सोम

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सोमम्, क्ली, (सुप्रसवैश्वर्य्ययोः + मन् ।) काञ्जिकम् । स्वर्गः । इति केचित् ॥

सोमः, पुं, (सौति अमृतमिति । सु प्रसवे + “अर्त्तिस्तुसुहुस्रिति ।” उणा० १ । १३९ । इति मन् ।) चन्द्रः । इत्यमरः । १ । ३ । १४ ॥ (यथा, हरिवंशे । ४ । २ । “द्विजानां वीरुधाञ्चैव नक्षत्रग्रहयोस्तथा । यज्ञानां तपसाञ्चैव सोमं राज्येऽभ्यषेचयत् ॥”) कर्पूरः । इति चामरः । २ । ६ । १३० ॥ वानरः । कुबेरः । यमः । वायुः । वसुभेदः । (यथा, मात्स्ये । ५ । २१ । “आपो ध्रुवश्च सोमश्च धरश्चैवानिलोऽनलः । प्रत्यूषश्च प्रभासश्च वसवोऽष्टौ प्रकीर्त्तिताः ॥”) जलम् । सोमलतौषविः । इति मेदिनी ॥ (अस्य विवरणं यथा, -- “ब्रह्मादयोऽसृजन् पूर्व्वममृतं सोमसंज्ञितम् । जरामृत्युविनाशाय विधानं तस्य वक्ष्यते ॥ एक एव खलु भगवान् सोमः स्थाननामाकृति- वीर्य्यविशेषैश्चतुर्व्विंशतिधा भिद्यते । तद्यथा, अंशुमान् भूञ्जवांश्चैव चन्द्रमा रजतप्रभः । दूर्व्वासोमः कनीयांश्च श्वेताक्षः कनकप्रभः ॥ प्रतानवांस्तालवृन्तः करवीरोऽंशवानपि । स्वयम्प्रभो महासोमो यश्चापि गरुडाहृतः ॥ ततोऽस्य नखा जायन्ते विद्रुमेन्द्रगोपकतरुणा- दित्यप्रकाशाः स्थिराः स्निग्धा लक्षणसम्पन्नाः केशाश्च जायन्ते त्वक् च नीलोत्पलातसीपुष्पवै- दूर्य्यप्रकाशा । ऊर्द्घञ्च सामान् केशान् वाप- येत् वापयित्वा चोशीरचन्दनकृष्णतिलकल्कैः शिरः प्रदिह्यात् पयसा वा स्नापयेत् ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सोम पुं।

चन्द्रः

समानार्थक:हिमांशु,चन्द्रमस्,चन्द्र,इन्दु,कुमुदबान्धव,विधु,सुधांशु,शुभ्रांशु,ओषधीश,निशापति,अब्ज,जैवातृक,सोम,ग्लौ,मृगाङ्क,कलानिधि,द्विजराज,शशधर,नक्षत्रेश,क्षपाकर,तमोनुद्,विरोचन,राजन्,हरि,तमोपह

1।3।14।2।3

विधुः सुधांशुः शुभ्रांशुरोषधीशो निशापतिः। अब्जो जैवातृकः सोमो ग्लौर्मृगाङ्कः कलानिधिः॥

अवयव : चन्द्रस्य_षोडशांशः,खण्डमात्रम्,समाम्शः,ज्योत्स्ना,चिह्नम्

वैशिष्ट्यवत् : ज्योत्स्ना,नैर्मल्यम्

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, तेजः, ग्रहः

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सोम¦ पु॰ सु--मन्।

१ चन्द्रे

२ कर्पूरे अमरः।

३ कुवेरे

४ यमे

५ वायौ

६ वसुभेदे

७ जले

८ सोमलतौषधौ

९ वानरे मेदि॰{??}रसे हेमच॰

११ अमृते

१२ दीधितौ उणा॰। सह{??}(ऊ)मया।

१३ {??}वे

१४ पानरेशे सुग्रीवे च। मोमश्च ग्रहभेदः तत्कक्षामानादिकं स्वगोलशब्दे

४२

२५ पृ॰ दृश्यम। तत्प्रकृत्यादिकं यथा
“चन्द्रः सिताङ्गसमगात्रयष्टिर्वाग्मो परिध्यङ्गविवेक-युक्तः। क्वचित् कृशः शीतलवाक्ययुकः सत्त्वास्रयो वात-कफानिखात्मा” सर्वार्थचि॰। स च वायव्या ईशः वैश्य-[Page5334-b+ 38] जातिः स्त्रीग्रहः लवणरसमृगशिरो{??}क्षत्राणाधीशः। ग्रहयज्ञशब्दे तन्मन्त्रादिकं दृश्यम्। तस्य ज्न्मकालेमेषादिराशिषु स्थितिभेदे फलभेदः वृहज्जातकोक्तः

३०

८७ पृ॰ जातकशब्दे उक्तः। लग्नादिस्थस्य तस्य फलंजातकषद्धतावुक्त यथा
“चन्द्रे स्वभाजवृषगे तनुगे गुणाग्र्यो दाक्षिण्य्रूपधन-वाक्सकले विशेषात्। अन्येषु भेषु तनुगे विकलश्चशूरः प्रोन्मत्तनीचबाधरः क्षयभाग्यवश्यः। कुटुम्ब

२ स्थितेकैरवाणामधीशे भवेत् पुत्रमित्रार्थसौख्यैः समृद्धः। नरःपूर्णदेहे तु हीने विलोमं स्खलद्वाक् च बोध्यं फलं तारतम्यात्। द्विजाधिराजे सहजे

३ तिलोभः कार्षप्यवान्संग्रहकृच्च नीचः। हसांन्वितो भ्रातृजनाश्रयश्च प्रका-ङ्क्षितः स्यात् मनुजोऽतिहिंम्रः। पाताल

४ मंस्थे सतिशीतलांशौ जलप्रयाणाभिरतिर्नरः स्यात्। दातासुहृद्-वाहनसेवकाढ्यः सुखी सुखोतकर्षयुतः सुभूषः। सुते

५ समुद्रस्य सुते प्रमूतौ धीमित्रपुत्रैर्बहुभिः समेतः। शूरोनरः स्याद् बहुधान्यमित्रसग्राहकः क्षीणतरः सु-खाढ्यः। शत्रौ

६ शत्रौ पद्मिनीनां स्थिते ना शत्रुव्रातैःसंयुतो दारुणश्च। माराग्निभ्यामल्पकाभ्याञ्च युक्तो-ऽनल्पालस्यः स्याच्च नीरोदराढ्यः। शशिनि शशिमुखी-निकेतन

७ स्थे भवति सुखी मदनातुरः सुदेहः। अति-मतिरनसूयकोऽप्यधृष्यो गलिततनौ वहुरोगदैन्यतप्तः। मृत्यौ

८ मृगाङ्के सातिमान्नरः स्यादोजस्विताढ्योऽपि च ब-न्धनाद्यैः। सुक्षीणदेहः सति हीनदेहे तस्मिन् भवेदल्पकजीवितश्च। निशाधिनाथे नवमालय

९ स्थे धीपुत्रमित्र-द्रविणोपपन्नः। सौभाग्यसौख्यैः सुकृतैयुतः स्यात्कान्ताजनेष्टोमनुजो दयावान्। दशम

१० घाम्रि सुशीतल-धामनि द्रविणधीसुकृतैः सहितः शुचिः। भवति कर्म-परोऽपि च सिद्धिभाङ्नरवरो न विषादकरो भवेत्। आयं

११ याते यामिनीनायके ना मित्रक्षेत्रद्रव्यपुत्राययुक्तः। ख्यातः शूरो दारुणश्चाभिमानी शिष्टैर्भृत्यैरन्वितो बुद्धि-मान् स्यात्। शीतांशौ द्वादशे

१२ द्वेष्यो हीनाङ्गे नेत्र-रोगवान्। पतितः परमः क्षुद्रः परिभूतो नरो भवेत्”। सोमलता च ओषधिभेदः सोमवल्लीरूपा ओषधिशब्दे

१५

६४ पृ॰ सुश्रुतवाक्ये तल्लक्षणादि दृश्यम्। सोमेन यजे-तेत्यादि श्रुत्युक्ते

१५ यागभेदे पु॰। सोमयागेतिकर्त्तव्य-तादि कात्या॰ श्रौ॰

२५ अ॰।

१० कण्डिकादौ दृश्यम्। कात्यायनगब्दे

१८

७६ पृ॰ तत्प्रतिनिधिद्रव्यादि दर्शितम्। [Page5335-a+ 38]

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सोम¦ m. (-मः)
1. The moon.
2. KUVE4RA.
3. A monkey chief.
4. Air, wind.
5. YAMA.
6. One of the demi-gods called VASUS.
7. S4IVA.
8. The moon-plant, (Asclepias acida, or Sarcostema viminalis.)
9. The acid juice of the Sarcostema.
10. A drug of supposed magi- cal properties.
11. Water.
12. Nectar, the liquor of immortals.
13. Camphor.
14. A deified progenitor.
15. A mountain or moun- tainous range, the mountains of the moon.
16. The best, chief, (as the last member of a compound.) n. (-मं)
1. Rice-water or gruel.
2. Heaven, sky, æther. E. षू to bear, (as young,) or to sprinkle, Una4di aff. मन् |

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सोमः [sōmḥ], [सू-मन् Uṇ.1.139]

N. of a plant, the most important ingredient in ancient sacrificial offerings.

The juice of the plant; as in सोमपा, सोमपीथिन्; Ms. 3.257.

Nectar, beverage of the gods; अलब्धभागाः सोमस्य केवलं क्लेशभागिनः Bhāg.8.1.23.

The moon. [In mythology, the moon is represented as having sprung from the eye of the sage Atri; (cf. R.2.75) or as produced from the sea at the time of churning. The twenty-seven asterismsmythologically represented as so many daughters of Dakṣa q. v. are said to be his wives. The phenomenon of the periodical waning of the moon is explained by a myth which states that his nectareous digits are drunk up by different gods in regular rotation, or by the invention of another legend which says that the moon, on account of his particular fondness and partiality for Rohiṇī, one of the 27 daughters of Dakṣa, was cursed by his father-in-law to be consumptive, but that at the intercession of his wives the sentence of eternal consumption was commuted to one of periodical consumption. Soma is also represented as having carried off Tārā, the wife of Bṛihaspati, by whom he had a son named Budha, who afterwards became the founder of the lunar race of kings; see Tārā (b) also.]; पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः Bg.15.13.

A ray of light.

Camphor.

Water.

Air, wind.

N. of Kubera.

Of Śiva.

Of Yama.

N. of Sugrīva.

(As the last member of comp.) Chief, principal, best; as in नृसोम q. v.

An ape.

One of the Manes.

the vessel (नाडी) 'Iḍā'; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः सहाग्निना । व्यवायं कुरुते नित्यं धीरो भूतानि धारयन् ॥ Mb.14.2.1 (com.).

Monday. -मा The soma plant.

मम् Rice gruel.

Sky, heaven. -Comp. -अभिषवः the extraction of Soma juice. -अयनम् a kind of penance; cf. चान्द्रायण.-अहः Monday. -आख्यम् the red lotus. -आश्रयः N. of Śiva or Rudra; ˚अयनम् (सोमाश्रयायणम्) N. of a place of pilgrimages; ते त्वगच्छन्नहोरात्रा तीर्थं सोमाश्रयायणम् Mb.1.17.3.-ईश्वरः a celebrated representation of Śiva. -उद्भवा N. of the river Narmadā तथेत्युपस्पृश्य पयः पवित्रं सोमोद्भवायाः सरितो नृसोमः R.5.59 (where Malli. quotes Ak. 'रेवा तु नर्मदा सोमोद्भवा मेकलकन्यका'). -कान्त a. lovely as the moon. (-न्तः) the moon-stone. -क्षयः disappearance or waning of the moon, new moon; श्राद्धस्य ब्राह्मणः कालः प्राप्तं दधि घृतं तथा । सोमक्षयश्च मांसं च यदारण्यं युधिष्ठिर ॥ Mb.13.23.34.-गर्भः N. of Viṣṇu. -ग्रहः a vessel for holding Soma.-ज a. moon-born. (-जः) an epithet of the planet Mercury. (-जम्) milk. -दैवतम् the lunar mansion मृगशिरस्; दोग्ध्रीं दत्वा सवत्सां तु नक्षत्रे सोमदैवते Mb.13.64.7.

धारा the sky, heaven.

the milky way.

नाथः N. of a celebrated Liṅga or the place where it was set up; (which by its splendour and enormous wealth attracted the attention of Mahomad of Ghazani who in 124 A.D. destroyed the image and carried of the treasure); तेषां मार्गे परिचयवशादर्जितं गुर्जराणां यः संतापं शिथिलमकरोत् सोमनाथं विलोक्य । Vikr.18.87. -प, -पा m.

one who drinks the Soma; त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते Bg.9.2; Mb.12.284.8.

a Soma-sacrificer.

a particular class of Pitṛis; सोमपा नाम विप्राणां (पितरः) Ms.3.197. -पतिः N. of Indra.-पानम् drinking Soma juice. -पायिन्, -पीथः, -पीथिन्, -पीतिन् m. a drinker of Soma juice; तत्र केचित्... ... सोमपीथिन उदुम्बरनामानो ब्रह्मवादिनः प्रतिवसन्ति स्म Māl.1; Bhāg.5.26.29. -पीतिः f.

drinking Soma.

a Some sacrifice. -पुत्रः, -भूः, -सुतः epithets of Budha or Mercury. -प्रवाकः a person commissioned to engage sacrificial priests (श्रोत्रिय) for a Soma sacrifice.

बन्धुः the sun.

the white water-lilly. -यज्ञः, -यागः the Soma sacrifice. -याजिन् m. one who performs a Soma sacrifice. -योगिन् a. being in conjunction with the moon. -योनिः a sort of yellow and fragrant sandal.-राजी a thin crescent of the moon. -रोगः a particular disease of women.

लता, वल्लरी the Soma plant.

N. of the river Godāvarī. -वंशः the lunar race of kings founded by Budha.

वल्कः a kind of white Khadira.

N. of the plants, करञ्ज and कट्फल.-वल्लरिः(री), -वल्लिका, -वल्ली f. the moon-plant. -वारः, -वासरः Monday. -विक्रयिन् m. a vendor of Soma juice.-वीथी the orbit of the moon. -वृक्षः, -सारः the white Khadira. -शकला a kind of cucumber. -संस्था a form of the Soma-sacrifice; (these are seven: अग्निष्टोम, अत्यग्निष्टोम, उक्थ, षोढशी, अतिरात्र, आप्तोर्याम and वाजपेय). -संज्ञम् camphor. -सद् m. a particular class of Manes or Pitṛis; विराट्सुताः सोमसदः साध्यानां पितरः स्मृताः Ms.3.195. -सिद्धान्तः the doctrine of Kāpālikas; या सोमसिद्धान्तमयाननेव N.1.87.-सिन्धुः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -सुत् m a Soma distiller.-सुत्वत् a. pressing Soma-plant for juice; अध्वरेष्वग्निचित्वत्सु सोमसुत्वत आश्रमान् Bk.5.11. -सुता the river Narmadā; cf. सोमोद्भवा above. -सूत्रम् a channel for conveying water from a Śiva-liṅga. ˚प्रदक्षिणा circumambulation around a Siva-liṅga so as not to cross the Soma-sūtra.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सोम m. (fr. 3. सु)juice , extract , ( esp. ) the juice of the सोमplant , (also) the सोमplant itself (said to be the climbing plant Sarcostema Viminalis or Asclepias Acida , the stalks [ अंशु] of which were pressed between stones [ अद्रि] by the priests , then sprinkled with water , and purified in a strainer [ पवित्र] ; whence the acid juice trinkled into jars [ कलश] or larger vessels [ द्रोण] ; after which it was mixed with clarified butter , flour etc. , made to ferment , and then offered in libations to the gods [in this respect corresponding with the ritual of the Iranian Avesta] or was drunk by the Brahmans , by both of whom its exhilarating effect was supposed to be prized ; it was collected by moonlight on certain mountains [in RV. x , 34 , 1 , the mountain मूज-वत्is mentioned] ; it is sometimes described as having been brought from the sky by a falcon [ श्येन] and guarded by the गन्धर्वs ; it is personified as one of the most important of Vedic gods , to whose praise all the 114 hymns of the 9th book of the RV. besides 6 in other books and the whole SV. are dedicated ; in post-Vedic mythology and even in a few of the latest hymns of the RV. [although not in the whole of the 9th book] as well as sometimes in the AV. and in the Br. , सोमis identified with the moon [as the receptacle of the other beverage of the gods called अमृत, or as the lord of plants See. इन्दु, ओषधि-पति] and with the god of the moon , as well as with विष्णु, शिव, यम, and कुबेर; he is called राजन्, and appears among the 8 वसुs and the 8 लोक-पालs [ Mn. v , 96 ] , and is the reputed author of RV. x , 124 , 1 , 5-9 , of a law-book etc. ; See. below) RV. etc.

सोम m. the moon or moon-god(See. above )

सोम m. a सोमsacrifice AitA1r.

सोम m. a day destined for extracting the सोम-juice A1s3vS3r.

सोम m. Monday(= सोम-वार) Inscr.

सोम m. nectar L.

सोम m. camphor L.

सोम m. air , wind L.

सोम m. water L.

सोम m. a drug of supposed magical properties W.

सोम m. a partic. mountain or mountainous range( accord. to some the mountains of the moon) ib.

सोम m. a partic. class of पितृs (prob. for सोम-पा) ib.

सोम m. N. of various authors (also with पण्डित, भट्ट, शर्मन्etc. ; See. above ) Cat.

सोम m. = सोमचन्द्र, or सोमे-न्दुHParis3.

सोम m. N. of a monkey-chief L.

सोम n. rice-water , rice-gruel L.

सोम n. heaven , sky , ether L.

सोम mfn. relating to सोम(prob. w.r. for सौम) Ka1t2h.

सोम/ सो mfn. (prob.) together with उमा. IndSt.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--a son born of Atri's eyes; honoured at birth by शिव and उमा; borne for ३०० years by दिक्स् (directions) and when released became an अम्श of ब्रह्मा who took him in his Vedic chariot of १००० horses to his loka where ब्रह्मऋषिस् adored him as their king and was praised by मन्त्रस्; nourished the crying मारिषा in her babyhood with nectar; presented पृथु with undying horses. फलकम्:F1:  भा. IV. 1. १५ and ३३; १४. २६; ३०. १४; १५. १७; Br. III. ६५. 1-२०; M. 4. ४९; २३. 4-१५; १९८. 1;फलकम्:/F Appealed to Pracetas not to destroy trees and offered their daughter वार्क्षी in marriage to him, married the twenty-seven daughters of दक्ष; कृत्तिका and other stars as his wives; cursed by दक्ष he had no issue and was struck with disease propitiated दक्ष and recovered. फलकम्:F2:  Ib. 2. १२; 5. १३; १४६. १६. भा. VI. 3. १४; 4. 6-१६; 6. 2, २३-24; VIII. 4. २१; 5. ३४.फलकम्:/F Appointed by ब्रह्मा as Lord of Plants, Brahmans and stars; worshipped [page३-695+ ४६] for a life of enjoyments; also called राजा; father of Budha; फलकम्:F3:  भा. VIII. १८. १५; X. ८४. ४७; XI. १६. १६; II. 3. 9; IX. 1. ३५; Br. III. ६५. ४६. ४८; M. ११. ५३-4.फलकम्:/F got rid of his consumption by bathing in the प्रभासा; wor- shipped largely in शाल्मलिद्वीप; फलकम्:F4:  भा. XI. 6. ३६; V. २०. ११-12.फलकम्:/F conquered three worlds and took तारा, बृहस्पति's wife by force. तारा who was pregnant was given back to बृहस्पति through the intervention of ब्रह्मा. This was Budha. फलकम्:F5:  Ib. IX. १४. 2. १४; Br. III. ६५. २८-44.फलकम्:/F
(II) (Candra s.v.)--a लोकपाल with his city विभावरी on the north of Meru; फलकम्:F1:  Br. II. २१. ३३; २२. १४. १५; M. २६६. २६.फलकम्:/F Lord of stars, and one face of शिव: served as calf when sages and पृथु milked the earth-cow; फलकम्:F2:  Br. II. २४. ४६; २६. ४१; २७. ११२ ff.; M. १०. १६.फलकम्:/F his rays gave rise to certain Apsara clans: कश्यप made him king of Brahmans; फलकम्:F3:  Br. III. 5. ८०; 7. २२; 8. 3. ७७. ३६. २०४. M. ११. ६३.फलकम्:/F a श्राद्धदेव: Lord of पितृस्: (1/8) अम्श of शिव coming out of the धाम that issued along with tears of शिव: Nine women desired and enjoyed his company; फलकम्:F4:  Ib. २३-1, 8; ३१. १२.फलकम्:/F one of the nine grahas with white colour; फलकम्:F5:  Ib. ९३. १०-17.फलकम्:/F in the देवासुर wars, was vanquished by माया of कालनेमी, took part in the तारकामय, helped वरुण at the suggestion of Indra; फलकम्:F6:  Ib. १५०. १५३; १७४. २४; १७६. 1-३३.फलकम्:/F the dot in him is the earth's shadow; फलकम्:F7:  Ib. १७६. 5.फलकम्:/F propitiated in the installation of an image and in house building; फलकम्:F8:  Ib. २६५. ३९; २५३. २७.फलकम्:/F born from the ocean of milk; फलकम्:F9:  Ib. २५०. 2; २६८. १८.फलकम्:/F world of; फलकम्:F१०:  Ib. ९१. 1-१०.फलकम्:/F nectar of, drunk by पितृस् and gods; फलकम्:F११:  Br. II. २३. ३९, ६९-73.फलकम्:/F feeds rivers by causing rain. फलकम्:F१२:  वा. ५१. १४-21.फलकम्:/F
(III)--a son of सावित्री and पृश्नि. भा. VI. १८. 1.
(IV)--a मध्यमाध्वर्यु. Br. II. ३३. १५. [page३-696+ २७]
(V)--a Vasu: a son of Dharma and सुदेवी; had five sons Varca, Budha, Dhara, उर्मी and Kalila. Br. III. 3. २१; M. 5. २१, २३; १७१. ४६; २०३. 3.
(VI)--a सुखा god. Br. IV. 1, १८.
(VII)--the temple of, in the सुपक्ष hill. वा. ३९. ६३.
(VIII)--a mukhya गण. वा. १००. १८.
(IX)--a son of Atri and अनसूया. Vi. I. १०. 8.
(X)--a Vasu; the son of भगवान् Varca. Vi. I. १५. ११०, ११२.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Soma : m.: Name of the planet moon, referred to also as Candra or Candramas and by its other synonyms such as Indu, Śaśin, Niśākara.


A. Origin and activity: According to Bhīṣma, Candra, Āditya and other planets, the constellations and stars were born from Viṣvaksena (i. e. Kṛṣṇa) (candrādityau grahanakṣatratārāḥ…viṣvaksenāt sarvam etat prasūtam) 13. 143. 31; Puruṣottama (Nārāyaṇa) told the seven sages, Marīci and others, that the sun, the moon, all constellations act in their own prescribed way in their respective spheres and are considered an authority (sūryācandramasau…adnikāreṣu vartante yathāsvaṁ…sarve pramāṇaṁ hi) 12. 322. 39-40.


B. Born repeatedly, its waxing and waning: The moon is born repeatedly (candramā jāyate punaḥ) 3. 297. 47; vanishes thousands of times (candramā iva…sahasraśaḥ/līyate) 12. 293. 3; the moon waxes and wanes (kṣayaṁ vṛddhiṁ ca candrasya) 12. 290. 46; the moon on the new moon day remains only as a very thin digit (viddhi candramasaṁ darśe sūkṣmayā kalayā sthitam) 12. 233. 15; the fifteen digits of the moon are its source and abode; the moon also has a sixteenth digit, which is very thin, and that is the real moon; that digit is not used by gods but it favours gods (?) (kalāḥ pañcadaśā yonis tad dhāma iti paṭhyate/nityam etad vijānīhi somaḥ ṣoḍaśamī kalā/…ṣoḍaśā tu kalā sūkṣmā sa soma upadhāryatām/na tūpayujyate devair devān upayanakati sā//) 12. 293. 4, 6 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 304. 6: devair indriyair na upayujyate pālyate kiṁtu devān eva sattāsphūrtipradānena upayunakti pālayati).


C. Description: highsouled (mahātman) 6. 13. 42; whose rays are cool (śītaraśmi) 6. 13. 42;


D. Extent: Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya to tell him everything about the extent (sarvaṁ pramāṇam) of Soma, to which Saṁjaya agreed 6. 12. 3-4; according to Saṁjaya's information the diameter (viṣkambha) of Candramas was 11000 yojanas and its circumference (maṇḍalam) 33000 yojanas; (according to the learned Paurāṇikas) the expanse (vaipulya) of the moon was 5900 yojanas (candramās tu sahasrāṇi rājann ekādaśa smṛtaḥ/viṣkambheṇa kuruśreṣṭha trayastriṁśat tu maṇḍalam//ekonaśaṣṭir vaipulyāc chītaraśmer mahātmanaḥ) 6. 13. 42 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 12. 41 interprets vipulatvena as tato 'py ādhikyena; in that case moon's circumference will be 33000 + 5900 = 38900; see also the editor's note on the stanza 6. 13. 41, Vol. 7, p. 765); on account of the larger extent of Rāhu, it covers the sun and the moon at proper times (sa rāhuś chādayaty etau yathākālaṁ mahattayā/candrādityau) 6. 13. 45.


E. Importance:

(1) Upamanyu, while praising Śiva, said that he (Śiva) was Candramas among the nakṣatras (nakṣatrāṇāṁ ca candramāḥ) 13. 14. 156; Soma appears among the names of Śiva (somo nakṣatrasādhakaḥ) 13. 17. 36; also Candra in a complex form (candrasūryagatiḥ) 13. 17. 37;

(2) Soma appears as one of the names of Sūrya taught by Dhaumya to Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 3. 19;

(3) God Śiva made moon (Niśākara) the chief of the constellations (cakre nakṣatrāṇāṁ niśākaram (īśam)) 12. 122. 31; Candramas is known as the chief of the constellations (nakṣatrāṇāṁ ca candramāḥ (adhipaḥ)) 14. 43. 6; Indu is known as the chief of the luminous bodies (jyotiṣām indur (adhipatiḥ) ucyate) 14. 43. 7; hence Soma is called grahagaṇeśvara 13. 66. 12; grahapati 12. 118. 15; 12. 162. 24; Candra and Sūrya are surrounded by the planets (candrasūryau grahair vṛtau) 3. 267. 17; moon is nakṣatrarāj 3. 226. 10; 12. 29. 123; it is surrounded by the nakṣatras 5. 138. 27; it is accompanied by the nakṣatras (sanakṣatraḥ) 6. 7. 14; followed by the planets, constellations and stars 3. 266. 2; shines along with the planets and many constellations 3. 179. 12; called tārādhipa 1. 61. 30; 3. 264. 18, 20; 11. 19. 17; 12. 289. 60; 12. 327. 8; 13. 124. 4; tārāpati 3. 264. 38; 3. 277. 22; 3. 292. 1; tārakārāja 3. 42. 14. uḍurāj 9. 34. 36; 12. 52. 18; 13. 14. 110; 14. 63. 3; uḍupati 9. 50. 1; uḍupa 3. 146. 68;

(4) Soma is also the lord of the plants (oṣadhīnāṁ patiḥ) 14. 43. 8;

(5) Candra, along with Āditya and Budha, present in the abode of Brahmadeva 1. 203. 4; Candramas and the constellations wait on Brahmadeva in his sabhā 2. 11. 17-18.


F. Advent of Kṛta Yuga: When the Moon, the Sun, the Tiṣya (Puṣya) and Bṛhaspati will come in one rāśi, the Kṛta age will commence 3. 188. 87 (for the citation and Nī.'s com, on it see Puṣya^1, p. 257. 1).


G. Mythological events:

(1) Pained due to the destruction indulged in by Sunda and Upasunda, the moon, the sun, the planets, the stars, the constellations and the denizens of the heaven felt dejected (candrādityau grahās tārā nakṣatrāṇi divaukasaḥ/jagmur viṣādam) 1. 202. 26;

(2) When the gods made ready an excellent chariot for Śiva's fight with the Tripuras, Sūrya and Candramas were made its wheels (sūryācandramasau kṛtvā cakre rathavarottame) 8. 24. 71.


H. Auspicious conjunction:

(1) Kuntī gave birth to Yudhiṣṭhira when the moon was in conjunction with the Aindra (Jyeṣṭhā) nakṣatra (aindre candrasamāyukte) 1. 114. 4-5;

(2) Vyāsa asked first Yudhiṣṭhira to take the hand of Draupadī (in marriage) since that was an auspicious day on which Candramas would he in conjunction with the Puṣya constellation (for the citation and Nī.'s comment on it see above Pauṣya p. 259. 1);

(3) Daśaratha asked his Purohita to make preparations for the consecration of Rāma as heir-apparent since on that night the moon would be in conjunction with the Puṣya which was an auspicious yoga (adhya puṣyo niśi brahman puṇyaṁ yogam upaiṣyati) 3. 261. 15;


I. Omens:

(1) While pointing out different bad omens to Kṛṣṇa, Karṇa said that the mark on Soma had disappeared (somasya lakṣma vyāvṛttam) 5. 141. 10 (But Nī. on Bom. Ed. 5. 143. 11: lakṣma vyāvṛttaṁ kṣīṇatvād amāvāsyāsānnidhyāt kṣīṇacandro 'pi pāpa eva); the same bad omen was noticed by Vyāsa also which, according to him, indicated great danger (vyāvṛttaṁ lakṣma somasya bhaviṣyati mahad bhayam) 6. 2. 32 (Here Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 2. 32: vyāvṛttaṁ naṣṭaṁ lakṣmahīnaś candra dṛśyata ity arthaḥ); a similar sight was noticeable at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara when there occurred a drought for twelve years; at that time Soma, with its mark disappeared, receded to the south (jagāma dakṣiṇaṁ māragaṁ somo vyāvṛttalakṣaṇaḥ) 12. 139. 15 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 141. 15: vyāvṛttaṁ anyathābhūtaṁ lakṣaṇaṁ cihnaṁ yasya);

(2) According to another omen noticed by Vyāsa and reported to Dhṛtarāṣṭra the moon on the Kārttikī full moon night, being without lustre, was (sometimes ?) not visible, and (at other times ?) with the colour of fire appeared in the sky which had the same colour (alakṣyaḥ prabhayā hīnaḥ paurṇamāsīṁ ca kārttikīm/candro 'bhūd agnivarṇaś ca samavarṇe nabhastale) 6. 2. 23;

(3) According to a third omen noticed by Vyāsa, whether it was day or night, the sun, the moon and the costellations appeared blazing; that indicated destruction (jvalitārkendunakṣatraṁ nirviśeṣadinakṣapam/ahorātraṁ mayā dṛṣṭaṁ tat kṣayāya bhaviṣyati//) 6. 2. 22;

(4) According to another astronomical event, Vyāsa noticed that the amāvāsyā had occurred on the thirteenth day of the month which was very unusual; on that day Candra and Sūrya both were swallowed the same month by Rāhu at an improper time 6. 2. 28-29 (for citation and Nī.'s commentary see Sūrya p. 276. 2);

(5) A similar event-Rāhu swallowed Āditya and at the same time Soma-occurred when the Sindhu heroes fought with Arjuna (rāhur agrasad ādityaṁ yugapat somam eva ca) 14. 76. 15;

(6) Saṁjaya told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that the day on which the two armies gathered at Kurukṣetra, Soma was in the constellation Maghā and the seven principal planets gathered in the sky blazing (for the citation and Nī.'s commentary on it see above Maghā, p. 263. 1);

(7) Yājñavalkya told Janataka that one to whom the full moon appeared broken towards the south had only a year to live (purṇenduṁ (dīpam eva ca)/khaṇḍābhāsaṁ dakṣiṇatas te 'pi saṁvatsarāyuṣaḥ//) 12. 305. 9;

(8) He also told Janaka that one who saw Soma with a hole like a wheel with a broken nave had only a week to live (śīrṇanābhi yathā cakraṁ chidraṁ somaṁ prapaśyati/ saptarātreṇa mṛtyubhāk) 12. 305. 13.


J. Similes:

(1) Rohiṇī's association with the moon: Sudeva wondered when would Damayantī be associated with Nala, as Rohiṇī with Śaśin, and end her miseries (rohiṇī śaśino yathā) 3. 65. 21; Śāntā waited on Ṛśyaśrṅga as Rohiṇī on Soma (khe rohiṇī somam ivāmukūlā) 3. 113. 22; Kuntī blessed Draupadi after her marriage saying that she might be united with her husbands as Rohiṇī with Soma (rohiṇī ca yathā some) 1. 191. 5; also cf. candraś ca rohiṇyām 5. 115. 9; rohiṇī śaśinaḥ 13. 134. 4;

(2) Moon's association with the other nakṣatras: (i) Kṛttikās: The king of the Prāgjyotiṣa with a white parasol decorated with garlands (mālayadāmavatā…śvetacchatreṇa) shone like the moon on a full moon day in conjunction with the Kṛttikās (kṛttikāyogayuktena paurṇamāsyām ivendunā) 7. 19. 18; (ii) Sāvitra: Droṇa in the company of the five Pāṇḍava brothers looked like the moon in association with the constellation Sāvitra (i. e. Hasta) consisting of five stars (pañcatāreṇa saṁyuktaḥ sāvitreṇeva candramāḥ) 1. 125. 30 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 1. 135. 30: sāvitreṇa hastanakṣatreṇa); (iii) Punarvasū: the two Pāñcāla heroes (pāñcālyau), guarding the wheels of Yudhiṣṭhira, shone like the two Punaravasu stars on the two sides of the moon (rathābhyāśe cakāśete candrasyeva punarvasū) 8. 33. 16; (iv) Viśākhā: Karṇa with the two shining kuṇḍalas in his ears appeared like the bright moon in the sky with two Viśākhā stars on each side (viśākhayor madhyagataḥ śaśīva vimalo divi) 3. 285. 11; the head of the Pāṇḍya king wearing the kuṇḍalas shone like the moon with two Viśākhā stars on two sides 8. 15. 42; also 8. 14. 50; (v) Constellations or stars in general: Balarāma of white complexion and wearing a blue garment (nīlavāsāḥ sitaprabhaḥ), seated among the kings, appeared like the moon among the constellations (nakṣatragaṇaiḥ parikīrṇo niśākaraḥ) 9. 33. 17; 9. 54. 42; Kṛṣṇa told Karṇa that he, among the Pāṇḍavas, would appear like the moon among the nakṣatras 5. 138. 27; the sons of Draupadī, with their followers, stood round Dhṛṣṭadyumna like the multitude of stars around the moon (candraṁ tārāgaṇā iva) 8. 32. 6; when king Sagara, followed by his 60000 sons, moved he looked liked the king of the nakṣatras (i. e. the moon) followed by luminous bodies in a cloudless sky at the end of the rainy season (nakṣatrarājaṁ varṣānte vyabhre jyotirgaṇā iva) 12. 29. 123;

(3) Moon's association with planets: (i) Aṅgāraka: Droṇa entered the arena with Aśvatthāhman as the moon enters a cloudless sky in the company of Aṅgāraka (nabho jaladharair hīnaṁ sāṅgāraka ivāṁśumān) 1. 124. 18; (ii) Budha and Śukra: Arjuna, with Kṛṣṇa and Sātyaki by his side in the chariot, looked like the moon destroying the darkness in the company of Budha and Śukra (sahito budhaśukrābhyāṁ tamo nighnan yathā śaśī) 7. 60. 20; (iii) Śanaiścara: Śalya drawing near Yudhiṣṭhira looked like the planet Śanaiścara drawing near the moon (candramaso 'bhyāśe śanaiścara iva grahaḥ) 9. 15. 10; (iv) Planets in general: Lakṣmaṇa and Rāma surrounded by the monkey chiefs looked like the moon and the sun surrounded by the planets (candrasūryau grahair iva) 3. 267. 17; the seven Kaurava brothers tormented Bhīmasena (by showering arrows) as do the seven planets the moon at the time of the destruction of the creatures (prajāsaṁharaṇe rājan somaṁ sapta grahā iva) 7. 112. 22; the five sons of Draupadī tormented Ārśyaśṛṅgī as do the five planets the moon at the end of the Yuga (yathā yugakṣaye ghore candramāḥ pañcabhir grahaiḥ) 6. 96. 36;

(4) Moon by itself (i) Kaca, coming out of the belly of his teacher, is compared with the moon on the full moon day on the last day of the bright fortnight (śūklātyaye paurṇamāsyām ivenduḥ) 1. 71. 49; (ii) The fierce fight of Droṇa and Karṇa with the army of Yudhiṣṭhira appeared like the one between the two oceans which grow large due to rise of the moon (yathā sāgarayo rājaṁś candrodayavivṛddhayoḥ) 7. 147. 32. [For Soma also See section 1. 7]


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Soma : m.: Name of the planet moon, referred to also as Candra or Candramas and by its other synonyms such as Indu, Śaśin, Niśākara.


A. Origin and activity: According to Bhīṣma, Candra, Āditya and other planets, the constellations and stars were born from Viṣvaksena (i. e. Kṛṣṇa) (candrādityau grahanakṣatratārāḥ…viṣvaksenāt sarvam etat prasūtam) 13. 143. 31; Puruṣottama (Nārāyaṇa) told the seven sages, Marīci and others, that the sun, the moon, all constellations act in their own prescribed way in their respective spheres and are considered an authority (sūryācandramasau…adnikāreṣu vartante yathāsvaṁ…sarve pramāṇaṁ hi) 12. 322. 39-40.


B. Born repeatedly, its waxing and waning: The moon is born repeatedly (candramā jāyate punaḥ) 3. 297. 47; vanishes thousands of times (candramā iva…sahasraśaḥ/līyate) 12. 293. 3; the moon waxes and wanes (kṣayaṁ vṛddhiṁ ca candrasya) 12. 290. 46; the moon on the new moon day remains only as a very thin digit (viddhi candramasaṁ darśe sūkṣmayā kalayā sthitam) 12. 233. 15; the fifteen digits of the moon are its source and abode; the moon also has a sixteenth digit, which is very thin, and that is the real moon; that digit is not used by gods but it favours gods (?) (kalāḥ pañcadaśā yonis tad dhāma iti paṭhyate/nityam etad vijānīhi somaḥ ṣoḍaśamī kalā/…ṣoḍaśā tu kalā sūkṣmā sa soma upadhāryatām/na tūpayujyate devair devān upayanakati sā//) 12. 293. 4, 6 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 304. 6: devair indriyair na upayujyate pālyate kiṁtu devān eva sattāsphūrtipradānena upayunakti pālayati).


C. Description: highsouled (mahātman) 6. 13. 42; whose rays are cool (śītaraśmi) 6. 13. 42;


D. Extent: Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya to tell him everything about the extent (sarvaṁ pramāṇam) of Soma, to which Saṁjaya agreed 6. 12. 3-4; according to Saṁjaya's information the diameter (viṣkambha) of Candramas was 11000 yojanas and its circumference (maṇḍalam) 33000 yojanas; (according to the learned Paurāṇikas) the expanse (vaipulya) of the moon was 5900 yojanas (candramās tu sahasrāṇi rājann ekādaśa smṛtaḥ/viṣkambheṇa kuruśreṣṭha trayastriṁśat tu maṇḍalam//ekonaśaṣṭir vaipulyāc chītaraśmer mahātmanaḥ) 6. 13. 42 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 12. 41 interprets vipulatvena as tato 'py ādhikyena; in that case moon's circumference will be 33000 + 5900 = 38900; see also the editor's note on the stanza 6. 13. 41, Vol. 7, p. 765); on account of the larger extent of Rāhu, it covers the sun and the moon at proper times (sa rāhuś chādayaty etau yathākālaṁ mahattayā/candrādityau) 6. 13. 45.


E. Importance:

(1) Upamanyu, while praising Śiva, said that he (Śiva) was Candramas among the nakṣatras (nakṣatrāṇāṁ ca candramāḥ) 13. 14. 156; Soma appears among the names of Śiva (somo nakṣatrasādhakaḥ) 13. 17. 36; also Candra in a complex form (candrasūryagatiḥ) 13. 17. 37;

(2) Soma appears as one of the names of Sūrya taught by Dhaumya to Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 3. 19;

(3) God Śiva made moon (Niśākara) the chief of the constellations (cakre nakṣatrāṇāṁ niśākaram (īśam)) 12. 122. 31; Candramas is known as the chief of the constellations (nakṣatrāṇāṁ ca candramāḥ (adhipaḥ)) 14. 43. 6; Indu is known as the chief of the luminous bodies (jyotiṣām indur (adhipatiḥ) ucyate) 14. 43. 7; hence Soma is called grahagaṇeśvara 13. 66. 12; grahapati 12. 118. 15; 12. 162. 24; Candra and Sūrya are surrounded by the planets (candrasūryau grahair vṛtau) 3. 267. 17; moon is nakṣatrarāj 3. 226. 10; 12. 29. 123; it is surrounded by the nakṣatras 5. 138. 27; it is accompanied by the nakṣatras (sanakṣatraḥ) 6. 7. 14; followed by the planets, constellations and stars 3. 266. 2; shines along with the planets and many constellations 3. 179. 12; called tārādhipa 1. 61. 30; 3. 264. 18, 20; 11. 19. 17; 12. 289. 60; 12. 327. 8; 13. 124. 4; tārāpati 3. 264. 38; 3. 277. 22; 3. 292. 1; tārakārāja 3. 42. 14. uḍurāj 9. 34. 36; 12. 52. 18; 13. 14. 110; 14. 63. 3; uḍupati 9. 50. 1; uḍupa 3. 146. 68;

(4) Soma is also the lord of the plants (oṣadhīnāṁ patiḥ) 14. 43. 8;

(5) Candra, along with Āditya and Budha, present in the abode of Brahmadeva 1. 203. 4; Candramas and the constellations wait on Brahmadeva in his sabhā 2. 11. 17-18.


F. Advent of Kṛta Yuga: When the Moon, the Sun, the Tiṣya (Puṣya) and Bṛhaspati will come in one rāśi, the Kṛta age will commence 3. 188. 87 (for the citation and Nī.'s com, on it see Puṣya^1, p. 257. 1).


G. Mythological events:

(1) Pained due to the destruction indulged in by Sunda and Upasunda, the moon, the sun, the planets, the stars, the constellations and the denizens of the heaven felt dejected (candrādityau grahās tārā nakṣatrāṇi divaukasaḥ/jagmur viṣādam) 1. 202. 26;

(2) When the gods made ready an excellent chariot for Śiva's fight with the Tripuras, Sūrya and Candramas were made its wheels (sūryācandramasau kṛtvā cakre rathavarottame) 8. 24. 71.


H. Auspicious conjunction:

(1) Kuntī gave birth to Yudhiṣṭhira when the moon was in conjunction with the Aindra (Jyeṣṭhā) nakṣatra (aindre candrasamāyukte) 1. 114. 4-5;

(2) Vyāsa asked first Yudhiṣṭhira to take the hand of Draupadī (in marriage) since that was an auspicious day on which Candramas would he in conjunction with the Puṣya constellation (for the citation and Nī.'s comment on it see above Pauṣya p. 259. 1);

(3) Daśaratha asked his Purohita to make preparations for the consecration of Rāma as heir-apparent since on that night the moon would be in conjunction with the Puṣya which was an auspicious yoga (adhya puṣyo niśi brahman puṇyaṁ yogam upaiṣyati) 3. 261. 15;


I. Omens:

(1) While pointing out different bad omens to Kṛṣṇa, Karṇa said that the mark on Soma had disappeared (somasya lakṣma vyāvṛttam) 5. 141. 10 (But Nī. on Bom. Ed. 5. 143. 11: lakṣma vyāvṛttaṁ kṣīṇatvād amāvāsyāsānnidhyāt kṣīṇacandro 'pi pāpa eva); the same bad omen was noticed by Vyāsa also which, according to him, indicated great danger (vyāvṛttaṁ lakṣma somasya bhaviṣyati mahad bhayam) 6. 2. 32 (Here Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 2. 32: vyāvṛttaṁ naṣṭaṁ lakṣmahīnaś candra dṛśyata ity arthaḥ); a similar sight was noticeable at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara when there occurred a drought for twelve years; at that time Soma, with its mark disappeared, receded to the south (jagāma dakṣiṇaṁ māragaṁ somo vyāvṛttalakṣaṇaḥ) 12. 139. 15 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 141. 15: vyāvṛttaṁ anyathābhūtaṁ lakṣaṇaṁ cihnaṁ yasya);

(2) According to another omen noticed by Vyāsa and reported to Dhṛtarāṣṭra the moon on the Kārttikī full moon night, being without lustre, was (sometimes ?) not visible, and (at other times ?) with the colour of fire appeared in the sky which had the same colour (alakṣyaḥ prabhayā hīnaḥ paurṇamāsīṁ ca kārttikīm/candro 'bhūd agnivarṇaś ca samavarṇe nabhastale) 6. 2. 23;

(3) According to a third omen noticed by Vyāsa, whether it was day or night, the sun, the moon and the costellations appeared blazing; that indicated destruction (jvalitārkendunakṣatraṁ nirviśeṣadinakṣapam/ahorātraṁ mayā dṛṣṭaṁ tat kṣayāya bhaviṣyati//) 6. 2. 22;

(4) According to another astronomical event, Vyāsa noticed that the amāvāsyā had occurred on the thirteenth day of the month which was very unusual; on that day Candra and Sūrya both were swallowed the same month by Rāhu at an improper time 6. 2. 28-29 (for citation and Nī.'s commentary see Sūrya p. 276. 2);

(5) A similar event-Rāhu swallowed Āditya and at the same time Soma-occurred when the Sindhu heroes fought with Arjuna (rāhur agrasad ādityaṁ yugapat somam eva ca) 14. 76. 15;

(6) Saṁjaya told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that the day on which the two armies gathered at Kurukṣetra, Soma was in the constellation Maghā and the seven principal planets gathered in the sky blazing (for the citation and Nī.'s commentary on it see above Maghā, p. 263. 1);

(7) Yājñavalkya told Janataka that one to whom the full moon appeared broken towards the south had only a year to live (purṇenduṁ (dīpam eva ca)/khaṇḍābhāsaṁ dakṣiṇatas te 'pi saṁvatsarāyuṣaḥ//) 12. 305. 9;

(8) He also told Janaka that one who saw Soma with a hole like a wheel with a broken nave had only a week to live (śīrṇanābhi yathā cakraṁ chidraṁ somaṁ prapaśyati/ saptarātreṇa mṛtyubhāk) 12. 305. 13.


J. Similes:

(1) Rohiṇī's association with the moon: Sudeva wondered when would Damayantī be associated with Nala, as Rohiṇī with Śaśin, and end her miseries (rohiṇī śaśino yathā) 3. 65. 21; Śāntā waited on Ṛśyaśrṅga as Rohiṇī on Soma (khe rohiṇī somam ivāmukūlā) 3. 113. 22; Kuntī blessed Draupadi after her marriage saying that she might be united with her husbands as Rohiṇī with Soma (rohiṇī ca yathā some) 1. 191. 5; also cf. candraś ca rohiṇyām 5. 115. 9; rohiṇī śaśinaḥ 13. 134. 4;

(2) Moon's association with the other nakṣatras: (i) Kṛttikās: The king of the Prāgjyotiṣa with a white parasol decorated with garlands (mālayadāmavatā…śvetacchatreṇa) shone like the moon on a full moon day in conjunction with the Kṛttikās (kṛttikāyogayuktena paurṇamāsyām ivendunā) 7. 19. 18; (ii) Sāvitra: Droṇa in the company of the five Pāṇḍava brothers looked like the moon in association with the constellation Sāvitra (i. e. Hasta) consisting of five stars (pañcatāreṇa saṁyuktaḥ sāvitreṇeva candramāḥ) 1. 125. 30 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 1. 135. 30: sāvitreṇa hastanakṣatreṇa); (iii) Punarvasū: the two Pāñcāla heroes (pāñcālyau), guarding the wheels of Yudhiṣṭhira, shone like the two Punaravasu stars on the two sides of the moon (rathābhyāśe cakāśete candrasyeva punarvasū) 8. 33. 16; (iv) Viśākhā: Karṇa with the two shining kuṇḍalas in his ears appeared like the bright moon in the sky with two Viśākhā stars on each side (viśākhayor madhyagataḥ śaśīva vimalo divi) 3. 285. 11; the head of the Pāṇḍya king wearing the kuṇḍalas shone like the moon with two Viśākhā stars on two sides 8. 15. 42; also 8. 14. 50; (v) Constellations or stars in general: Balarāma of white complexion and wearing a blue garment (nīlavāsāḥ sitaprabhaḥ), seated among the kings, appeared like the moon among the constellations (nakṣatragaṇaiḥ parikīrṇo niśākaraḥ) 9. 33. 17; 9. 54. 42; Kṛṣṇa told Karṇa that he, among the Pāṇḍavas, would appear like the moon among the nakṣatras 5. 138. 27; the sons of Draupadī, with their followers, stood round Dhṛṣṭadyumna like the multitude of stars around the moon (candraṁ tārāgaṇā iva) 8. 32. 6; when king Sagara, followed by his 60000 sons, moved he looked liked the king of the nakṣatras (i. e. the moon) followed by luminous bodies in a cloudless sky at the end of the rainy season (nakṣatrarājaṁ varṣānte vyabhre jyotirgaṇā iva) 12. 29. 123;

(3) Moon's association with planets: (i) Aṅgāraka: Droṇa entered the arena with Aśvatthāhman as the moon enters a cloudless sky in the company of Aṅgāraka (nabho jaladharair hīnaṁ sāṅgāraka ivāṁśumān) 1. 124. 18; (ii) Budha and Śukra: Arjuna, with Kṛṣṇa and Sātyaki by his side in the chariot, looked like the moon destroying the darkness in the company of Budha and Śukra (sahito budhaśukrābhyāṁ tamo nighnan yathā śaśī) 7. 60. 20; (iii) Śanaiścara: Śalya drawing near Yudhiṣṭhira looked like the planet Śanaiścara drawing near the moon (candramaso 'bhyāśe śanaiścara iva grahaḥ) 9. 15. 10; (iv) Planets in general: Lakṣmaṇa and Rāma surrounded by the monkey chiefs looked like the moon and the sun surrounded by the planets (candrasūryau grahair iva) 3. 267. 17; the seven Kaurava brothers tormented Bhīmasena (by showering arrows) as do the seven planets the moon at the time of the destruction of the creatures (prajāsaṁharaṇe rājan somaṁ sapta grahā iva) 7. 112. 22; the five sons of Draupadī tormented Ārśyaśṛṅgī as do the five planets the moon at the end of the Yuga (yathā yugakṣaye ghore candramāḥ pañcabhir grahaiḥ) 6. 96. 36;

(4) Moon by itself (i) Kaca, coming out of the belly of his teacher, is compared with the moon on the full moon day on the last day of the bright fortnight (śūklātyaye paurṇamāsyām ivenduḥ) 1. 71. 49; (ii) The fierce fight of Droṇa and Karṇa with the army of Yudhiṣṭhira appeared like the one between the two oceans which grow large due to rise of the moon (yathā sāgarayo rājaṁś candrodayavivṛddhayoḥ) 7. 147. 32. [For Soma also See section 1. 7]


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Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Soma was the famous plant which was used for the preparation of the libation of Soma made at the Vedic sacrifice. Its importance is sufficiently shown by the fact that the whole of the ninth Maṇḍala of the Rigveda, and six hymns in other Maṇḍalas, are devoted to its praise.

Nevertheless, little is actually known of the plant. Its twigs or shoots are described as brown (babhru),[१] ruddy (aruṇa),[२] of tawny (hari).[३] Possibly its twigs hang down if the epithet Naicāśākha[४] refers to the plant as Hillebrandt[५] thinks. The shoot is called aṃśu,[६] while the plant as a whole is called andhas,[७] which also denotes the juice.[८] Parvan[९] is the stem. Kṣip,[१०] ‘finger,’ is used as a designation of the shoots, which may therefore have resembled fingers in shape; vakṣaṇā[११] and vāṇa[१२] also seem to have the sense of the shoot. There is some slight. evidence to suggest that the stem was not round, but angular.[१३] The plant grew on the mountains,[१४] that of Müjavant being specially renowned.

These notices are inadequate to identify the plant. It has been held[१५] to be the Sarcostemma viminale or the Asclepias acida (= Sarcostemma brevistigma). Roth[१६] held that the Sarcostemma acidum more nearly met the requirements of the case. Watt[१७] suggested the Afghan grape as the real Soma, and Rice[१८] thought a sugar-cane might be meant, while Max Müller and Rājendralāla Mitra suggested that the juice was used as an ingredient in a kind of beer--i.e., that the Soma plant was a species of hop. Hillebrandt[१९] considers that neither hops nor the grape can explain the references to Soma. It is very probable that the plant cannot now be identified.[२०]

In the Yajurveda[२१] the plant is purchased ere it is pressed. Hillebrandt[२२] considers that the sale must be assumed for the Rigveda. It grew on a mountain, and could not be obtained by ordinary people: perhaps some special tribe or prince owned it, like the Kīkaṭas.[२३] As it stands, the ritual performance is clearly an acquisition of the Soma from the Gandharvas (represented by a Śūdra), a ritual imitation of the action which may have been one of the sources of the drama. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining the real plant from a great distance, several substitutes were allowed in the Brāhmaṇa period.[२४]

The plant was prepared for use by being pounded with stones or in a mortar. The former was the normal method of procedure, appearing in the Rigveda as the usual one. The stones are called grāvan[२५] or adri,[२६] and were, of course, held in the hands.[२७] The plant was laid on boards one beside the other (Adhiṣavana), and, according at least to the later ritual,[२८] a hole was dug below, so that the pounding of the plant by means of the stones resulted in a loud noise, doubtless a prophylactic against demoniac influences.

The plant was placed on a skin and on the Vedi[२९] --which was no longer done in the later ritual--Dhiṣaṇā in some passages denoting the Vedi.[३०]

Sometimes the mortar and pestle were used in place of the stones.[३१] This use, though Iranian, was apparently not common in Vedic times.

Vedic Rituals Hindi[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सोम पु.
सोम-याग, भा.श्रौ.सू. 13.4.2; आप.श्रौ.सू. 1०.1.2 (रु. तेभ्यः सोमं प्राह; यजमानप्रहितः सोमप्रवाकः----- सोमम् आह सोमेन असौ यक्षते, याजयितव्यस्त्वया इति); सोमलता का समीकरण एक बहुत पेंचीदा विषय रहा है। एतद्विषयक विभिन्न मतवाद के लिए द्रष्टव्य, वैदिक इण्डेक्स, हि.अ. 525-526, वेदचयनम्, विश्वम्भर नाथ त्रिपाठी, पृष्ठ-26-27; सोम-रस एवं इसका प्याला।

  1. The word is not actually found applied to the plant itself;
    but the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, ix. 5, 3, prescribes arjunāni, plants of this indefinite colour, as a substitute for Soma, if Pūtīkas cannot be obtained.
  2. Rv. vii. 98, 1;
    x. 94, 3;
    144, 5. Cf. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iv. 5, 10, 1 et seq.
  3. Rv. ix. 92, 1. The Soma cow, with which Soma was purchased, is called babhru or aruṇā, Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 3, 1, 15;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 7, 5, etc.
  4. Rv. iii. 53, 14. Cf. Naicāśākha.
  5. Vedische Mythologie, 1, 14-18;
    2, 241-245.
  6. Rv. i. 168, 3 iii. 48, 2, etc.
  7. Rv. i. 28, 7;
    iii. 48, 1;
    iv. 16, 1, etc.
  8. ii. 14, 1;
    19, 1;
    35, 1. etc.
  9. Rv. i. 9, 1. Cf. parus, Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 7, 13;
    Vaitāna Sūtra, 24.
  10. Rv. ix. 79, 4. Cf., however, Pischel, Vedische Studien, 1, 70.
  11. Rv. viii. 1, 17.
  12. Rv. iv. 24, 9;
    ix. 50, 1. But these passages are both very doubtful. Cf. Vāṇa. The husk left after the pressing is called andhas (ix. 86, 44;
    vavri (ix. 69, 9), tvac (ix. 86, 44;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 7, 13, 1), śarīva (ibid., 2), śarya (ix. 68, 2), tānva (ix. 78, 1).
  13. Cf. pṛṣṭhya in Rv. iv. 20, 4;
    Hille brandt, 1, 54, 55.
  14. Rv. i. 93, 6;
    iii. 48, 2;
    v. 36, 2;
    43, 4;
    85, 2;
    ix. 18, 1;
    46, 1;
    71, 4;
    82, 3;
    Av. iii. 21, 10. So in the Avesta, Yasna, x. 4, etc.
  15. Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, 1^2, 931;
    Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 5, 261 et seq. Cf. Haug, Aitareya Brahmaṇa, 2, 489;
    Max Müller, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 9, liv.
  16. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 35, 680 et seq. Cf. also 38, 134 et seq.
  17. See Hillebrandt, 1, 7 et seq.
  18. Ibid., 10.
  19. Ibid., 12. The dispute between Max Müller, Roth, J. G. Baker, W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Charles G. Leland, and A. Houtum-Schindler, as to the identity of the plant, is reprinted in Max Müller's Biographies of Words, 222 et seq., and reviewed by Hillebrandt. See also Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 26, xxiv. et seq., who thinks that the traditional identification is not far wrong. Caland, Altindisches Zauberritual, 188, gives it as Sarcostemma acidum.
  20. The original Soma plant was, doubtless, identical with the Haoma of the Avesta. On the plant from which the present Parsis of Kermān and Yezd obtain their Hūm juice, and which they regard as identical with the Avestic Haoma, see Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 26, xxiv et seq.
  21. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 3, 1, 1 et seq.;
    Hillebrandt, 1, 89 et seq.
  22. Ibid., 70.
  23. Rv. iii. 53, 14.
  24. See Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iv. 5, 10, 1-6, and cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 26, xxvii;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, ix. 5, 3.
  25. i. 83, 6;
    135, 7, etc.
  26. i. 130, 2;
    135, 5;
    137, 1, etc. Adri is used oftener with the verb su, ‘press,’ than grāvan, which is more personally conceived, and so appears with vad, ‘speak,’ and so forth;
    Hillebrandt, 1, 153, n. 1.
  27. Rv. v. 45, 7;
    ix. 11, 5;
    x. 76, 2, etc.
  28. Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, iv. 4, 28;
    that ākhara, Rv. x. 94, 5, denotes this is uncertain.
  29. Rv. v. 31, 12.
  30. Rv. i. 109, 3;
    iii. 2, 1;
    vi. 11, 3, etc.
  31. Rv. i. 28. The pestle is manthā, the mortar ulūkhala;
    in x. 101, 11, vanaspati and vana may have the same senses respectively.
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