन्धिस्तु दुर्गन्धो विस्रं स्यादामगन्धि यत्. शुक्लशुभ्रशुचिश्वेतविशदश्येतपाण्डरः॥

 : पीतसंवलितशुक्लः, ईषद्धवलवर्णः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , गुणः, रूपम्

श्वेत नपुं।

रजतम्

समानार्थक:दुर्वर्ण,रजत,रूप्य,खर्जूर,श्वेत

2।9।96।2।5

अलङ्कारसुवर्णं यच्छृङ्गीकनकमित्यदः। दुर्वर्णं रजतं रूप्यं खर्जूरं श्वेतमित्यपि॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, तेजः, धातुः

श्वेत नपुं।

रूप्यकम्

समानार्थक:कलधौत,श्वेत,रजत,रूप्य

3।3।79।2।1

महद्राज्यं चावगीतं जन्ये स्याद्गर्हिते त्रिषु। श्वेतं रूप्येऽपि रजतं हेम्नि रूप्ये सिते त्रिषु॥

 : दीनार_नामकनाण्यविशेषः

पदार्थ-विभागः : धनम्

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


श्वेत¦ पु॰ श्वित--अच घञ् वा।

१ द्वीपभेदे

२ पर्वतभेदे

३ कप-र्दके हेमच॰।

४ शुक्रग्रहे

५ पुभ्राभ्रे शब्दच॰।

६ शङ्खेराजनि॰।

७ जीवके जटा॰।

८ शुक्लवर्णे

९ तद्वति त्रि॰अमरः स्त्रियां ङीप् तस्य नश्च श्वेनी।

१० कलियुगीय-शिवावतारविशेषे यथा
“वेदध्यासावताराणि द्वापरेकथितानि तु। महादेवावताराणि कलौ शृणुत सुव्रत!। आदौ कलियुगे श्वेतो देवदेवो महाद्युतिः। नाम्रा हि-ताय विप्राणामभूद्वैपखतेऽन्मरे। हिमवच्छिस्वरे रम्येछगले पर्वतोत्तमे। तस्य शिष्याः शिखायुक्ता बुभूवरमित-प्रभाः। श्वेतः श्वतशिखश्चैव श्वेतास्यः श्वेतलोहितः। [Page5161-b+ 38] चत्वारस्ते महात्मानो ब्राह्मणा वेदपारगाः। सुभावोदमनश्चाथ सुहोत्रः कङ्कणस्तथा। लोकाक्षिरथ योगान्द्रोजैगीषव्यस्तु सप्तमे। अष्टमे दधिबाहुः स्यान्नवमे वृषभप्रभुः। भृगुस्तु दशमे प्रोक्तस्तस्मादुग्रः परः स्मृतः। द्वादशेऽत्रिः समाख्यातो वाली चाथ त्रयोदशे। चतुर्दशेगौतमस्तु वेदशीर्षा ततः परम्। गाकणश्चामवत्तस्मात्गुहावासः शिखण्ड्यथ। जटामाल्यट्टहासश्च दारुकोलाङ्गली क्रमात्। श्वोतस्तथा परः शूली तिण्डो मुण्डीच वै क्रमात्। सहिष्णुः सोमशर्मा च नष्कुलीशोऽन्तिमेप्रभुः। वैवस्वतेऽन्तरे शम्भोरवतारास्त्रिशूलनः। अष्टा-विंशतिराख्याताह्यन्ते कलियगे प्रभोः” कौर्म

५० अ॰। श्वेतपर्वतस्य परिमाणादि यथा
“उत्तरोत्त{??}णेलावृतंनीलः श्वेतः शृङवान् इति त्रयो रम्यकहिरणमयकुरूणां मर्य्यादागिरयः प्रागायताः उभयतः क्षारोदा-वधयो द्विसहस्नयोजनपृथव एकैकशः पूर्वस्यात् पूर्व-स्यादुत्तरोदशांशाधिकांशेन दैर्घ्य एव ह्रसन्ति” भाग॰।

५ ।

१६ ।

११ राजभेदे वह्निपु॰। संज्ञायां कन्। रूप्येन॰ राजनि॰। कपर्दके पु॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


श्वेत¦ mfn. (-तः-ता or नी-तं) White. m. (-तः)
1. White, (the colour.)
2. The planet VENUS, or its regent S4UKRA.
3. The sixth range of moun- tains, dividing the known continent, the white mountains separa- ting the Varshas of Hiranmaya and Romanaka.
4. One of the minor Dwipas or divisions of the world; in fable the White Island, identified geographically by WILFORD, with Britain.
5. A white cloud.
6. Cummin-seed.
7. A conch. mf. (-तः-ता) A small white shell used as a coin, a Cowrie. n. (-तं) Silver. f. (-ता)
1. A grass, (Andropogon aciculatum.)
2. A plant, Ka4sht'ha-Pa4tala.
3. A flower, (Clitoria ternatea.)
4. Hogweed.
5. Bent grass with white blossoms.
6. Bamboo-manna.
7. Crystal.
8. Clayed or can- died sugar.
9. A cowrie. E. श्वित् to be white, aff. अच् or घञ् |

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


श्वेत [śvēta], a. (-श्वेता or -श्वेती f.) [श्वित्-अच् घञ् वा] White; ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ Bg.1.14.

तः The white colour.

A conch-shell.

A cowrie.

The planet Venus.

Śukra, the regent of the planet; न शेकुः पाण्डवा द्रष्टुं श्वेतं ग्रहमिवोदितम् Mb.6.82.12.

A white cloud.

Cumin seed.

N. of a range of mountains; शृङ्गैः श्वेतमिव स्थितम् Bhāg.1.39.45. (according to some com. कैलास); see कुलाचल or कुलपर्वत.

N. of a division of the world.

A white goat; वायव्यं श्वेतमालभेत । cf. तस्मात् प्रत्यक्षो$पि श्वेतशब्दश्छागमेव परिच्छिन्द्यान्नान्यं पशुम् इति ŚB. on MS.1.2.68.

A white horse.

A silver coin.

A comet; श्वेतो ग्रहस्तिर्यगिवापतन् खे Mb. 5.37.43.

तम् Silver.

The white of the eye.

Butter-milk and water mixed half and half. -Comp. -अंशुः the moon. -अद्रिः, -पर्वतः N. of a mountain; दन्तै- श्चतुर्भिः श्वेताद्रेर्हरन् भगवतो महीम् Bhāg.8.8.4 (com. कैलास).-अम्बरः, -वासस् m. a class of Jaina ascetics. -अर्चिस् the moon. -अश्वः N. of Arjuna. -इक्षुः a kind of sugar cane. -उदरः an epithet of Kubera.

कपोतः A kind of mouse.

a kind of snake. -कमलम्, -पद्मम् a white lotus.-काकीय a. unusual, unheard of. -कुञ्जरः an epithet of Airāvata, the elephant of Indra. -कुष्ठम् white leprosy.

केतुः a Bauddha or Jaina saint.

the descending node. -कोलः a kind of fish (शफर). -क्षारः saltpetre, alkali.

गजः, द्विपः a white elephant.

the elephant of Indra. -गरुत् m., -गरुतः a goose.

छदः a goose; श्वेतच्छदश्च विधुतच्छदचामरेण प्रासेवत प्रियतमां सुरतश्रमार्ताम् Rām. ch.5.15.

a kind of basil. -द्वीपः N. of one of the eighteen minor divisions of the known continent; ˚पतिः Viṣṇu; श्वेतद्वीपपतिश्चित्तं मनो योगेश्वरो$वतु Bhāg.1.6.24; श्वेतद्वीपपतौ चित्तं शुद्धे धर्ममये मयि Bhāg.11.15.18.

धातुः a white mineral.

chalk.

the milkstone. -धामन्m.

the moon.

camphor.

the foam of the sea.

cuttle-fish bone. -नीलः a cloud. -पत्रः a goose.ष (Many roots which begin with स् are written in the Dhātupāṭha with ष् to show that the स् is changed to ष् after certain prepositions. Such roots will be found under स in their proper places.)

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


श्वेत mf( आor श्वेनी)n. white , dressed , in white , bright (with पर्वतm. " snow-mountain " S3Br. ; with कटा-क्षm. " a bright side-glance " Sam2gi1t. ) RV. etc.

श्वेत m. white (the colour) L.

श्वेत m. a white horse S3Br.

श्वेत m. a small white shell , cowry L.

श्वेत m. a silver coin L.

श्वेत m. a white cloud L.

श्वेत m. the planet Venus or its regent शुक्रL.

श्वेत m. a partic. comet(See. -केतु) VarBr2S.

श्वेत m. a partic. plant(= जीवक) L.

श्वेत m. cumin seed W.

श्वेत m. N. of a serpent-demon (with वैदार्वor वैदार्व्यor वैदर्व्य; others give श्वैत-वैदारवas signifying " a partic. deity connected with the sun ") Gr2S. Pur.

श्वेत m. N. of one of स्कन्द's attendants MBh.

श्वेत m. of a दैत्य(son of विप्र-चित्ति) Hariv.

श्वेत m. of a मुनिMBh. Katha1s.

श्वेत m. of a partic. अवतारof शिवCat.

श्वेत m. of a pupil of शिवIW. 122 n. 3

श्वेत m. of a manifestation of विष्णुin his वराहincarnation (worshipped in a partic. part of India) MW.

श्वेत m. of a राजर्षिMBh.

श्वेत m. of a son of the king सुदेवR.

श्वेत m. of a general MBh.

श्वेत m. of a son of वपुष्मत्Ma1rkP.

श्वेत m. of a preceptor Cat.

श्वेत m. of a mythical elephant MBh.

श्वेत m. of the sixth range of mountains dividing the known continent (the white or " snowy " mountains separating the वर्षs of हिरण्मयand रम्यक) MBh. Pur. ( IW. 420 n. 1 )

श्वेत m. of one of the minor द्वीपs or divisions of the world(See. -द्वीप) MBh. R.

श्वेत m. a small white shell , cowry L.

श्वेत m. N. of various plants( accord. to L. the birch tree , a white bignonia , Boerhavia Procumbens , Achyranthes Atropurpurea etc. ) Sus3r. VarBr2S.

श्वेत m. crystal L.

श्वेत m. alum L.

श्वेत m. white or candied sugar L.

श्वेत m. bamboo-manna L.

श्वेत m. a mystical term for the letter स्Up.

श्वेत m. N. of one of the मातृs attendant on स्कन्दMBh.

श्वेत m. of the mother of the elephant श्वेत(or शङ्ख) MBh. R.

श्वेत m. of a princess Ra1jat.

श्वेत n. the white of the eye Sus3r.

श्वेत n. the growing white (of the hair) ChUp.

श्वेत n. silver L.

श्वेत n. butter-milk and water mixed half and half L.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--(वर्षपर्वत) a Mt. range to the north of इलावृत, and a boundary limit of हिरण्मय; residence of Daityas and दानवस्; centres round the Kumuda hill of शाल्मलिद्वीपम्; for Asuras. भा. V. १६. 8; Br. II. 1. ६९; II. १५. २२ and २८; १७. ३५; २०. ५२; III. 7. १९४; M. ११३. २३, ८४; १४४. ५७; वा. 1. ८५; ४२. ६८; ४५. 2; ४६. ३५. ४९. ३९; ५०. ५०.
(II)--a chief नाग of पाताल; फलकम्:F1:  भा. V. २४. ३१.फलकम्:/F with the sun in आवणि and पुरट्टाशि. फलकम्:F2:  Br. II. २३. १०; वा. ५२. ११.फलकम्:/F
(III)--a son of वपुष्मत् after whom came the श्वेतदेश. Br. II. १४. ३२-3; वा. ३३. २८; Vi. II. 4. २३, २९.
(IV)--a son of देवजनी and a यक्ष. Br. III. 7. १२८.
(V)--a son of बृहति. Br. III. ७१. २५६; वा. ९६. २४७.
(VI)--a son of Vipracitta the दानव in the तार- कामय war. M. १७३. १९; १७७. 7.
(VII)--the form of a great seer which शिव as- sumes at the end of the four Yugas of the Kalpa; (वाराह) in the Chagala hillock of the हिमालयस्; फलकम्:F1:  वा. २३. ११५.फलकम्:/F the अवतार् of the २३र्द् dva1para in the कलञ्जर hill. फलकम्:F2:  Ib. २३. २०३-4.फलकम्:/F
(VIII)--one of the four Vedic disciples of श्वेत, an अवतार् of the Lord शिव. वा. २३. ११७. [page३-495+ ३०]
(IX)--a son of मणिवर. वा. ६९. १५९.
(X)--a ऋत्विक् at ब्रह्मा's sacrifice. वा. १०६. ३६.
(XI)--a division of जम्बूद्विप. Vi. II. 1. २१. 2. ११.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Śveta : m.: Name of one of the cardinal elephants (diśāgaja).

Son of Śvetā, who was one of the daughters of Krodhavaśā (or of Tāmrā ? 1. 60. 54); quick in his gait (āśuga) 1. 60. 64.


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Śveta, Śvetagraha : m.: Designation of the planet Ketu. [See Ketu in the Addenda]


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Śveta : m.: Name of a mountain.


A. Origin: The seed secreted by Rudra became the Śveta mountāin (rudreṇa śukram utsṛṣṭaṁ tac chvetaḥ parvato 'bhavat) 3. 218. 27.


B. Location: In the north (udīcyām) 7. 57. 23; in the north, beyond the Himavant and Niṣkuṭa mountains 2. 24. 27; beyond the Śveta is the land of the Kiṁpuruṣas (śvetaparvataṁ…samatikramya… deśaṁ kiṁpuruṣāvāsam) 2. 25. 1; in the vicinity of the Uṣīrabīja, Malnāka and Kālaśaila mountains 3. 140. 1, and of Mandara 3. 140. 4; the Ramaṇaka varṣa is to the south of Śveta and to the north of Nīla 6. 9. 2; to the south of Śṛṅgin and to the north of Śveta is the Hairaṇvata varṣa 6. 9. 5; one of the six mountains listed by Saṁjaya which extend to the east (prāgāyatāḥ) and merge at both ends in the eastern and the western ocean (avagāḍhā hy ubhayataḥ samudrau pūrvapaścimau) 6. 7. 2; the distance between these mountains is thousands of yojanas (teṣām antaraviṣkambho yojanāni sahasraśaḥ) 6. 7. 4.


C. Description: Shining (śubha) 3. 155. 28; big mountain (mahāgiri) 3. 214. 30; 9. 59. 8; huge (atipramāṇa) 5. 47. 66; king of mountains (parvatarājan) 3. 155. 4; excellent among mountains (śikhariṇāṁ varam) 3. 155. 4; heap of rocks (śiloccaya) 5. 47. 66; having many summits (nānāsamucchraya) 3. 155. 28; its top (śailapṛṣṭha) not easy to reach (sudurgama) 3. 214. 12; having bright forests (śubhakānana) 3. 220. 22; covered with thickets of reeds (śarastambaiḥ susaṁvṛtam) 3. 214. 10; golden (kāñcana) 3. 220. 21; delightful due to gold and jewels (maṅīkāñcanaramya) 3. 155. 28; inlaid with silver (rajatācita) 3. 186. 102; 13. 151. 26, and bright like silver (rajataprabha) 6. 7. 3 (does rajata here stand for mahārajata ‘gold’ ?); variegated due to many kinds of minerals (bahudhātuvicitra) 9. 59. 8; looking like a big dense cloud (mahābhraghanasaṁkāśaṁ), and full of water (salilopahitam) 3. 155. 28; full of Rakṣases, Piśācas, frightful Bhūtas, Rākṣasīs, and many animals and birds (rakṣobhiś ca piśācaiś ca raudrair bhūtagaṇais tathā/rākṣasībhiś ca sampūrṇam anekaiś ca mṛgadvijaiḥ) 3. 214. 11; all the six mountains listed by Saṁjaya are described as stretching towards the east (prāgāyatāḥ), jewelled mountains (ratnaparvatāḥ), and frequented by the Siddhas and the Cāraṇas (siddhacāraṇasevitāḥ) 6. 7. 2, 4 (also see the next section).


D. Characteristics:

(1) On the Śvetagiri (and Mandara) live the Yakṣa Māṇicara and Kubera, the king of the Yakṣas; eightyeight thousand quick moving (śīghracāriṇaḥ) Gandharvas, Kiṁpuruṣas and their four times Yakṣas, having many forms and weapons serve there Māṇibhadra, the chief of the Yakṣas 3. 140. 4-6;

(2) The mountain is protected by strange snakes having seven heads and poisonous eyes (dṛṣṭiviṣaiḥ saptaśīrṣair guptaṁ bhogibhir adbhutaiḥ) 3. 214. 11;

(3) Śveta mountain shone with the flowering Saṁtānaka forests, forests of Karavīra, Pārijāta, Japā and Aśoka trees, clusters of Kadamba trees and hosts of heavenly animals and birds (divyair mṛgagaṇair api/ divyaiḥ pakṣigaṇaiś caiva śuśubhe śvetaparvataḥ) 3. 220. 23-24;

(4) Are the Śveta and the other mountains listed by Brahman to be looked upon as characterized by the middle quality (madhyama guṇa), i. e. by the quality rajas ? 14. 43. 4, 1 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 14. 43. 1: madhyamo guṇaḥ rajoguṇapradhānaḥ).


E. Importance:

(1) Listed by Brahman among mountains called ‘kings of mountains’ (parvatarājānaḥ) 14. 43. 4;

(2) Finds mention in the Daivata-Ṛṣi-Vaṁśa 13. 151. 26, 2.


F. Epic events:

(1) Arjuna, in his expedition to the north before the Rājasūya, reached the Śveta mountain after conquering the peoples on the Himavant and the Niṣkūṭa mountains and lived there 2. 24. 2; he then crossed Śveta and conquered the country of the Kiṁpuruṣas 2. 25. 1-2;

(2) The Pāṇḍavas in their journey northwards in the company of Lomaśa were to enter it and proceed to inaccessible mountains 3. 140. 1, 4, 8; it was agreed that the Pāṇḍavas were to meet Arjuna, who had left for heavenly missiles, on the Śveta mountain at the end of the fifth year of Arjuna's studentship 3. 155. 3-5; after killing Jaṭāsura, the Pāṇḍavas entered Śveta from Nārāyaṇāśrama (3. 155. 1) on the fourth day (parvataṁ viviśuḥ śvetaṁ caturthe 'hani pāṇḍavāḥ) 3. 155. 27;

(3) Seen by Arjuna during the night on his way to the north to propitiate Śiva for his Pāśupata 7. 57. 23.


G. Past and mythological events:

(1) When Nahuṣa became the king of heaven he enjoyed at many places, one of them being the Śveta mountain 5. 11. 9;

(2) The sage Mārkaṇḍeya saw Śveta among other mountains in the belly of the Bāla (3. 186. 83 = Nārāyaṇa 3. 187. 3) 3. 186. 102;

(3) When Dakṣa's daughter Svāhā in the form of Śivā, the wife of Aṅgiras, held the seed of Agni she took the form of a Suparṇī Garuḍī and flew away; when she saw Śveta she poured the seed in a golden pot on the top of the mountain; this she did six times on each pratipad day; Kumāra (Skanda) with six heads was born; the child played on the top of the mountain 3. 213. 52; 3. 214. 1, 7, 9-10, 15, 17, 26; the Kṛttikās gathered (?) the seed of Pāvaka (Agni) on the mountain Śveta (pāvakasyendriyaṁ śvete kṛttikābhiḥ kṛtaṁ nage) 3. 218. 27; the child Kumāra sitting on the top of the mountain saw all directions by his different heads; he drew his bow and shot arrows at Śveta and pierced the Krauñca mountain, the son of Himavant; he then hurled a śakti which by its impact broke the summit of Śveta; the mountain, afraid, deserted the earth and flew up in the sky with other mountains; later Śveta returned to the earth 3. 214. 27, 30-31, 34-35, 37; Skanda, surrounded by hosts of Piśācas and gods, shone on the golden mountain Śveta; the whole world, including Indra, looked at the delighted Skanda and was not tired of looking at him; there were also the rest of gods and all great sages to look at Skanda; there one heard the sounds of musical instruments, of the dancing heavenly Gandharvas and Apsarases and of the delighted beings 3. 220. 21, 25-27;

(4) Rāmāyaṇa events: (i) Avindhya, an old learned Rākṣasa, saw in a dream that while Kumbhakarṇa and other demons, wearing red garlands, were being dragged to the south, Vibhīṣaṇa and his four counsellors alone, with white parasole and head-gear, all wearing white garlands, mounted on top of the Śveta mountain 3. 264. 65-67; (ii) a Guhyaka, with marvellous water sent by Kubera, arrived from Śveta mountain to Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa 3. 273. 9.


H. Similes:

(1) Duḥsaha, who had put on a lustrous armour and a golden garland looked like the Śveta mountain engulfed by fire (agnineva giriḥ śvetaḥ) 11. 19. 21;

(2) Balarāma holding the plough in his raised hand looked like the big Śveta mountain (tato lāṅgalam udyamya…tasyordhvabāhoḥ sadṛśaṁ rūpam āsīt mahātmanaḥ…śvetasyeva mahāgireḥ//) 9. 59. 7-8;

(3) The serpent Śeṣa with different ornaments on his person had the appearance of Śveta mountain (śvetoccayanibhākāraḥ) 5. 101. 3;

(4) Gāndhārī and other Kaurava women came out of houses which looked like the Śveta mountain (śvetaparvatarūpebhyo gṛhebhyaḥ) 11. 9. 11;

(5) The tree called Mahāśaṅkha at the Śaṅkhatīrtha was like Śveta mountain (mahāśaṅkham…śvetaparvatasaṁkāśam) 9. 36. 20.


I. Use in an illustration: According to Arjuna one who wants to win victory in a battle over Vāsudeva wants to split the huge Śveta mountain with his palm; in such an effort his palm, along with nails, will be shattered and he will do no harm to the mountain (giriṁ ya iccheta talena bhettuṁ śiloccayaṁ śvetam atipramāṇam/tasyaiva pāṇiḥ sanakho viśīryen na cāpi kiṁcit sa gires tu kuryāt) 5. 47. 66.


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Śveta^1 : nt. (sg.): Name of a Varṣa of Jambudvīpa.

It lay to the north of the Nīla Varṣa (and the Śveta mountain); and to the south of the Hairaṇyaka Varṣa (and the Śṛṅgin mountain) (nīlāt parataraṁ śvetaṁ śvetād dhairaṇyakaṁ param) 6. 7. 35.


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Śveta^2 : m. (sg.): Name of a Dvīpa.


A. Location: Nārada saw it situated to the north-west of mountain Meru, to the north of Kṣīrodadhi (the ocean of milk); according to the wise men it was at a distance of more than thirtytwo thousand yojanas from the base of Meru (adhimerau…nililye//tatrāvatasthe ca munir (viz. Nārada) muhūrtam/…ālokayann uttarapaścimena dadarśa…//kṣīrodadher uttarato hi dvīpaḥ śvetaḥ sa nāmnā …/meroḥ sahasraiḥ sa hi yojanānāṁ dvātriṁśatorddhvaṁ kavibhir niruktaḥ//) 12. 322. 7-8 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 330. 9: merumūlāt dvātriṁśatsahasrayojanād ūrdhvam); kṣīrodadher uttarataḥ śvetadvīpo …) 12. 323. 23; kṣīrodasyottaraṁ kūlam (probably a reference to Śvetadvīpa; the island is not directly named) 12. 327. 39.


B. Description; (a) of the island; famous (prathita); large (viśāla) 12. 322. 8; (mahādvīpa) 12. 323. 28; 12. 325. 1; 12. 326. 117; 12. 331. 20; of great brightness (mahāprabha) 12. 323. 23; abode of brightness (tejonivāsa) 12. 323. 34; (b) of the people on the Śvetadvīpa: white (śveta) 12. 322. 9; 12. 323. 31, 47; 12. 325. 1; 12. 331. 41; (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 335. 10: śvetāḥ śuddhasattvapradhānāḥ); auspicious (śubha) 12. 325. 1; devoid of the five sense organs (pañcendriyavivarjita) 12. 331. 41; (sarvendriyavivarjita) 12. 323. 47; beyond sense organs (atīndriya) 12. 322. 9, 13; 12. 323. 25; (anindriyāhāra) 12. 326. 18. (Nī. Bom. Ed. 12. 335. 10: reads anīndriyāḥ and comments: sthūladehasaṅgahīnāḥ; however, see the next which refers to their bodies or parts of bodies); their bodies have bones as strong as vajra (vajrāsthikāya) 12. 322. 10; of auspicious strength (śubhasāropeta) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. on 12. 335. 10: śubhaḥ yogaprabhāvajaḥ sāro balaṁ tena upetāḥ); their heads have the shape of an umbrella (chatrākṛtiśīrṣa) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. on 12. 335. 11: nirmāṁsagrīvatvāt); having sixty teeth (ṣaṣṭyā dantair yuktāḥ) 12. 322. 11. (Nī. on 12. 335. 11; ṣaṣṭyā ṣaṣṭisaṁkhyair dantair iva jagaccaṇakacarvaṇakṣamaiḥ saṁvatsarair yuktāḥ); have eight shining jaws (śuklair aṣṭābhir daṁṣṭrābhir ye) 12. 322. 11 (Nī. on 12. 335. 11: aṣṭau diśaḥ sarveṣām āśrayabhūtās tābhiś ca yuktā deśakālau yeṣāṁ mukhamadhye praviṣṭāv ity arthaḥ/); with their tongues they lick on all sides their faces which shine like the sun (jihvābhir ye viṣvag vaktraṁ lelihyante sūryaprakhyam) 12. 322. 11. (Nī. 12. 335. 11 reads viśvavaktram and explains sūryeṇa prakhyāyate sphuṭīkriyate dinamāsartusaṁvatsarātmā mahākālas taṁ viśvavaktraṁ viśvaṁ vaktre yasya tādṛśam jihvābhir iva svāṅgabhūtābhī rasanāśaktibhir lelihyante pāyasam iva lihanti); they have feet marked with a hundred lotuses (rājīvaśatapāda) 12. 322. 10 (Nī. 12. 335. 11 reads rājāvacchadapādāḥ and explains: rājīvatyaḥ paṅktiyuktāḥ śirārekhās tāsāṁ śatair yuktāḥ pādāḥ yeṣām; they have svastika marks resembling lotuses (satpuṣkaracatuṣka ? or they wear garlands of four lotuses ?) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. 12. 335. 11: reads samamuṣkacatuṣkāḥ and explains: samaṁ pīnatvarahitaṁ muṣkau vṛṣaṇau catuṣkaṁ aṁsayoḥ kaṭyoś cāntarālaṁ ca muṣkacatuṣkaṁ/bāhucatuṣkaṁ vā kimuttvāvān (?) muṣkayor baddha āsate iti liṅgān muṣko bāhuḥ/śuṣkaṁ kāṣṭhatulyaṁ catuṣkaṁ yeṣām saṁśuṣkacatuṣkā ity api paṭhanti/); they are marked with all (auspicious) marks (sarvalakṣaṇalakṣita 12. 323. 31); their voice is like the one produced by a cluster of clouds (meghaughanināda) 12. 322. 10; they look like the moon, have lustre like the moon (candrapratīkāśa) 12. 323. 31; (candravarcas) 12. 323. 24; 12. 326. 18; (candraprabha) 12. 325. 1; each one of them had the lustre equal to that of the sun at the time of the end of the aeon (yā bhaven… bhāḥ sūryasya yugakṣaye/ekaikasya prabhā tādṛk sābhavan mānavasya ha//) 12. 323. 33; the visitors to the island felt that its inhabitants had the lustre of a thousand suns rising simultaneously (atha sūryasahasrasya prabhāṁ yugapad utthitām/sahasā dṛṣṭavantaḥ sma…//) 12. 323. 35; they all had the same lustre, no one more (nor less) (na tatrābhyadikaḥ kaścit sarve te samatejasaḥ) 12. 323. 34; the lustre of the selfluminous Bhagavān excelled the lustre of the Śvetadvīpa (i. e. of the people living on the Śvetadvīpa) (śvetadvīpāt paraṁ hi yat/ teja ity abhivikhyātaṁ svayaṁbhāsāvabhāsitam) 12. 331. 44; they do not take food (nirāhāra) 12. 322. 13; 12. 323. 25; (anindriyāhāra) 12. 326. 18; (anaśana) 12. 322. 9 (Nī., however, on 12. 335. 9: anaśanāḥ śabdādiviṣayabhogaśūnyāḥ); they make no movements (niṣpandahīna) 12. 322. 9 (Nī. on 12. 335. 9: niśceṣṭāś ca); (aniṣpanda) 12. 322. 13; 12. 323. 25; they are auspiciously fragrant (susugandhin) 12. 322. 9. (Nī., however, on 12. 335. 9: sugandhiḥ paramātmā sugandhiṁ puṣṭivardhanam iti mantraliṅgāt/śobhanaḥ sugandhiḥ so'sty eṣāṁ dhyānagocara iti susugandhinaḥ/); (sugandhin) 12. 322. 13; 12. 323. 25; they are free of every kind of sin (gatasarvapāpa) 12. 322. 9; they deprive sinful men of their eyesight (cakṣurmuṣaḥ pāpakṛtāṁ narāṇām) 12. 322. 9; to them honour or disrespect make no difference (samamānonmāna) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. on 12. 335. 10; mānaś ca unmāno 'pamānaś ca samau yeṣāṁ te); in assemblies they are respected by all beings (sadogatās tatra ye vai sarvabhūtanamaskṛtāḥ) 12. 331. 29; they have the appearance of those who have a divine origin (divyānvayarūpa) 12. 322. 10; of pure origin (śuddhayoni) 12. 323. 44; auspicious (śubha) 12. 325. 1; perfect (siddha) and blessed (mahābhāga) 12. 326. 19; magnanimous (mahātman) 12. 323. 32; knowers of five times (pañcakālajña) 12. 323. 42; free of the qualities tamas and rajas (tamorajovinirmukta) 12. 326. 19.


C. Characteristics: They are devoted to god Puruṣottama (te bhaktāḥ puruṣottamam) 12. 323. 24; (bhaktāś ca puruṣottamam) 12. 331. 41; (nārāyaṇapara) 12. 323. 24; (madbhaktāḥ) 12. 326. 18; they lick the god with devotion (i. e. they are absorbed in devotion (? lelihyante… bhaktyā devam) 12. 322. 11-12 (Nī. on 12. 335. 11: jīhvābhir iva svāṅgabhūtābhī rasanāśaktibhir lelihyante pāyasam iva lihanti); they are absorbed in complete devotion (ekāntabhāvopagata) 12. 323. 24; they are devoted to one god (ekāntin) 12. 323. 26, 42 (Nī. on 12. 348. 3: ekāntino niṣkāmabhaktāḥ); 12. 326. 19; (ekabhāvam anuvratāḥ) 12. 323. 45; (ekāgrāś cintayeyur mām) 12. 326. 18; completely engrossed in brahman (brahmabhāvam anuṣṭhitāḥ) 12. 323. 45; they always worship the (one) god and he sports with them (te 'rcayanti sadā devaṁ taiḥ sārdhaṁ ramate ca saḥ) 12. 331. 42; they are enlightened (pratibuddha) 12. 331. 41; their mode of devotion (japa) and offering bali as well as the result of their devotion and offering described in 12. 323. 32, 36-41; Nārada thought that Nara and Nārāyaṇa (their description in 12. 331. 23-27) were like the men he saw in the Śvetadvīpa 12. 331. 30; they are so blessed that if one saw the people on the Śvetadvīpa it was as good as seeing the god himself (dṛṣṭo bhavati deveśa ebhir dṛṣṭair…) 12. 323. 47; the people of Śvetadvīpa had the same characteristic as that of the liberated men (ye vimuktā bhavantīha …teṣāṁ lakṣaṇam etad dhi yac chvetadvīpavāsinām) 12. 322. 14 (Nī. on 12. 335. 14; śvetadvīpavāsināṁ jīvanmuktānāṁ ca nirindriyatvādikaṁ eva lakṣaṇam); (at the end of their life) they enter the eternal god of thousand lustres (te sahasrārcīṣaṁ devaṁ praviśanti sanātanam) 12. 323. 25; (māṁ pravekṣyanty asaṁśayam) 12. 326. 19.


D. Epic events:

(1) Yudhiṣṭhira asked Bhīṣma how the people of the Śvetadvīpa were born and what was the kind of life they were going to obtain after death (kathaṁ te puruṣā jātāḥ kā teṣāṁ gatir uttamā) 12. 322. 13; thereupon Bhīṣma replied to his question in details starting with the story of king Uparicara 12. 322. 16 ff.; Bhīṣma also told Yudhiṣṭhira how Nārada went to Śvetadvīpa 12. 324. 39;

(2) Janamejaya asked Vaiśaṁpāyana why Nārada returned from the Śvetadvīpa to the Badarī āśrama to see Nara and Nārāyaṇa, how long he stayed there, and what were the questions he asked to those two Ṛṣis 12. 331. 15-18; thereupon Vaiśaṁpāyana replied to his question in details 12. 331. 19 ff.


E. Past events:

(1) Nārada standing on a peak of mountain Meru saw the Śvetadvīpa in the north-west direction as a wonderful spectacle 12. 322. 7-8; Nārada reached the Śvetadvīpa and saw the people there; he respected them by bowing down and they honoured him mentally (pūjayām āsa śirasā manasā taiś ca pūjitaḥ) 12. 325. 1-2; Bhagavān appeared before Nārada, but told him to leave the island immediately so that no disturbance was caused to the contemplations of the people of the Śvetadvīpa (gaccha nārada māciram//…ekāgrāś cintayeyur māṁ naiṣāṁ vighno bhaved iti) 12. 326. 17-18; 12. 331. 13; he left Śvetadvīpa and went to mount Meru and from there to Gandhamādana to reach Badarī 12. 331. 20-22; (also see the two epic events above); Nārada told Nara and Nārāyaṇa that he saw in Śvetadvīpa the people residing there 12. 331. 29-30; Nārāyaṇa asked Nārada if he saw in Śvetadvīpa the Bhagavān who was their (i. e. of Nara and Nārāyaṇa) higher prakṛti (api…sa bhagavān…śvetadvīpe tvayā dṛṣṭa āvayoḥ prakṛtiḥ parā) 12. 331. 35; Nārada replied that he did and also told them he saw the white people who were devoid of all sense-organs; as directed by Bhagavān he returned from Śvetadvīpa 12. 331. 36, 41, 51; 12. 332. 1; Nara and Nārāyaṇa then told Nārada that they too had seen him (Nārada) meeting the Bhagavān himself in Śvetadvīpa and had heard his conversation with him (āvābhyām api dṛṣṭas tvaṁ śvetadvīpe…/samāgato bhagavatā saṁjalpaṁ kṛtavān yathā//) 12. 332. 22;

(2) A noncorporeal voice told Ekata, Dvita and Trita, who were practising severe austerities on mountain Meru to go to Śvetadvīpa where the Bhagavān had manifested himself (gacchadhvaṁ tatra) (i. e. Śvetadvīpa) munayas tatrātmā me prakāśitaḥ) 12. 323. 21-23, 26; they reached the Śvetadvīpa by following the way told to them by the noncorporeal voice; having reached the island, however, their eyes were blinded and they could not see any man (prāpya śvetaṁ mahādvīpaṁ…tato no dṛṣṭiviṣayas tadā pratihato 'bhavat) 12. 323. 27-28; when Ekata, Dvita and Trita further practised austerities for a hundred years they were able to see the people of the Śveta island; they had folded their hands and, facing north-east, they did the japa of Brahman; that japa was mental (nityāñjalikṛtān brahma japataḥ prāgudaṅmukhān/mānaso nāma sa japo japyate tair mahātmabhiḥ//) 12. 323. 32; suddenly they saw lustre equal to that of a thousand suns; the people of the island together began to run quickly, folding their hands and, delighted, they continued to say ‘namas’; when they were thus showing their reverence, we heard a loud sound (tato 'bhivadatāṁ teṣām aśrauṣma vipulaṁ dhvanim) 12. 323. 37; Ekata, Dvita and Trita were not able to see anything, but they could hear the praise of Bhagavān; at that time wind blew heavenly flowers and plants suitable for offerings; with that, people gave offering to Hari (baliḥ kilopahriyate tasya devasya tair naraiḥ); indeed, the god himself had arrived there when they were uttering sounds; from among those thousands of men no one welcomed them mentally, nor by looking at them; no one thought of them and hence they were worried (etasminn antare vāyuḥ…divyāny uvāha puṣpāṇi karmaṇyāś cauṣadhis tathā// …cintāvyākulitātmāno jātāḥ smo…/ mānavānāṁ sahasreṣu teṣu…/asmān na kaścin manasā cakṣuṣā vāpy apūjayat//… nāsmāsu dadhire bhāvam) 12. 323. 38-45; a non-corporeal being then told them that they had already seen the white people of the island and that seeing them was as good as seeing the chief god; they should therefore quit the island without delay (uvāca khasthaṁ kim api bhūtaṁ tatrāśarīrakam//dṛṣṭā vaḥ puruṣāḥ śvetāḥ… dṛṣṭo bhavati deveśa ebhir dṛṣṭair dvijottamāḥ//) 12. 323. 46-47; Bhagavān told Nārada that Ekata, Dvita and Trita had come to the Śveta island desirous of his darśana, but they could not see him (imaṁ deśam anuprāptā mama darśanalālasāḥ) 12. 326. 11;

(3) Vaiśaṁpāyana informed Janamejaya that Nārada had told the Sātvata dharma to Vyāsa, which was, also called the dharma of the Ekāntins, followed by the white ascetics (dharmaḥ sātvato…/ evaṁ hi…nārado gurave mama/śvetānāṁ yatīnām āha ekāntagatim avyayām//) 12. 336. 76, 78-79 (These ‘white ascetics’ are probably to be identified with the people of the Śvetadvīpa. Nī., however, on 12. 348. 85; śvetānāṁ gṛhasthādīnām/yatīnāṁ kāṣāyadhāriṇām).


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Śveta : m.: Name of one of the cardinal elephants (diśāgaja).

Son of Śvetā, who was one of the daughters of Krodhavaśā (or of Tāmrā ? 1. 60. 54); quick in his gait (āśuga) 1. 60. 64.


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Śveta, Śvetagraha : m.: Designation of the planet Ketu. [See Ketu in the Addenda]


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Śveta : m.: Name of a mountain.


A. Origin: The seed secreted by Rudra became the Śveta mountāin (rudreṇa śukram utsṛṣṭaṁ tac chvetaḥ parvato 'bhavat) 3. 218. 27.


B. Location: In the north (udīcyām) 7. 57. 23; in the north, beyond the Himavant and Niṣkuṭa mountains 2. 24. 27; beyond the Śveta is the land of the Kiṁpuruṣas (śvetaparvataṁ…samatikramya… deśaṁ kiṁpuruṣāvāsam) 2. 25. 1; in the vicinity of the Uṣīrabīja, Malnāka and Kālaśaila mountains 3. 140. 1, and of Mandara 3. 140. 4; the Ramaṇaka varṣa is to the south of Śveta and to the north of Nīla 6. 9. 2; to the south of Śṛṅgin and to the north of Śveta is the Hairaṇvata varṣa 6. 9. 5; one of the six mountains listed by Saṁjaya which extend to the east (prāgāyatāḥ) and merge at both ends in the eastern and the western ocean (avagāḍhā hy ubhayataḥ samudrau pūrvapaścimau) 6. 7. 2; the distance between these mountains is thousands of yojanas (teṣām antaraviṣkambho yojanāni sahasraśaḥ) 6. 7. 4.


C. Description: Shining (śubha) 3. 155. 28; big mountain (mahāgiri) 3. 214. 30; 9. 59. 8; huge (atipramāṇa) 5. 47. 66; king of mountains (parvatarājan) 3. 155. 4; excellent among mountains (śikhariṇāṁ varam) 3. 155. 4; heap of rocks (śiloccaya) 5. 47. 66; having many summits (nānāsamucchraya) 3. 155. 28; its top (śailapṛṣṭha) not easy to reach (sudurgama) 3. 214. 12; having bright forests (śubhakānana) 3. 220. 22; covered with thickets of reeds (śarastambaiḥ susaṁvṛtam) 3. 214. 10; golden (kāñcana) 3. 220. 21; delightful due to gold and jewels (maṅīkāñcanaramya) 3. 155. 28; inlaid with silver (rajatācita) 3. 186. 102; 13. 151. 26, and bright like silver (rajataprabha) 6. 7. 3 (does rajata here stand for mahārajata ‘gold’ ?); variegated due to many kinds of minerals (bahudhātuvicitra) 9. 59. 8; looking like a big dense cloud (mahābhraghanasaṁkāśaṁ), and full of water (salilopahitam) 3. 155. 28; full of Rakṣases, Piśācas, frightful Bhūtas, Rākṣasīs, and many animals and birds (rakṣobhiś ca piśācaiś ca raudrair bhūtagaṇais tathā/rākṣasībhiś ca sampūrṇam anekaiś ca mṛgadvijaiḥ) 3. 214. 11; all the six mountains listed by Saṁjaya are described as stretching towards the east (prāgāyatāḥ), jewelled mountains (ratnaparvatāḥ), and frequented by the Siddhas and the Cāraṇas (siddhacāraṇasevitāḥ) 6. 7. 2, 4 (also see the next section).


D. Characteristics:

(1) On the Śvetagiri (and Mandara) live the Yakṣa Māṇicara and Kubera, the king of the Yakṣas; eightyeight thousand quick moving (śīghracāriṇaḥ) Gandharvas, Kiṁpuruṣas and their four times Yakṣas, having many forms and weapons serve there Māṇibhadra, the chief of the Yakṣas 3. 140. 4-6;

(2) The mountain is protected by strange snakes having seven heads and poisonous eyes (dṛṣṭiviṣaiḥ saptaśīrṣair guptaṁ bhogibhir adbhutaiḥ) 3. 214. 11;

(3) Śveta mountain shone with the flowering Saṁtānaka forests, forests of Karavīra, Pārijāta, Japā and Aśoka trees, clusters of Kadamba trees and hosts of heavenly animals and birds (divyair mṛgagaṇair api/ divyaiḥ pakṣigaṇaiś caiva śuśubhe śvetaparvataḥ) 3. 220. 23-24;

(4) Are the Śveta and the other mountains listed by Brahman to be looked upon as characterized by the middle quality (madhyama guṇa), i. e. by the quality rajas ? 14. 43. 4, 1 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 14. 43. 1: madhyamo guṇaḥ rajoguṇapradhānaḥ).


E. Importance:

(1) Listed by Brahman among mountains called ‘kings of mountains’ (parvatarājānaḥ) 14. 43. 4;

(2) Finds mention in the Daivata-Ṛṣi-Vaṁśa 13. 151. 26, 2.


F. Epic events:

(1) Arjuna, in his expedition to the north before the Rājasūya, reached the Śveta mountain after conquering the peoples on the Himavant and the Niṣkūṭa mountains and lived there 2. 24. 2; he then crossed Śveta and conquered the country of the Kiṁpuruṣas 2. 25. 1-2;

(2) The Pāṇḍavas in their journey northwards in the company of Lomaśa were to enter it and proceed to inaccessible mountains 3. 140. 1, 4, 8; it was agreed that the Pāṇḍavas were to meet Arjuna, who had left for heavenly missiles, on the Śveta mountain at the end of the fifth year of Arjuna's studentship 3. 155. 3-5; after killing Jaṭāsura, the Pāṇḍavas entered Śveta from Nārāyaṇāśrama (3. 155. 1) on the fourth day (parvataṁ viviśuḥ śvetaṁ caturthe 'hani pāṇḍavāḥ) 3. 155. 27;

(3) Seen by Arjuna during the night on his way to the north to propitiate Śiva for his Pāśupata 7. 57. 23.


G. Past and mythological events:

(1) When Nahuṣa became the king of heaven he enjoyed at many places, one of them being the Śveta mountain 5. 11. 9;

(2) The sage Mārkaṇḍeya saw Śveta among other mountains in the belly of the Bāla (3. 186. 83 = Nārāyaṇa 3. 187. 3) 3. 186. 102;

(3) When Dakṣa's daughter Svāhā in the form of Śivā, the wife of Aṅgiras, held the seed of Agni she took the form of a Suparṇī Garuḍī and flew away; when she saw Śveta she poured the seed in a golden pot on the top of the mountain; this she did six times on each pratipad day; Kumāra (Skanda) with six heads was born; the child played on the top of the mountain 3. 213. 52; 3. 214. 1, 7, 9-10, 15, 17, 26; the Kṛttikās gathered (?) the seed of Pāvaka (Agni) on the mountain Śveta (pāvakasyendriyaṁ śvete kṛttikābhiḥ kṛtaṁ nage) 3. 218. 27; the child Kumāra sitting on the top of the mountain saw all directions by his different heads; he drew his bow and shot arrows at Śveta and pierced the Krauñca mountain, the son of Himavant; he then hurled a śakti which by its impact broke the summit of Śveta; the mountain, afraid, deserted the earth and flew up in the sky with other mountains; later Śveta returned to the earth 3. 214. 27, 30-31, 34-35, 37; Skanda, surrounded by hosts of Piśācas and gods, shone on the golden mountain Śveta; the whole world, including Indra, looked at the delighted Skanda and was not tired of looking at him; there were also the rest of gods and all great sages to look at Skanda; there one heard the sounds of musical instruments, of the dancing heavenly Gandharvas and Apsarases and of the delighted beings 3. 220. 21, 25-27;

(4) Rāmāyaṇa events: (i) Avindhya, an old learned Rākṣasa, saw in a dream that while Kumbhakarṇa and other demons, wearing red garlands, were being dragged to the south, Vibhīṣaṇa and his four counsellors alone, with white parasole and head-gear, all wearing white garlands, mounted on top of the Śveta mountain 3. 264. 65-67; (ii) a Guhyaka, with marvellous water sent by Kubera, arrived from Śveta mountain to Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa 3. 273. 9.


H. Similes:

(1) Duḥsaha, who had put on a lustrous armour and a golden garland looked like the Śveta mountain engulfed by fire (agnineva giriḥ śvetaḥ) 11. 19. 21;

(2) Balarāma holding the plough in his raised hand looked like the big Śveta mountain (tato lāṅgalam udyamya…tasyordhvabāhoḥ sadṛśaṁ rūpam āsīt mahātmanaḥ…śvetasyeva mahāgireḥ//) 9. 59. 7-8;

(3) The serpent Śeṣa with different ornaments on his person had the appearance of Śveta mountain (śvetoccayanibhākāraḥ) 5. 101. 3;

(4) Gāndhārī and other Kaurava women came out of houses which looked like the Śveta mountain (śvetaparvatarūpebhyo gṛhebhyaḥ) 11. 9. 11;

(5) The tree called Mahāśaṅkha at the Śaṅkhatīrtha was like Śveta mountain (mahāśaṅkham…śvetaparvatasaṁkāśam) 9. 36. 20.


I. Use in an illustration: According to Arjuna one who wants to win victory in a battle over Vāsudeva wants to split the huge Śveta mountain with his palm; in such an effort his palm, along with nails, will be shattered and he will do no harm to the mountain (giriṁ ya iccheta talena bhettuṁ śiloccayaṁ śvetam atipramāṇam/tasyaiva pāṇiḥ sanakho viśīryen na cāpi kiṁcit sa gires tu kuryāt) 5. 47. 66.


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Śveta^1 : nt. (sg.): Name of a Varṣa of Jambudvīpa.

It lay to the north of the Nīla Varṣa (and the Śveta mountain); and to the south of the Hairaṇyaka Varṣa (and the Śṛṅgin mountain) (nīlāt parataraṁ śvetaṁ śvetād dhairaṇyakaṁ param) 6. 7. 35.


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Śveta^2 : m. (sg.): Name of a Dvīpa.


A. Location: Nārada saw it situated to the north-west of mountain Meru, to the north of Kṣīrodadhi (the ocean of milk); according to the wise men it was at a distance of more than thirtytwo thousand yojanas from the base of Meru (adhimerau…nililye//tatrāvatasthe ca munir (viz. Nārada) muhūrtam/…ālokayann uttarapaścimena dadarśa…//kṣīrodadher uttarato hi dvīpaḥ śvetaḥ sa nāmnā …/meroḥ sahasraiḥ sa hi yojanānāṁ dvātriṁśatorddhvaṁ kavibhir niruktaḥ//) 12. 322. 7-8 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 330. 9: merumūlāt dvātriṁśatsahasrayojanād ūrdhvam); kṣīrodadher uttarataḥ śvetadvīpo …) 12. 323. 23; kṣīrodasyottaraṁ kūlam (probably a reference to Śvetadvīpa; the island is not directly named) 12. 327. 39.


B. Description; (a) of the island; famous (prathita); large (viśāla) 12. 322. 8; (mahādvīpa) 12. 323. 28; 12. 325. 1; 12. 326. 117; 12. 331. 20; of great brightness (mahāprabha) 12. 323. 23; abode of brightness (tejonivāsa) 12. 323. 34; (b) of the people on the Śvetadvīpa: white (śveta) 12. 322. 9; 12. 323. 31, 47; 12. 325. 1; 12. 331. 41; (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 335. 10: śvetāḥ śuddhasattvapradhānāḥ); auspicious (śubha) 12. 325. 1; devoid of the five sense organs (pañcendriyavivarjita) 12. 331. 41; (sarvendriyavivarjita) 12. 323. 47; beyond sense organs (atīndriya) 12. 322. 9, 13; 12. 323. 25; (anindriyāhāra) 12. 326. 18. (Nī. Bom. Ed. 12. 335. 10: reads anīndriyāḥ and comments: sthūladehasaṅgahīnāḥ; however, see the next which refers to their bodies or parts of bodies); their bodies have bones as strong as vajra (vajrāsthikāya) 12. 322. 10; of auspicious strength (śubhasāropeta) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. on 12. 335. 10: śubhaḥ yogaprabhāvajaḥ sāro balaṁ tena upetāḥ); their heads have the shape of an umbrella (chatrākṛtiśīrṣa) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. on 12. 335. 11: nirmāṁsagrīvatvāt); having sixty teeth (ṣaṣṭyā dantair yuktāḥ) 12. 322. 11. (Nī. on 12. 335. 11; ṣaṣṭyā ṣaṣṭisaṁkhyair dantair iva jagaccaṇakacarvaṇakṣamaiḥ saṁvatsarair yuktāḥ); have eight shining jaws (śuklair aṣṭābhir daṁṣṭrābhir ye) 12. 322. 11 (Nī. on 12. 335. 11: aṣṭau diśaḥ sarveṣām āśrayabhūtās tābhiś ca yuktā deśakālau yeṣāṁ mukhamadhye praviṣṭāv ity arthaḥ/); with their tongues they lick on all sides their faces which shine like the sun (jihvābhir ye viṣvag vaktraṁ lelihyante sūryaprakhyam) 12. 322. 11. (Nī. 12. 335. 11 reads viśvavaktram and explains sūryeṇa prakhyāyate sphuṭīkriyate dinamāsartusaṁvatsarātmā mahākālas taṁ viśvavaktraṁ viśvaṁ vaktre yasya tādṛśam jihvābhir iva svāṅgabhūtābhī rasanāśaktibhir lelihyante pāyasam iva lihanti); they have feet marked with a hundred lotuses (rājīvaśatapāda) 12. 322. 10 (Nī. 12. 335. 11 reads rājāvacchadapādāḥ and explains: rājīvatyaḥ paṅktiyuktāḥ śirārekhās tāsāṁ śatair yuktāḥ pādāḥ yeṣām; they have svastika marks resembling lotuses (satpuṣkaracatuṣka ? or they wear garlands of four lotuses ?) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. 12. 335. 11: reads samamuṣkacatuṣkāḥ and explains: samaṁ pīnatvarahitaṁ muṣkau vṛṣaṇau catuṣkaṁ aṁsayoḥ kaṭyoś cāntarālaṁ ca muṣkacatuṣkaṁ/bāhucatuṣkaṁ vā kimuttvāvān (?) muṣkayor baddha āsate iti liṅgān muṣko bāhuḥ/śuṣkaṁ kāṣṭhatulyaṁ catuṣkaṁ yeṣām saṁśuṣkacatuṣkā ity api paṭhanti/); they are marked with all (auspicious) marks (sarvalakṣaṇalakṣita 12. 323. 31); their voice is like the one produced by a cluster of clouds (meghaughanināda) 12. 322. 10; they look like the moon, have lustre like the moon (candrapratīkāśa) 12. 323. 31; (candravarcas) 12. 323. 24; 12. 326. 18; (candraprabha) 12. 325. 1; each one of them had the lustre equal to that of the sun at the time of the end of the aeon (yā bhaven… bhāḥ sūryasya yugakṣaye/ekaikasya prabhā tādṛk sābhavan mānavasya ha//) 12. 323. 33; the visitors to the island felt that its inhabitants had the lustre of a thousand suns rising simultaneously (atha sūryasahasrasya prabhāṁ yugapad utthitām/sahasā dṛṣṭavantaḥ sma…//) 12. 323. 35; they all had the same lustre, no one more (nor less) (na tatrābhyadikaḥ kaścit sarve te samatejasaḥ) 12. 323. 34; the lustre of the selfluminous Bhagavān excelled the lustre of the Śvetadvīpa (i. e. of the people living on the Śvetadvīpa) (śvetadvīpāt paraṁ hi yat/ teja ity abhivikhyātaṁ svayaṁbhāsāvabhāsitam) 12. 331. 44; they do not take food (nirāhāra) 12. 322. 13; 12. 323. 25; (anindriyāhāra) 12. 326. 18; (anaśana) 12. 322. 9 (Nī., however, on 12. 335. 9: anaśanāḥ śabdādiviṣayabhogaśūnyāḥ); they make no movements (niṣpandahīna) 12. 322. 9 (Nī. on 12. 335. 9: niśceṣṭāś ca); (aniṣpanda) 12. 322. 13; 12. 323. 25; they are auspiciously fragrant (susugandhin) 12. 322. 9. (Nī., however, on 12. 335. 9: sugandhiḥ paramātmā sugandhiṁ puṣṭivardhanam iti mantraliṅgāt/śobhanaḥ sugandhiḥ so'sty eṣāṁ dhyānagocara iti susugandhinaḥ/); (sugandhin) 12. 322. 13; 12. 323. 25; they are free of every kind of sin (gatasarvapāpa) 12. 322. 9; they deprive sinful men of their eyesight (cakṣurmuṣaḥ pāpakṛtāṁ narāṇām) 12. 322. 9; to them honour or disrespect make no difference (samamānonmāna) 12. 322. 10. (Nī. on 12. 335. 10; mānaś ca unmāno 'pamānaś ca samau yeṣāṁ te); in assemblies they are respected by all beings (sadogatās tatra ye vai sarvabhūtanamaskṛtāḥ) 12. 331. 29; they have the appearance of those who have a divine origin (divyānvayarūpa) 12. 322. 10; of pure origin (śuddhayoni) 12. 323. 44; auspicious (śubha) 12. 325. 1; perfect (siddha) and blessed (mahābhāga) 12. 326. 19; magnanimous (mahātman) 12. 323. 32; knowers of five times (pañcakālajña) 12. 323. 42; free of the qualities tamas and rajas (tamorajovinirmukta) 12. 326. 19.


C. Characteristics: They are devoted to god Puruṣottama (te bhaktāḥ puruṣottamam) 12. 323. 24; (bhaktāś ca puruṣottamam) 12. 331. 41; (nārāyaṇapara) 12. 323. 24; (madbhaktāḥ) 12. 326. 18; they lick the god with devotion (i. e. they are absorbed in devotion (? lelihyante… bhaktyā devam) 12. 322. 11-12 (Nī. on 12. 335. 11: jīhvābhir iva svāṅgabhūtābhī rasanāśaktibhir lelihyante pāyasam iva lihanti); they are absorbed in complete devotion (ekāntabhāvopagata) 12. 323. 24; they are devoted to one god (ekāntin) 12. 323. 26, 42 (Nī. on 12. 348. 3: ekāntino niṣkāmabhaktāḥ); 12. 326. 19; (ekabhāvam anuvratāḥ) 12. 323. 45; (ekāgrāś cintayeyur mām) 12. 326. 18; completely engrossed in brahman (brahmabhāvam anuṣṭhitāḥ) 12. 323. 45; they always worship the (one) god and he sports with them (te 'rcayanti sadā devaṁ taiḥ sārdhaṁ ramate ca saḥ) 12. 331. 42; they are enlightened (pratibuddha) 12. 331. 41; their mode of devotion (japa) and offering bali as well as the result of their devotion and offering described in 12. 323. 32, 36-41; Nārada thought that Nara and Nārāyaṇa (their description in 12. 331. 23-27) were like the men he saw in the Śvetadvīpa 12. 331. 30; they are so blessed that if one saw the people on the Śvetadvīpa it was as good as seeing the god himself (dṛṣṭo bhavati deveśa ebhir dṛṣṭair…) 12. 323. 47; the people of Śvetadvīpa had the same characteristic as that of the liberated men (ye vimuktā bhavantīha …teṣāṁ lakṣaṇam etad dhi yac chvetadvīpavāsinām) 12. 322. 14 (Nī. on 12. 335. 14; śvetadvīpavāsināṁ jīvanmuktānāṁ ca nirindriyatvādikaṁ eva lakṣaṇam); (at the end of their life) they enter the eternal god of thousand lustres (te sahasrārcīṣaṁ devaṁ praviśanti sanātanam) 12. 323. 25; (māṁ pravekṣyanty asaṁśayam) 12. 326. 19.


D. Epic events:

(1) Yudhiṣṭhira asked Bhīṣma how the people of the Śvetadvīpa were born and what was the kind of life they were going to obtain after death (kathaṁ te puruṣā jātāḥ kā teṣāṁ gatir uttamā) 12. 322. 13; thereupon Bhīṣma replied to his question in details starting with the story of king Uparicara 12. 322. 16 ff.; Bhīṣma also told Yudhiṣṭhira how Nārada went to Śvetadvīpa 12. 324. 39;

(2) Janamejaya asked Vaiśaṁpāyana why Nārada returned from the Śvetadvīpa to the Badarī āśrama to see Nara and Nārāyaṇa, how long he stayed there, and what were the questions he asked to those two Ṛṣis 12. 331. 15-18; thereupon Vaiśaṁpāyana replied to his question in details 12. 331. 19 ff.


E. Past events:

(1) Nārada standing on a peak of mountain Meru saw the Śvetadvīpa in the north-west direction as a wonderful spectacle 12. 322. 7-8; Nārada reached the Śvetadvīpa and saw the people there; he respected them by bowing down and they honoured him mentally (pūjayām āsa śirasā manasā taiś ca pūjitaḥ) 12. 325. 1-2; Bhagavān appeared before Nārada, but told him to leave the island immediately so that no disturbance was caused to the contemplations of the people of the Śvetadvīpa (gaccha nārada māciram//…ekāgrāś cintayeyur māṁ naiṣāṁ vighno bhaved iti) 12. 326. 17-18; 12. 331. 13; he left Śvetadvīpa and went to mount Meru and from there to Gandhamādana to reach Badarī 12. 331. 20-22; (also see the two epic events above); Nārada told Nara and Nārāyaṇa that he saw in Śvetadvīpa the people residing there 12. 331. 29-30; Nārāyaṇa asked Nārada if he saw in Śvetadvīpa the Bhagavān who was their (i. e. of Nara and Nārāyaṇa) higher prakṛti (api…sa bhagavān…śvetadvīpe tvayā dṛṣṭa āvayoḥ prakṛtiḥ parā) 12. 331. 35; Nārada replied that he did and also told them he saw the white people who were devoid of all sense-organs; as directed by Bhagavān he returned from Śvetadvīpa 12. 331. 36, 41, 51; 12. 332. 1; Nara and Nārāyaṇa then told Nārada that they too had seen him (Nārada) meeting the Bhagavān himself in Śvetadvīpa and had heard his conversation with him (āvābhyām api dṛṣṭas tvaṁ śvetadvīpe…/samāgato bhagavatā saṁjalpaṁ kṛtavān yathā//) 12. 332. 22;

(2) A noncorporeal voice told Ekata, Dvita and Trita, who were practising severe austerities on mountain Meru to go to Śvetadvīpa where the Bhagavān had manifested himself (gacchadhvaṁ tatra) (i. e. Śvetadvīpa) munayas tatrātmā me prakāśitaḥ) 12. 323. 21-23, 26; they reached the Śvetadvīpa by following the way told to them by the noncorporeal voice; having reached the island, however, their eyes were blinded and they could not see any man (prāpya śvetaṁ mahādvīpaṁ…tato no dṛṣṭiviṣayas tadā pratihato 'bhavat) 12. 323. 27-28; when Ekata, Dvita and Trita further practised austerities for a hundred years they were able to see the people of the Śveta island; they had folded their hands and, facing north-east, they did the japa of Brahman; that japa was mental (nityāñjalikṛtān brahma japataḥ prāgudaṅmukhān/mānaso nāma sa japo japyate tair mahātmabhiḥ//) 12. 323. 32; suddenly they saw lustre equal to that of a thousand suns; the people of the island together began to run quickly, folding their hands and, delighted, they continued to say ‘namas’; when they were thus showing their reverence, we heard a loud sound (tato 'bhivadatāṁ teṣām aśrauṣma vipulaṁ dhvanim) 12. 323. 37; Ekata, Dvita and Trita were not able to see anything, but they could hear the praise of Bhagavān; at that time wind blew heavenly flowers and plants suitable for offerings; with that, people gave offering to Hari (baliḥ kilopahriyate tasya devasya tair naraiḥ); indeed, the god himself had arrived there when they were uttering sounds; from among those thousands of men no one welcomed them mentally, nor by looking at them; no one thought of them and hence they were worried (etasminn antare vāyuḥ…divyāny uvāha puṣpāṇi karmaṇyāś cauṣadhis tathā// …cintāvyākulitātmāno jātāḥ smo…/ mānavānāṁ sahasreṣu teṣu…/asmān na kaścin manasā cakṣuṣā vāpy apūjayat//… nāsmāsu dadhire bhāvam) 12. 323. 38-45; a non-corporeal being then told them that they had already seen the white people of the island and that seeing them was as good as seeing the chief god; they should therefore quit the island without delay (uvāca khasthaṁ kim api bhūtaṁ tatrāśarīrakam//dṛṣṭā vaḥ puruṣāḥ śvetāḥ… dṛṣṭo bhavati deveśa ebhir dṛṣṭair dvijottamāḥ//) 12. 323. 46-47; Bhagavān told Nārada that Ekata, Dvita and Trita had come to the Śveta island desirous of his darśana, but they could not see him (imaṁ deśam anuprāptā mama darśanalālasāḥ) 12. 326. 11;

(3) Vaiśaṁpāyana informed Janamejaya that Nārada had told the Sātvata dharma to Vyāsa, which was, also called the dharma of the Ekāntins, followed by the white ascetics (dharmaḥ sātvato…/ evaṁ hi…nārado gurave mama/śvetānāṁ yatīnām āha ekāntagatim avyayām//) 12. 336. 76, 78-79 (These ‘white ascetics’ are probably to be identified with the people of the Śvetadvīpa. Nī., however, on 12. 348. 85; śvetānāṁ gṛhasthādīnām/yatīnāṁ kāṣāyadhāriṇām).


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