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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Aṅga, Aṅgaka : m. (pl., also sg.), Aṅgaviṣaya m. (sg.): Name of a country and its people; often mentioned along with Vaṅga and Kaliṅga.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the Janapadas of the Bhāratavarṣa (aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāś ca) 6. 10. 44, 5, 37; mentioned among the eastern countries, holy places in which were visited by Arjuna (prācīm diśam abhiprepsur jagāma) 1. 207. 5; (aṅgavaṅgakaliṅgeṣu yāni puṇyāni kānicit/jagāma tāni sarvāṇi) 1. 207. 9; the army protected by the king of the Aṅga country (Karṇa) said to be of the easterners (tad aṅgapatinā guptaṁ…prācyānām abhavad balam) 6. 17. 28.


B. Capital town: The capital of the Aṅga country was Campā (jagāma campāṁ pradidhakṣamāṇas tam aṅgarājaṁ viṣayaṁ ca tasya) 3. 113. 15; also called Mālinī (mālinīṁ nagarīm…/ aṅgeṣu) 12. 5. 6.


C. Characteristics of the people: The people of the Aṅga and Kalinga country were mentioned by Karṇa among those peoples who knew eternal dharma (kosalāḥ kāśayo'ṅgāś ca kaliṅgā …/ dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 6061; according to Karṇa the old men of the Aṅgaka, Kaliṅgaka and some other countries lived according to the dharma taught to them (kāliṅgakāś cāṅgakā…śiṣṭān dharmān upajīvanti vṛddhāḥ) 8. 30. 75; (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 8. 45. 30; svayaṁ dharmasvarūpam ajānanto 'pi śiṣṭānugāmina ity arthaḥ); according to Śalya, however, people of the Aṅga country forsook the sick people and sold their wives and children (āturāṇām parityāgaḥ svadārasutavikrayaḥ/aṅgeṣu vartate karṇa) 8. 30. 83;


D. Aṅga warriors: Specially skilled in fighting while riding elephants (gajayodhinaḥ, gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 1-3; (śikṣitā hastisādinaḥ) 7. 68. 31; also cf. 8. 12. 59; (ācāryaputre…hastiśikṣāviśārade 8. 17. 15-18; 8. 49. 79.


E. Epic events:

(1) Child Karṇa, who was picked up by Adhiratha and Rādhā, grew up in the Aṅga country (sa jyeṣṭhaputraḥ sūtasya vavṛdhe'ṅgeṣu) 3. 293. 14;

(2) Duryodhana said that if Arjuna was unwilling to fight with one who was not a king, he would make Karṇa the king of the Aṅga country; immediately afterwards the ceremony of consecration of Karṇa as the ruler of the Aṅga country was duly performed by those who knew the mantras (yady ayaṁ phalguno yuddhe nārājñā yoddhum icchati/tasmād eṣo 'ṅgaviṣaye mayā rājye 'bhiṣicyate//…tatas tasmin kṣaṇe karṇaḥ…abhiṣikto 'ṅgarājye saḥ…//) 1. 126. 35-36; Karṇa whose head was moist due to water of consecration as a king of the Aṅga country was embraced by Adhiratha (pariṣvajya ca tasyātha mūrdhānam…aṅgarājyābhiṣekārdram) 1. 127. 4; when Bhīma said that Karṇa did not deserve to be a king of the Aṅgas, Duryodhana retorted that Karṇa deserved not only to be the king of the Aṅgas but of the whole earth (aṅgarājyaṁ ca nārhas tvam upabhoktum) 1. 127. 7; (pṛthivīrājyam arho 'yaṁ nāṅgarājyaṁ nareśvaraḥ) 1. 127 16; Karṇa is called the king of the Aṅgas in various contexts: (i) Śiśupāla calls Karṇa the chief of the Vaṅga and Aṅga countries (vaṅgāṅgaviṣayādhyakṣa) 2. 41. 9; (ii) Śalya refers to the rulership of Karṇa of the Aṅgas (aṅgeṣu…karṇa yeṣām adhipatir bhavān) 8. 30. 83;

(3) While recounting the exploits of Karṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra mentions Aṅgas (!) among the countries conquered by Karṇa and made to pay tribute (suhmān aṅgāṁś ca puṇḍrāṁś ca…yo jitvā samare vīraś cakre balibhṛtaḥ purā) 8. 5. 19-20;

(4) When Jayadratha was subdued by Karṇa in a wrestling bout, he (J.), pleased with Karṇa, gave him the city of Mālinī in the Aṅga country (prītyā dadau sa karṇāya mālinīm nagarīm atha/aṅgeṣu) 12. 5. 6;

(5) Arjuna, during the period of exile, visited all the holy places in the Aṅga, Vaṅga and Kaliṅga countries (aṅgavaṅgakaliṅgeṣu…jagāma tāni sarvāṇi tīrthāny āyatanāni ca) 1. 207. 9;

(6) Aṅga country mentioned among those which were conquered by Sahadeva before the Rājasūya (yaḥ kāśīn aṅgamagadhān…yudhājayat) 5. 49. 28 (however, according to 2. 27. 1618 it was Bhīma who subjugated Karṇa; in 2. 28 where Sahadeva's expedition is described there is no reference to the Aṅga country);

(7) The Kṣatriyas of the Aṅga and Vaṅga countries mentioned among those who brought riches by hundreds for the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira (aṅgā vaṅgāś ca puṇḍrāś ca…āhārṣuḥ kṣatriyā vittaṁ śataśaḥ) 2. 48. 15-16;

(8) Aṅgas and Vaṅgas mentioned among those people who along with their kings were present at the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira and served meals (yatra sarvān mahīpālān…savaṅgāṅgān…āgatān aham adrākṣaṁ yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 22;

(9) The army of the easterners protected by the ruler of the Aṅga country and by Kṛpa marched out for the battle (tad aṅgapatinā guptaṁ kṛpeṇa ca...prācyānām abhavad balam) 6. 17. 28;

(10) When Ayutāyus and Dīrghāyus, the sons of Śrutāyus and Acyutāyus, were killed by Arjuna, the Aṅga warriors, riding elephants, attacked Arjuna (aṅgās tu gajavāreṇa pāṇḍavaṁ paryavārayan/…hastisādinaḥ) 7. 68. 31;

(11) When Arjuna attacked the army of the Saṁśaptakas (8. 12. 54), the Aṅga warriors, riding elephants, along with Kaliṅga, Vaṅga, and Niṣāda warriors attacked him (kaliṅgavaṅgāṅganiṣādavīrā jighāṁsavaḥ pāṇḍavam abhyadhāvan) 8. 12. 59;

(12) The Aṅga warriors, along with Vaṅgas and others, riding elephants and skilled in fighting with elephants, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna (hastibhis tu mahāmātrāḥ…dhṛṣṭadyumnaṁ jighāṁsantaḥ kruddhāḥ pārṣatam abhyayuḥ//…gajayodhinaḥ/aṅgā vaṅgāś ca…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 1-3;

(13) Sahadeva, after killing the elephant of a Punḍra warrior, attacked the elephant of an Aṅga warrior; Nakula took on himself the fight with the Aṅga warrior and his elephant; the Aṅga warrior threw tomaras on Nakula; the warrior (here called mleccha and Ācāryaputra) fell down along with his elephant; at the death of this Aṅga warrior, other warriors from the Aṅga country with their elephants attacked Nakula (vivarmadhvajajīvitam/taṁ kṛtvā dviradaṁ bhūyaḥ sahadevo 'ṅgam abhyagāt//sahadevaṁ tu nakulo vārayitvāṅgam ārdayat/…aṅgaś cikṣepa tomarān/sa papāta hato mlecchas tenaiva saha dantinā//ācāryaputre nihate…aṅgāḥ kruddhā mahāmātrā nāgair nakulam abhyayuḥ) 8. 17. 13-18;

(14) Elephants from Kaliṅga, Vaṅga, Aṅga, Niṣāda and Magadha countries along with their warriors mentioned among those who were killed by Bhīma (kaliṅgavaṅgāṅganiṣādamāgadhān sadāmadān…nihanti yaḥ śatrugaṇān anekaśaḥ) 8. 49. 79;

(15) Dhṛtarāṣṭra while recounting Kṛṣṇa's exploits mentioned Aṅgas, Vaṅgas and Kaliṅgas among the countries which were conquered by him in battle (aṅgān vaṅgān kaliṅgāṁś ca …ajayad raṇe) 7. 10. 15 (this incident is not mentioned in the epic).


F. Past events:

(1) Lomapāda, a friend of Daśaratha, was the king of the Aṅgas (lomapāda iti khyāto aṅgānām īśvaro 'bhavat) 3. 110. 19; he, the king of the Aṅga country, called his ministers and consulted with them about the means to bring Ṛśyaśṛṅga to the Aṅga country; he asked the courtezans to get Ṛśyaśṛṅga from his āśrama to his country by some means (tato 'ṅgapatir āhūya sacivān…/yatnam akaron mantraṇiścaye...ṛśyaśṛṅgam…ānayadhvam viṣayaṁ mama śobhanāḥ//) 3. 110. 28, 31; the courtezans deluded Ṛśyaśṛṅga by various means and brought him to the ruler of the Aṅgas (pralobhayantyo vividhair upāyair ājagmur aṅgādhipateḥ samīpam) 3. 113. 8; enraged, Vibhāṇḍaka, father of Ṛśyaśṛṅga, started towards Campā to burn it along with the king and his (Aṅga) country (jagāma campāṁ pradidhakṣamāṇas tam aṅgarājaṁ viṣayaṁ ca tasya) 3. 113. 15; being honoured at various places on his way to Campā, Vibhāṇḍaka calmed down and, delighted, he approached the king of the Aṅgas in his town (samāsasādāṅgapatiṁ purastham) 3. 113. 18;

(2) Once, Vasuhoma was the king of the Aṅgas (aṅgeṣu rājā…vasuhoma iti śrutaḥ) 12. 122. 1;

(3) (Ruci, the wife of Devaśarman, once gathered flowers of heavenly fragrance that fell down near her āśrama 13. 40. 16; 13. 42. 7); just then she received an invitation from the Aṅga country where Prabhāvatī, the eldest sister of Ruci, was the wife of Citraratha, the king of the Aṅgas; Ruci put the heavenly flowers in her hair and went to the residence of the king of the Aṅgas; seeing those flowers Prabhāvatī, the wife of the chief of the Aṅgas, asked her sister for the flowers (tadā nimantrakas tasyā aṅgebhyaḥ kṣipram āgamat//tasyā hi bhaginī tāta jyeṣṭhā nāmnā prabhāvatī/ bhāryā citrarathasyātha babhūvāṅgeśvarasya vai//…āmantritā tato 'gacchad rucir aṅgapater gṛhān//puṣpāṇi tāni dṛṣṭvātha tadāṅgendravarāṅganā/bhaginīṁ codayām āsa puṣpārthe) 13. 42. 7-10;

(4) Once, the earth in rivalry with the king of the Aṅgas (not named) gave up her nature as earth and got lost; then the Brāhmaṇa Kaśyapa steadied her--this was told by Vāyu to Sahasrārjuna Kārtavīrya (tyaktvā mahītvaṁ bhūmis tu spardhayāṅganṛpasya ha/nāśaṁ jagāma tāṁ vipro vyaṣṭambhayata kaśyapaḥ//) 13. 138. 2.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Aṅga, Aṅgaka : m. (pl., also sg.), Aṅgaviṣaya m. (sg.): Name of a country and its people; often mentioned along with Vaṅga and Kaliṅga.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the Janapadas of the Bhāratavarṣa (aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāś ca) 6. 10. 44, 5, 37; mentioned among the eastern countries, holy places in which were visited by Arjuna (prācīm diśam abhiprepsur jagāma) 1. 207. 5; (aṅgavaṅgakaliṅgeṣu yāni puṇyāni kānicit/jagāma tāni sarvāṇi) 1. 207. 9; the army protected by the king of the Aṅga country (Karṇa) said to be of the easterners (tad aṅgapatinā guptaṁ…prācyānām abhavad balam) 6. 17. 28.


B. Capital town: The capital of the Aṅga country was Campā (jagāma campāṁ pradidhakṣamāṇas tam aṅgarājaṁ viṣayaṁ ca tasya) 3. 113. 15; also called Mālinī (mālinīṁ nagarīm…/ aṅgeṣu) 12. 5. 6.


C. Characteristics of the people: The people of the Aṅga and Kalinga country were mentioned by Karṇa among those peoples who knew eternal dharma (kosalāḥ kāśayo'ṅgāś ca kaliṅgā …/ dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 6061; according to Karṇa the old men of the Aṅgaka, Kaliṅgaka and some other countries lived according to the dharma taught to them (kāliṅgakāś cāṅgakā…śiṣṭān dharmān upajīvanti vṛddhāḥ) 8. 30. 75; (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 8. 45. 30; svayaṁ dharmasvarūpam ajānanto 'pi śiṣṭānugāmina ity arthaḥ); according to Śalya, however, people of the Aṅga country forsook the sick people and sold their wives and children (āturāṇām parityāgaḥ svadārasutavikrayaḥ/aṅgeṣu vartate karṇa) 8. 30. 83;


D. Aṅga warriors: Specially skilled in fighting while riding elephants (gajayodhinaḥ, gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 1-3; (śikṣitā hastisādinaḥ) 7. 68. 31; also cf. 8. 12. 59; (ācāryaputre…hastiśikṣāviśārade 8. 17. 15-18; 8. 49. 79.


E. Epic events:

(1) Child Karṇa, who was picked up by Adhiratha and Rādhā, grew up in the Aṅga country (sa jyeṣṭhaputraḥ sūtasya vavṛdhe'ṅgeṣu) 3. 293. 14;

(2) Duryodhana said that if Arjuna was unwilling to fight with one who was not a king, he would make Karṇa the king of the Aṅga country; immediately afterwards the ceremony of consecration of Karṇa as the ruler of the Aṅga country was duly performed by those who knew the mantras (yady ayaṁ phalguno yuddhe nārājñā yoddhum icchati/tasmād eṣo 'ṅgaviṣaye mayā rājye 'bhiṣicyate//…tatas tasmin kṣaṇe karṇaḥ…abhiṣikto 'ṅgarājye saḥ…//) 1. 126. 35-36; Karṇa whose head was moist due to water of consecration as a king of the Aṅga country was embraced by Adhiratha (pariṣvajya ca tasyātha mūrdhānam…aṅgarājyābhiṣekārdram) 1. 127. 4; when Bhīma said that Karṇa did not deserve to be a king of the Aṅgas, Duryodhana retorted that Karṇa deserved not only to be the king of the Aṅgas but of the whole earth (aṅgarājyaṁ ca nārhas tvam upabhoktum) 1. 127. 7; (pṛthivīrājyam arho 'yaṁ nāṅgarājyaṁ nareśvaraḥ) 1. 127 16; Karṇa is called the king of the Aṅgas in various contexts: (i) Śiśupāla calls Karṇa the chief of the Vaṅga and Aṅga countries (vaṅgāṅgaviṣayādhyakṣa) 2. 41. 9; (ii) Śalya refers to the rulership of Karṇa of the Aṅgas (aṅgeṣu…karṇa yeṣām adhipatir bhavān) 8. 30. 83;

(3) While recounting the exploits of Karṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra mentions Aṅgas (!) among the countries conquered by Karṇa and made to pay tribute (suhmān aṅgāṁś ca puṇḍrāṁś ca…yo jitvā samare vīraś cakre balibhṛtaḥ purā) 8. 5. 19-20;

(4) When Jayadratha was subdued by Karṇa in a wrestling bout, he (J.), pleased with Karṇa, gave him the city of Mālinī in the Aṅga country (prītyā dadau sa karṇāya mālinīm nagarīm atha/aṅgeṣu) 12. 5. 6;

(5) Arjuna, during the period of exile, visited all the holy places in the Aṅga, Vaṅga and Kaliṅga countries (aṅgavaṅgakaliṅgeṣu…jagāma tāni sarvāṇi tīrthāny āyatanāni ca) 1. 207. 9;

(6) Aṅga country mentioned among those which were conquered by Sahadeva before the Rājasūya (yaḥ kāśīn aṅgamagadhān…yudhājayat) 5. 49. 28 (however, according to 2. 27. 1618 it was Bhīma who subjugated Karṇa; in 2. 28 where Sahadeva's expedition is described there is no reference to the Aṅga country);

(7) The Kṣatriyas of the Aṅga and Vaṅga countries mentioned among those who brought riches by hundreds for the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira (aṅgā vaṅgāś ca puṇḍrāś ca…āhārṣuḥ kṣatriyā vittaṁ śataśaḥ) 2. 48. 15-16;

(8) Aṅgas and Vaṅgas mentioned among those people who along with their kings were present at the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira and served meals (yatra sarvān mahīpālān…savaṅgāṅgān…āgatān aham adrākṣaṁ yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 22;

(9) The army of the easterners protected by the ruler of the Aṅga country and by Kṛpa marched out for the battle (tad aṅgapatinā guptaṁ kṛpeṇa ca...prācyānām abhavad balam) 6. 17. 28;

(10) When Ayutāyus and Dīrghāyus, the sons of Śrutāyus and Acyutāyus, were killed by Arjuna, the Aṅga warriors, riding elephants, attacked Arjuna (aṅgās tu gajavāreṇa pāṇḍavaṁ paryavārayan/…hastisādinaḥ) 7. 68. 31;

(11) When Arjuna attacked the army of the Saṁśaptakas (8. 12. 54), the Aṅga warriors, riding elephants, along with Kaliṅga, Vaṅga, and Niṣāda warriors attacked him (kaliṅgavaṅgāṅganiṣādavīrā jighāṁsavaḥ pāṇḍavam abhyadhāvan) 8. 12. 59;

(12) The Aṅga warriors, along with Vaṅgas and others, riding elephants and skilled in fighting with elephants, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna (hastibhis tu mahāmātrāḥ…dhṛṣṭadyumnaṁ jighāṁsantaḥ kruddhāḥ pārṣatam abhyayuḥ//…gajayodhinaḥ/aṅgā vaṅgāś ca…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 1-3;

(13) Sahadeva, after killing the elephant of a Punḍra warrior, attacked the elephant of an Aṅga warrior; Nakula took on himself the fight with the Aṅga warrior and his elephant; the Aṅga warrior threw tomaras on Nakula; the warrior (here called mleccha and Ācāryaputra) fell down along with his elephant; at the death of this Aṅga warrior, other warriors from the Aṅga country with their elephants attacked Nakula (vivarmadhvajajīvitam/taṁ kṛtvā dviradaṁ bhūyaḥ sahadevo 'ṅgam abhyagāt//sahadevaṁ tu nakulo vārayitvāṅgam ārdayat/…aṅgaś cikṣepa tomarān/sa papāta hato mlecchas tenaiva saha dantinā//ācāryaputre nihate…aṅgāḥ kruddhā mahāmātrā nāgair nakulam abhyayuḥ) 8. 17. 13-18;

(14) Elephants from Kaliṅga, Vaṅga, Aṅga, Niṣāda and Magadha countries along with their warriors mentioned among those who were killed by Bhīma (kaliṅgavaṅgāṅganiṣādamāgadhān sadāmadān…nihanti yaḥ śatrugaṇān anekaśaḥ) 8. 49. 79;

(15) Dhṛtarāṣṭra while recounting Kṛṣṇa's exploits mentioned Aṅgas, Vaṅgas and Kaliṅgas among the countries which were conquered by him in battle (aṅgān vaṅgān kaliṅgāṁś ca …ajayad raṇe) 7. 10. 15 (this incident is not mentioned in the epic).


F. Past events:

(1) Lomapāda, a friend of Daśaratha, was the king of the Aṅgas (lomapāda iti khyāto aṅgānām īśvaro 'bhavat) 3. 110. 19; he, the king of the Aṅga country, called his ministers and consulted with them about the means to bring Ṛśyaśṛṅga to the Aṅga country; he asked the courtezans to get Ṛśyaśṛṅga from his āśrama to his country by some means (tato 'ṅgapatir āhūya sacivān…/yatnam akaron mantraṇiścaye...ṛśyaśṛṅgam…ānayadhvam viṣayaṁ mama śobhanāḥ//) 3. 110. 28, 31; the courtezans deluded Ṛśyaśṛṅga by various means and brought him to the ruler of the Aṅgas (pralobhayantyo vividhair upāyair ājagmur aṅgādhipateḥ samīpam) 3. 113. 8; enraged, Vibhāṇḍaka, father of Ṛśyaśṛṅga, started towards Campā to burn it along with the king and his (Aṅga) country (jagāma campāṁ pradidhakṣamāṇas tam aṅgarājaṁ viṣayaṁ ca tasya) 3. 113. 15; being honoured at various places on his way to Campā, Vibhāṇḍaka calmed down and, delighted, he approached the king of the Aṅgas in his town (samāsasādāṅgapatiṁ purastham) 3. 113. 18;

(2) Once, Vasuhoma was the king of the Aṅgas (aṅgeṣu rājā…vasuhoma iti śrutaḥ) 12. 122. 1;

(3) (Ruci, the wife of Devaśarman, once gathered flowers of heavenly fragrance that fell down near her āśrama 13. 40. 16; 13. 42. 7); just then she received an invitation from the Aṅga country where Prabhāvatī, the eldest sister of Ruci, was the wife of Citraratha, the king of the Aṅgas; Ruci put the heavenly flowers in her hair and went to the residence of the king of the Aṅgas; seeing those flowers Prabhāvatī, the wife of the chief of the Aṅgas, asked her sister for the flowers (tadā nimantrakas tasyā aṅgebhyaḥ kṣipram āgamat//tasyā hi bhaginī tāta jyeṣṭhā nāmnā prabhāvatī/ bhāryā citrarathasyātha babhūvāṅgeśvarasya vai//…āmantritā tato 'gacchad rucir aṅgapater gṛhān//puṣpāṇi tāni dṛṣṭvātha tadāṅgendravarāṅganā/bhaginīṁ codayām āsa puṣpārthe) 13. 42. 7-10;

(4) Once, the earth in rivalry with the king of the Aṅgas (not named) gave up her nature as earth and got lost; then the Brāhmaṇa Kaśyapa steadied her--this was told by Vāyu to Sahasrārjuna Kārtavīrya (tyaktvā mahītvaṁ bhūmis tu spardhayāṅganṛpasya ha/nāśaṁ jagāma tāṁ vipro vyaṣṭambhayata kaśyapaḥ//) 13. 138. 2.


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*4th word in left half of page p605_mci (+offset) in original book.

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