सामग्री पर जाएँ

आयुर्वेदीयः संस्कृतशब्दकोशः

विकिशब्दकोशः तः

अभंग (abhang) devotional bhajans sung by saints of Maharashtra . (in Marathi.)

अभ्यंग (abhyanga) : abhyaïga Ayurvedic massage; specifically, the application of herbal oils tothe body and its subsequent absorption into the body.

अभ्यन्तर कृमि' (abhyantara krimi) : Internal parasites, germs.

अभ्यन्तर स्नेह (abhyantara sneha) : Internal oleation.

abhysyandis Herbs which block the channel of rasavaha srota, causing congestion.

अद्वैत वेदान्त' (Advaita Vedänta): One of the three systems of thought in Vedanta philosophy popularized by Shankara. It teaches that the manifest creation,the soul, and God are identical and not different. This non-dualist form argues that we are the whole and that parts are simply illusion.

अग्नि (agni) : Fire, energy; the force residing within the body that creates digestion;responsible for the transformation of one substance into another; metabolism. Agni is contained within pitta.

अग्निदोष (agnidosha) : insufficient agni

अग्निसदन (agnisadana) : Herbs which reduce appetite.

अहं ब्रह्मास्मि (aham brahmaasmi) : I am Brahma (in Vedanta philosophy)

अहंकार (ahamkaara) : Sense of self or separateness; loosely translated as ego, arrogance

आहार रस' (ahara rasa) : The elemental form, or essence, of food (the quality of the food as opposed to the food itself).

'आज्ञा (aagnyaa) : Command, order

आज्ञा चक्र' (ajna chakra) : The sixth chakra, located in the region commonly called the"phaalam" where the third eye of Lord Shiva is, between the eyebrows. The "command station" of the body and mind. Contains the qualities of subtle ether.

आकाश (aakaasha) : Sky, Ether; the idea of connectedness or space; the space that exists between all things.

आकृति (aakruti) : The volume and tension of the pulseaksepaka Convulsions.

आलोचक पित्त (aalochaka pitta) : Subdosha of pitta. Digests light/visual impressions. On higher level, related to perception. Resides in eyes (pupils).

आम' ( äma ) : Toxic residue that is left behind as a by-product of poor digestion.

आम वात ( äma väta ) : Rheumatoid arthritis (vata carrying ama into the joints).

आमदोष (aamadoSha) : The vitiation of poorly digested food.

आमाशय' (ämäshaya) : Stomach

अमवातघन (amavataghana) Anti-rheumatic herbs.

amavatham Anti-rheumatic herbs.

अंबू (ambu) Water

अंबुवः स्रोता (ambuvaha srota) The channel that carries water; also called the udakavaha srota; the water metabolism system of the body, consisting of all the metabolic functions that regulate retention and elimination (those functions residing outside of the urinary system including the production of ADH by the pituitary gland, insulin by the pancreas, and the desire for water contained within the palate); it originates in the kloman (pancreas) and the palate.

अम्लamla Sour

अमृत (Sacred nectar); the highest form of ojas; the source of immortality and eternal bliss. Also called soma.

अनाद (anada) änada bliss, absolute joy

anagni sveda Non-direct fire fomentation; therapeutic actions that do not require a formal source of heat, including exercise, wearing heavy clothing, wrapping a patient in blankets, exposure to the sun, and fasting.

anahagna Laxative

anahata chakra anähata chakra The fourth chakra, located at the center of the chest. Contains the qualities of the air element.

ananda änanda Bliss

anandagni änandagni The agni that metabolizes ether, which in this context is pure joy. Faulty metabolism causes diseases that are spiritual in nature such as unhappiness, dissatisfaction and a feeling of separation from God.

anandamaya kosha änandamaya kosha The bliss sheath; it makes up the majority of the causal body; contains the anandagni, which is responsible for metabolizing ether.

ananta An atypical migraine headache (atypical due to the pattern of pain). Ananta is the name of the serpent upon which Lord Vishnu rests; in pictures of the great God, the serpent rises up from the back of Lord Vishnu's head; so does a headache of this type.


anga Root meaning "limb, portion", as in Ashtänga Yoga

angamarda-prashamana Anti-rheumatic, analgesic herbs.

anna Food

annagni The agni which metabolizes food. The annagni consists of the jathagni, the dhätu agnis and the bhüta agnis and is responsible for metabolizing the earth element and converting it into the building blocks of the body. Faulty metabolism causes physical disease.

annakitta The remains of food in the large intestine.

annamaya kosha The food sheath or food body; our physical body which is built from the food we eat. The dominant element within its structure is the earth element. Contains the annagni which is responsible for metabolizing the earth element.

annapurna annapürnä " One who gives nourishment", The Goddess of Food.

annavaha srota The channel that carries food; originates in the stomach; the first half of the digestive channel (from the mouth to the end of the small intestine).

antaragni Internal fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called jatharagni (digestive fire) and antaragni (internal fire).

antarayama See dhanusthambha.

antarmukhi yoni vyapat Severe vaginal pain that is supposedly due to engaging in sex after a heavy meal and/or unusual sexual position.

anubandha That which transmigrates from one body to the next (the subtlest aspect of who we are; our soul).

anuloma Mild laxative, carminative.

anulomana-vilomana Alternate nostril breathing.

anupana The medium used to carry herbs into the body. Examples include water, milk, honey, alcohol, ghee, and sesame oil.

anupasaya See upasaya.

anupasaya Discomfort; also called asatmya.

anuvasana basti Tonifying basti.

apana vayu apäna väyu Subdosha of väta. Downward and outward moving air. Responsible for elimination of waste. Resides in the colon.

apara ojas One of the two types of ojas (the other being para ojas). Dwells in the vessels next to the heart, and when diminished, affects the immune system, resulting in illness.


apas äpas Water; the idea of flow and liquidity.

apasmara Epilepsy.

apatanaka See dhanusthambha.

apatantraka See dhanusthambha.

ardhavabhedaka Pain in half the head.

ardita Hemifacial paralysis or facial palsy, a condition caused by injury to cranial nerve VII. It has the appearance of a stroke and may be caused by gross trauma such as a head injury or minor trauma such as sleeping on an uncomfortrable pillow. Also called ekayama. The term can also mean tetanus.

arishta äriñhöha Medicated wine made with a decoction.

arka Water extract prepared from distillation.

arocaka nidana arocaka nidana Diagnosis of anorexia (loss of appetite)

artava ärtava Egg

artavaha srota ärtavaha srota The channel that carries menstrual fluid and ovum; consists of the fallopian tubes, uterus and vaginal canal; originates in the ovaries and uterus (the female reproductive system).

artavajanana ärtavajanana Herbs which promote ovulation/menses.

artha Prosperity

aruci anorexia

asana äsana Posture, the third limb of Yoga. Refers to yoga postures.

asara Non-useful components of metabolism.

Asatmya Discomfort; also called anupasaya.

asava äsava Medicated wine made with freshly pressed herbal juice. A popular example is Kumari Asava, which is useful for reproductive and digestive complaints and liver tonification.

ashaya äshaya Vessel

ashöa The number eight (8). Example: Ashöänga Yoga (the eight limbs of yoga).

Ashtanga Hridayam Ashtänga Hridayam (Añöäïga Hådayam) One of the three most important books in Classical Äyurveda (the other two are the Caraka Samhita and the Sushruta Samhita). Written by Vagbhat in the 7th century AD, Vagbhat may be the same author who wrote Ashtanga Samgraha (although this is uncertain; there may be two Vagbhats).


Ashtanga Samgraha Ashtänga Samgraha One of the three supplemental (or "lesser") classical Äyurveda books (the other two are the Madhava Nidanam and the Sarangadhara Saàhitä). Written by Vagbhat in the 7th century AD, this may be the same author who wrote Ashtanga Hridayam (although this is uncertain; there may be two Vagbats).

Ashtanga Yoga Ashtänga Yoga (Añöäìga Yoga) "Eight limbed yoga", The term refers spcifically to Räja - Yoga which contains eight limbs or steps. See Räja Yoga.

ashtapana Corrective enema.

ashya ashöa Prefix meaning eight; e.g. ashtänga means eight limbed

asmari äçmaré Urinary stones.

asmari bheda Lithotrope.

asthi Bone

asthi agni A dhätu agni; helps build asthi (bone); the health of this agni determines the health of asthi. Resides in the purisha dhara

kalä, the membrane that precedes asthi.

asthi dhatu asthi dhätu One of the seven "dhätus" or tissues; consists of bones, nails, teeth, hair. Composed of air and earth; provides framework. Psychological function is to "stand tall", attain stature.

asthi saushiryam Osteoporosis

asthila Prostrate gland; also called paurusha granthi.

asthivaha srota The channel that carries posaka medas or unstable medas prior to becoming asthi dhätu; originates in the fatty tissues of the hips and buttocks; carrier of väta (bone porosity) and kapha (bone element) doshas.

atanka That which makes life miserable.

aticarana yoni vyapat Swelling and pain in the vagina caused by excess intercourse (physical irritation).

atisara atésära Diarrhea

atma vichara The process of dispelling of illusion

atman ätman In Sänkhya philosophy, the aspect of god that resides within each of us; our spirit or soul.

atulygotriya Embrology.

atyagni High agni; when the strength of the digestive fire is too high. Also called tikshnagni.

atyagni Hyperactive agni.

audbhida Salt from the earth


aum see Om

avabahu Paralysis.

avagha sveda A treatment in which a person reclines in a bathtub filled with hot water and herbal decoctions. Oils may be added as well.

avalambaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Protects lungs and respiratory tissues. Related to attachment and holding on to things and to weight gain. Located in chest (heart and lungs).

avaleha Sweet candy, jam or jelly.

avila ävila Cloudy

Ayurveda Äyurveda Knowledge of life; ayus (life) and veda (knowledge).


baddhodara Intestinal obstruction.

bahaya krimi External parasites.

bahirayama See dhanusthambha.

bala The strength or force of the pulse.

balya Herbs which increase strength and are tonifying.

basti Basti literally means bladder, and in Äyurveda the term is used to mean enema (a bladder was traditionally used as the device that holds the liquid used in enemas). Enemas fall in two categories, either purifying (niruha basti) or tonifying (anuvasana basti).

basti shodan Herbs which cleanse the bladder.

bayha snehana External oleation

bhagat Native healer.

bhasma An oxide prepared by purifying a substance, usually a metal, then cooking it until it becomes an ash. These are more expensive and powerful than herbs. Most are not allowed in the USA. Not considered a traditional part of Ayurvedic medicine.

bhayaja Fear

bhedana Mild purgative, laxative.

bhedaniya Mild purgative, laxative.

bhrajaka pitta bhräjaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Digests touch, temperature, pressure, pain. Resides in skin.

bhritya The term for a parent, child caretaker or guide.

bhuta bhüta element, "that which manifests as matter"


bhuta agnis bhüta agnis The elemental agnis; there are five, one for each element (akashagni, vayagni, tejagni, jalagni, and prithviagni).

bhutonmada Possession by evil spirits.

bija mantra béja mantra A seed mantra; the essence of all other mantras. Thus, of all mantras, they have the most power. The ancient people of India described chakras as having the shape of a lotus flower. At the center of the lotus is a primary energy that is symbolized by a letter in the Sanskrit alphabet. Chanted, this is called a bija mantra. Chanting a bija mantra increases the rotation of the chakra or the frequency of präna moving through the chakra and enhances and heightens its functions.

bodhaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Moistens mouth; saliva. Protects mouth from heat of food and roughness of food and chewing. Responsible for aesthetic taste. Located in mouth.

brahaman The combination of unmanifested pure potential and pure consciousness that exists prior to creation

brahmacharya brahmacharya Sexual restraint

brihat panchamula The five great roots; part of the dashmool formula used for niruha basti.

Brihat Treya The three most important books in Classical Äyurveda. Consists of the Caraka Saàhitä, Sushruta Saàhitä, and the Ashtanga Hridayam.

brimhana Make heavy; increases fat and muscle tone; tonifying pancha karma treatment.

brimhana chikitsä Tonification therapy, the purpose of which is to increase the internal strength of the patient.

buddhi Intellect

buddhi smruti prada Herbs which benefit the intellect and memory.


Caraka Samhita Caraka Saàhitä Considered the greatest of all the classical texts on Äyurveda. Written by Caraka, it contains the teachings of the sage Agnivesa, who was one of the six students of the great sage Atreya. It is Agnivesa's teachings which makes up the bulk of what is known about classical Äyurveda. Caraka was himself a great physician.


catur The number four (4). Example: caturtha ("fourth"; in Vedanta, a technical term referring to the transcendental Self beyond the three states of waking, dreaming and sleep).

chakra Part of the subtle nervous system (the nädis are another part). There are seven charkas, and these chakras serve as an energetic template of the nerve plexuses that function in the physical body. Chakras have the potential to generate two qualities of energy; ordinary subtle energy and a heightened subtle energy.

chakradhara An oil treatment in which oil is poured over the chakras.

chakshushva Herbs that benefit the eyes, promote vision.

chaksu Eyes.

chala Mobile

chardi Herbs that induce vomiting.

chardi-nigrahana Anti-emetic herbs (reduce vomiting)

chedana Herbs that scrape away ama; also an expectorant.

chidrodara A condition of perforation of the intestine resulting in abdominal swelling. Usually caused by the intake of sharp objects, wood, sand, bone or nails. Also called ksatodara.

chikitsa chikitsä Treatment

chinamsuka Piamater (The delicate and highly vascular membrane immediately investing the brain and spinal cord).

chinna Cheyne stokes respiration which occurs in terminal states of illness; a type of breathing that occurs near death. chit Consciousness absolute; the ocean within which we all are connected.

churna (choorna) chürëa (cürëa) Powdered herb; usually a powdered formula of herbs

cikitsa cikitsä see chikitsä

citta Consciousness

çüla Colic pain


daha-prashamana Herbs that are refrigerants; cooling to the body.

dahashamaka Herbs which alleviate burning sensations.

dakodara See udakodara.


dandaka A condition in which there is gross stiffness of the body; vata and kapha invade all channels and tissues of the body; considered incurable.

darshana Philosophy; observation; looking for signs and symptoms of disease by observation

dasha The number ten (10). Example: dashmula (the ten roots formula).

dasha- daña- prefix meaning 10, e.g. the herbal compound dañamüla (dashamula) "ten roots"

dauhrda The heart-to-heart connection between a mother and her embryo whereby the embryo is able to communicate its desires to the mother through the channels which carry nutrients; in this way the heart of the mother and the heart of the fetus are connected. Also called a Bi-cardiac state.

deha-samshodanas Herbs that induce vomiting.

desa Habitat

dhamini Artery

dhamini See nadi.

dhamini Arteries.

dhammillaka Cerebellum.

dhanustambha Tetanus. Another term sometimes used for tetanus is ardita.

dhanusthambha Sometimes means tetanus, sometimes refers to a type of convulsion. Also called apatantraka or apatanaka. There are two kinds; antarayama, where the body bends forward and bahirayama, where the body bends backward.

dhara dhärä To pour or flow

dharana dhäraëä concentration, the sixth limb of Yoga. The mental contemplation and retention of information into memory.

dhari That aspect of life that keeps the body from decaying

dharma God-given purpose

dhatu dhätu Tissue

dhatu agni dhätu agni Tissue agnis; there are seven, one for each of the major tissues of the body.

dhatu srotas dhätu srotas Channels through which the dhätus move as they are being formed; there are seven in all, and each leads to a kalä (membrane).

dhuma dhüma smoke inhalation therapy

dhyana dhyäna Meditation, the seventh limb of Yoga. Endurance


dinacharya Rejuvenation of the mind; daily practices.

dipana (deepana) dépana Digestive stimulant, the action of kindling agni

dosha doñha Three main forces which govern the body (väta, pitta and kapha); literally means faulty or to cause harm, although they only do so when they are functioning abnormally. When functioning normally, they maintain the good health of the body and guide all of the normal bodily functions

draksha drakñha Medicated wine; a fermented decoction or infusion.

drava Liquid

dravya Substance; matter

dravya guna The qualities of a substance. The term is used synonymously with pharmacology, although the principles of dravya guna are the foundation for all sensory treatments, the basic knowledge necessary for treating all imbalances in the body.

dravyagunashastra The branch of knowledge that deals with the dravyas (drugs as well as diet) that help in the maintenance of health and alleviation of diseases in the purush (human body), which is a concomitance of panchamahabhootas and atma (the soul or the consciousness). It also deals with the properties, actions, dose, time of administration and various preparations of these dravyas. Food items, like drugs, are also considered in these dravyas.

dugdha dhara Milk as the base (instead of oil) in shirodhara.

durgandhyanashana Deodorant.

dvi The number two (2). Example: dvipada sirasana (two feet to head yoga pose).


eka Prefix one, the singular reality or transcendental Self beyond the multiplicity experienced by the unenlightened ego-bound individual. The number one (1). Example: ekamüla (one root theory).

ekamula ekamüla Literally means "one root". A herbal therapy technique where only one herb is given to the client ("putting all your eggs in one basket"). Haritaki(Terminalia chebula) and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) are often canditates for this technique.

ekayama See ardita.


ela elä Cardamom


flatus Excessive accumulation of gas in the intestines.


galaugha Pharyngitis, laryngitis.

gandha Smell; odor

gandusha The practice of gargling with medicated oil to strengthen the gums and voice.

garbhada Herbs which increase fertility.

garbharoga Diseases of the uterus.

garbhashayya sankochaka Herbs which stimulate labor.

gati The movement of the pulse; a description of its movement based on comparing it to the movements of different animals.

ghana Pill; powder of a dried liquid.

ghee The clarified oil of butter. It is sattvic and has the unique prabhava of raising agni without aggravating pitta. It's easy to digest, benefits all three doshas, and carries into the body whatever it is mixed with.

ghrita A perparation of ghee (clarified butter) in which herbs are infused or boiled into the ghee.

grahani 1. Small intestine disease. 2. Ulcers.

grahi Anti-diarrhea, binds stool.

grishma gréshma The summer season

guhyaroga Diseases of the female reproductive system.

gulma Tumor, lump or diverticulosis.

gulma Abdominal tumor

guna Quality or properties.

gunas Three basic qualities of nature; tamas, rajas, sattva.

guru Teacher; one who removes the darkness of ignorance; one through whom one finds a channel to God; heavy.

guti (gutika) guöi Tablet or pill.


hådaya Mind

halimaka Hepatitis C or malignant jaundice

hamsa gati The quality of the pulse is likened to the movement of a swan; the primary description of a kapha pulse.


hara (suffix) Reduces as in väta hara, pitta hara, and kapha hara.

haram Pacifies

haridra haridrä Turmeric

haridra meha A type of prameha in which the urine is pungent and yelloworange.

hasta Upper extremity.

hasti meha Vata-type diabetes insipidus; a type of prameha in which the urine is passed continuously, without force, and is mixed with lasika (lymph).

hemanta The winter season

hidhma or hikka hidhmä or hikkä Hiccups

hikkanigrahaka Reduces hiccups.

hima Cold infusion (aka shita kashaya).

hrdroga hådroga Heart disease.

hrdya hrdayam Heart.

hrid roga Heart disease.

hridaya Herbs which aid the heart.

hridaya dhara kala hridaya dhärä kalä The pericardium and endocardium (the membrane which surrounds the heart).


ida nadi éda nädi The nädi that runs from the base of the spine (the muladhara chakra) to the left nostril . It is also called the "lunar nädi", as it is associated with the water element. Its energy is cool, and increased movement within it increases the "watery" emotions such as love, attachment, and deep feeling.

ikshü Sugar cane

iksu meha Type 2 diabetes; the urine is very sweet like sugar, typical of kapha-type diabetes mellitus.

Indra An ancient Vedic deity; cosmic prana


jala neti See neti

jalodara See udakodara.

jatghni yoni vyapat This is a condition where each baby a woman tries to bear dies at birth or shortly thereafter.

jatharagni jätharagni The digestive fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called kayagni (bodily fire) and antaragni (internal fire).


jatismara Sattvic individuals who can recollect the events of past lives.

jentaka sveda A special hut, built according to specific instructions, with a clay oven inside in which special herbs are burned. A well-oiled patient lies down on a bench in the hut for 20 minutes.

jihva Tongue.

jiva jéva Individual consciousness; sould; a reflection of the Divine.

jivaniya Restorative, vitalizer.

jivanmukta jévanmukta Liberated soul

jivatman jévätman The lower aspect of the soul, connected to the physical plane, according to Mémämsa philosophy.

jivita That which keeps us alive

jnana jïäna Knowledge or wisdom.

jnanendriya jïänendriya In Sänkhya philosophy, the five sense faculties (hearing, touch, vision, taste, smell).

jvara That which torments.

jwara Fever

jwaraghna Reduces fever.

jwarahara Reduces fever.

jyotish Vedic astrology.


kala kalä 1) Membrane 2) Time 3) Black

kala meha käla meha A type of prameha in which the urine is like black ink.

kalashanja Chorea; other terms include ardita and tandava.

kalka Herbal paste.

kalpa World cycle, world age

kama käma Pleasure (as a goal, it means the pursuit of pleasure and ecstasy, the primary goal of the senses).

kamala kämala Jaundice or hepatitis A.

kampa vata kampa väta Parkinson's disease; also called vepathu.

kampana Tremors.

kampavata Tremors due to vata; often the term used for Parkinson's disease.

kanda Prolapsed uterus.

kandughna Anti-pruritic.

kanthya Demulcent, aids the throat.


kapalabhati A fairly aggressive form of pränayama involving forcibly expelling air from the lungs as the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract.

kapha The force behind the structure and stability of the body; the elements are water and earth; its qualities are heavy, cold, moist, static, smooth and soft; its root is in the upper stomach. Also a term for mucous.

kaphaja krimi Parasites in the digestive tract. Also called purishaja krimi.

karaìa Method of processing; one of the eight factors determining the utility of food.

karam Aggravates karma 1) The force that binds the soul to the cycle of life and death. 2) The action of a substance.

karmendriya In Sänkhya philosophy, the five faculties of action (speech, grasping, walking, procreation, elimination).

karna purana The practice of placing oil drops in the ear.

karnini yoni vyapat Decreased or absent menses.

karsana Cleansing

kasa käsa Cough

kasa roga käsa roga Bronchitis

kasahara Reduces cough.

kasa-svasahara Expectorant, aids breathing and cough.

kashaya (kashayam) kashäya Astringent taste or decoction.

kathina Hard

kathinya käthinya The consistency of the blood vessel wall.

katti basti The application of an oil pool to the back.

katu Pungent taste.

kayagni Bodily fire; the digestive fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called jatharagni (digestive fire) and antaragni (internal fire).

keshya Promotes healthy hair.

kha khä Space

khara khära Rough

khavaigunya khävaigunya A weak or defective space within a tissue or organ where a pathological condition is likely to begin; a potential site of relocation.

khya To realize.


kitchari, kitcheree kicharé A meal of basmati rice cooked with split yellow mung dal ( 3 : 1

0.25 water:rice:dal). Part of samsarjana karma.

kledaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Protects lining of stomach against acids. Located in stomach.

klesha The five affliction of humanity (ignorance, egoism, attachment, hatred, clinging to life), according to Vedanta philosophy.

kloman (kloma) Pancreas

komar bhritya Pedriatic Ayurveda; that part of Ayurveda which deals with child rearing, childhood illness and their treatment.

komar, kumar A title by which a child is addressed.

kopana (suffix) Increases, as in väta kopana, pitta kopana, and kapha kopana.

kosha koça Sheath or layer; energetic fields of vibration that correspond to the five elements in their subtle form which are physical manifestations of creation. There are 5 koshas, and each is a layer of our existence; they are annamaya kosha, pränamaya

kosha, manomaya kosha, vijnanamaya kosha, and anandamaya kosha. There are two additional layers, "Sat" and "Chit" which are not physical.

krimi kåmi Parasites

krimighna Anthelmintic, antiparasitic.

krimija-siratapa A type of headache which is due to a parasitic infection which arises due to an overindulgence in unhealthy foods and improper food combining.

ksara meha A type of prameha in which the urine is like alkali (strongly basic and caustic such that there is burning).

ksataja Cough due to chest injury.

ksatodara See chidrodara.

ksaya Consumption; tissue depletion; to diminish; wasting of the body associated with tuberculosis.

kshara Alkali, alkaline extract.

kshaya Decreased dosha.

kshira Plant exudate or resin.

ksudra Heavy breathing.


kumbhi sveda A treatment in which a bowl is placed in the ground and filled with a decoction of herbs. The herbs are heated with hot iron balls. A patient sits on a chair or lies in a bed over the bowl. There are openings in the bed or chair to allow heat to penetrate into the body.

kundalini energy kundaliné energy An energetic template of physical sexual energy. At its heightened level, though, it is not sexual but is the force that activates the chakras and causes them to function on a higher level, thereby altering perception and experience. Kundalini moves through the central nädi called the sushumna nädi, upon which the charkas are often stated to be "strung like lotuses".

kushtagna Herb which eliminates skin disease.

kwatha (kwath) kwätha Decoction (made by boiling the hard parts of herbs).


laghu Light

laghu panchamula laghu païchamüla The five lesser roots; part of the dashmool formula used for niruha basti.

laghu treya The three supplemental (or "lesser") Classical Äyurveda books, consisting of the Ashtanga Samgraha, Madhava Nidanam and the Sarangadhara Saàhitä.

lagnu (lagu) Light


lala meha A type of prameha in which there is slimy urine with threads like saliva.

langhana Make light; reduces bulk; purifying pancha karma treatment.

langhana chikitsa laìghana chikitsä Reduction therapy, the purpose of which is to either decrease the quantity of a dhätu or purify a dhätu.

lavaìa Salt

lavana Salty.

lekhana Herbs which reduce fatty tissue and support weight loss.

lepa Body paste; used for strains, sprains and arthritis.

lingum Penis; also called medra.

lohama Iron, as used in a bhasma made of iron.

lohitaksya A condition resulting in ammenorrhea accompanied by burning and emaciation.



madakaraka Herbs which create sleep.

madakari Narcotic herbs.

madhava nidanam One of the three supplemental (or "lesser") classical books on

Äyurveda (the other two are the Ashtanga Samgraha and the Sarangadhara Saàhitä). Written by Madhavakara, it is considered the major text on pathology and the diagnosis of disease.

madhu Honey

madhu (madhura or mathura) Sweet taste.

madhu meha Vata-type diabetes mellitus (type 1); a type of prameha in which urine resembles honey and is sweet.

madhumeha Diabetes insipidus; juvenile diabetes; glycosuria.

maha- mahä- great

Mahad Intelligence; the cosmic aspect of the intellect which also contains the individual intellect (Buddhi, ego).

mahan mahän "The great dyspnea" (difficulaty breathing); also occurs in terminal illness.

mahasneha A medicated oil consisting of the four fats ghee, sesame oil, muscle fat and bone marrow.

mahat All the cosmic laws that make up the intelligence of the universe according to Sänkhya philosophy.

mahavaha srota mahävaha srota The Great Channel, consisting of the annavaha srota and the purishavaha srota (the entirety of the digestive channel from mouth to anus).

mahayoni vyapat Similar to vatiki yoni vyapat, this is a type of vaginal pain specifically described to be due to a prolapse of the uterus and vaginal muscles.

majja agni majjä agni A dhätu agni; helps build majjä; the health of this agni determines the health of majjä. Resides in the majjä dhara kalä, the membrane that precedes majjä.

majja dhara kala majjä dhärä kalä The membrane that holds bone marrow and the majjä agni.


majja dhatu majjä dhätu One of the seven "dhätus" or tissues; consists of the nervous system and anything that fills an empty space within the body, such as the brain, spinal cord, bone marrow. Also includes the sclera of the eyes. Composed of water and earth. Psychological function is fullness, completeness, peacefulness, calm, anxiety, depression, grief.

majja meha A type of prameha in which the urine is mixed with marrow.

majjavaha srota majjävaha srota The channel that carries posaka asthi or unstable asthi prior to becoming majjä dhätu; originates in the bones and joints of the body and supplies the nerves and bone marrow; primary carrier of väta dosha.

mala Waste

mala stambhana Herbs that stop the flow of waste (urine, feces, blood).

mamsa mämsa Muscle

mamsa dhara kala mämsa dhärä kalä The membrane that holds mämsa (muscle) and the mämsagni.

mämsa dhätu mämsa dhätu One of the seven "dhätus" or tissues; consists of muscles, ligaments and skin. Composed mainly of earth and some water and fire. Psychologically, provides courage, fortitude, selfconfidence.

mamsa sarpi Medicated meat soup.

mämsagni mämsagni A dhätu agni; helps build mämsa; the health of this agni determines the health of mämsa. Resides in the mämsa dhara kalä, the membrane that precedes mämsa.

mämsavaha srota mämsavaha srota The channel that carries posaka rakta or the unstable rakta prior to becoming mämsa dhätu; according to Caraka Saàhitä it originates in the ligaments and skin (the upadhätu of mämsa dhätu); according to Sushruta Saàhitä it originates in the nerves, serum and capillaries; a carrier of kapha dosha.

managni The agni which is responsible for the metabolism of fire, which in this context takes the form of sensory impressions; it is constantly metabolizing the energies coming from our environment into our bodies and our mind. Faulty metabolism causes mental disease.


manas The limited mind projected by ahamkara. Faculty of cognition and action.

manasika Conditions which originate in the mind. manda 1)slow, dull 2) A meal of drinking only the lukewarm water in which white basmati rice is boiled ( 16:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma.

mandagni Low agni; when the strength of the digestive fire is too low.

manduka gati mandüka gati The feel of the pulse is likened to the movement of a frog; the primary description of the pitta pulse. manipura chakra manipüra chakra The third chakra, located in the region of the solar plexus just above the umbilicus. Its related tissues are the liver, spleen, pancreas and small intestine. Contains the qualities of the fire element.

manjista meha A type of prameha in which the urine smells foul and is slightly red like manjista.

manobuddhivaha srota Channel of understanding.

manomaya kosha The mind sheath; the primary astral body. It contains the managni, which is responsible for metabolizing fire.

manovaha srota The channel that carries thought; refers to the entire mind, so it is the carrier of feelings and emotions as well. Has no physical location; resides within the mind, yet it is subtler. It is the channel through which the body is created; it can be seen as the channel that exists between the physical body and the astral body and through which astral impressions move. According to Caraka Saàhitä, these are the channels that connect the mind to the senses, which has led some authors to include the brain as a part of manovaha srota.

mantha A mixture of flour, sugar, and ghee.

mantra (mantram) A sacred syllable or sequence of syllables (sometimes a name, a word, or a phrase) that is used in meditation, often assigned by one's guru, and believed to tune one into the Divine. One of the most well known is the sacred sound Om (or Aum).

marica Black pepper


marma Points on the body where veins, arteries, tendon bone and flesh meet. Also it can be where väta, pitta, kapha, sattva, rajas and tamas meets. There are 108 marma points in our body. These points can be used to heal or to harm. They are strong energy centers and are somewhat similar to acupuncture points. Massaging these points helps to remove energy and toxic blocks from the body, also improving the function of internal organs.

mastiska, matulungua Brain and cerebrum.

mastulunga avarnana

kala Meninges.

medagni A dhätu agni; helps build medas (fat); the health of this agni determines the health of medas. Resides in the medo dhara kalä, the membrane that precedes medas.

medas Fat; the fatty tissues of the body.

medas dhatu medas dhätu One of the seven "dhätus" or tissues; consists of fat (composed primarily of water). Lubricates tissues of body through oiliness. Psychological function is the ability to love and receive love.

medhya Herbs which promote intellect.

medhya rasayana Herbs which are rejuvenatives for the mind.

medo dhara kala medo dhärä kalä The membrane that holds fat and the medagni.

medohara Reduces blood lipids.

medovaha srota The channel that carries posaka mämsa or unstable mämsa prior to becoming medas dhätu; originates in the kidneys and adipose tissues of the body; carier of kapha dosha.

medra Penis; also called lingum.

Mimamsa Mémämsa One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Jaimini. It can be seen as the ritualistic path of Vedic knowledge.

moksha Liberation of the soul from the cycle of life and death; the goal of our higher nature.

mridu Soft.

mrudu Soft

mudhagarbham Malposition of the baby in utero.

mudra mudrä A gesture or arrangement of the fingers used in meditation for communication between body, mind and consciousness.


mukka paka Ulcer

mula müla Root

muladhara chakra mülädhära chakra The first, or root, chakra. Located at the base of the spine, it creates the foundation for a person's psycho-spiritual development. Contains the qualities of the earth element.

mutra mütra Urine.

mutra jathara The habitual holding of urine which causes vata to move upwards causing severe pain and distention.

mutraghäta müträghäta Urinary retention syndromes.

mutragranthi mütragranthi A tumor occurring inside the bladder which produces symptoms similar to a urinary stone.

mutra-jnana mütra-jnana Herbs which increase urine formation.

mutrakåcchra mütrakåcchra Dysuria or painful urinination.

mutrakrichra mütrakrichra Dysuria, difficulty passing urine.

mutraksaya Diminished urine in the aged, debilitated, and dehydrated.

mutrala mütrala Diuretic.

mutrasada Thick, non-unctuous (non-sticky) urine.

mutra-samgrahaniya mütrasamgrahaniya

Urinary astringent; reduces urination.

mutrashaya müträshaya The urinary bladder.

mutrashukra The mixing of urine and semen in those who engage in sexual intercourse whle having the urge to urinate.

mutratita Mild pain in the bladder due to the holding of urine.

mutratsanga Residual urine left in the bladder, urethra, or penis causing the penis to feel heavy.

mutravaha srota mütravaha srota The channel that carries urine; consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra; according to the Sushruta Saàhitä, it originates in the bladder and penis, although it is commonly understood to originate in the bladder and urethra; carries water (kapha) out of the body.

mutra-virechaniva mütra-virechaniva Strong diuretic, urinary purgative.

mutra-vishodana mütra-vishodana Urinary antiseptic.



nadi nädi Part of the subtle nervous sytem (charkas are another part).

nädis are subtle nerve channels; an energetic template of the nerves through which präna (subtle energies) flow. These channels permeate the entire subtle body. The mind is the sum total of all the nädis. Classical yogic texts state that there are 72,000 nädis. Nadi bears different meanings in different texts; it is commonly translated to mean nerve, but can also mean subtle channels or channels in general. Other terms used synomously with nadi include dhamini, sira and srota.

nadi dhatu Some texts refer to the brain, spinal cord and nerves as a separate dhatu.

nadi pariksha nädi pariksha Pulse diagnosis.

nadi svedana nädi svedana A special type of steam therapy in which steam is applied through a hose connected to a pressure cooker while the patient is either lying on a massage table or sitting in an upright positon.

nadi vijnanam nädi vijïänam The reading of the pulse; used to detect existing or potential states of health and disease in a person's body, mind or spirit.

nasa Nose.

nashta rakta Amenorrhea (lack of bleeding)

nasya Nasal drops; clears nasal passages and sinuses. Alleviates all the doshas from the neck up, maximizes absorption of präna, treats diseases of the head, sinuses and nasal passages.

nava The number nine (9). Example: nava karna dravya (the nine causative factors of the universe in the Vasisheshika school of philosophy).

néla néla Blue

neti Cleansing of the nose with warm salty water using a special neti pot.

netra basti The application of an oil pool over the eyes.

netrahita Herbs which aid the eyes.

nidana Cause; similar to Western term etiology; understanding the causitive factors of a condition.

nidanam Diagnosis

nidrajnana Hypnotic


nidrakara Herbal sedatives; brings on sleep.

nila meha A type of prameha in which the urine is blue.

nirama Without ama

niruha basti Purifying basti.

nirvana nirväna State of pure existence; no-mind state

nisarika Arachnoid membrane.

niyama Observances, the second limb of Yoga

Nyaya Nyäya One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Gautama. It means arugment or analyiss. It outlines four methods of arriving at the truth (pramänas) which are direct perception, inference, analogy and testimony.


odona A meal of plain basmati rice ( 2:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma.

ojas The subtle immune system; the essence that gives the tissues and the mind strength and endurance; the force that keeps the tissues healthy. Composed primarily of earth and water (qualities similar to kapha). Produced from the essence of shukra. When strong, no disease can affect the body. The energetic template of kapha.

Om (aum) The primal sound; the sound or vibration from which the entire universe emanates. According to the Vedas, "om" is the most sacred of all words. Used by Hindu yogis to represent the vibration which pervades the entire universe; the same sound as the one heard internally as a result of practicing yoga.


pachaka pitta pächaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Most important fire. Converts food to the form that can be absorbed; the fire of digestion. Regulates body temperature. Resides in the small intestines and lower half of stomach (the home of pitta).

pachanas Herbs which digest ama.

pada Lower extremity.

padadaha The sensation of burning in the toes.

padaharsa The sensation of pins-and-needles in the feet due to a vata and kapha disturbance.


padma gati The pulse of enlightenment, felt under the kapha finger.

païca The number five (5). Example: païca karma (the five actions).

paka päka prefix meaning five, e.g. païcha karma

pakvashaya shula pakväshaya shüla The five sense organs

pancha païcha Also called Shodhana. Strong reduction therapy; the single most powerful healing therapy utilized in Äyurveda. Used only on strong patients; eliminates ama and excess doshas, then rebuilds internal strength (ojas). There are three components to the process; purva karma, pradhana karma, and prashat krama.

pancha jnanendriya païcha jïänendriya The five potentials for action (potential organs for motor experience); the five associated organs are the anus, penis, feet, hands and mouth; other texts state the five sense organs.

pancha karma païcha karma Five primary preparations of herbs including swarasa (fresh juices), phanta (hot infusions), hima (cold infusions), kwatha (decoctions) and kalka (moist bolus or paste).

pancha karmendriyas Five motor organs.

pancha karmendryani païcha karmendryani The five great elements: ether, air, fire, water & earth.

pancha kasayas païcha kasayas Digestion

pancha maha bhutus païcha maha bhütus Colic

pantha Passage

papma That which is born from sinful acts. para beyond

para ojas One of the two types of ojas (the other being apara ojas). This is the superior type; it dwells in the heart, and is the container of life itself. Any diminishment in volume would result in instantaneous death.

paramatman The higher aspect of the soul, connected to purusha, according to Mémämsa philosophy.

paravak The speech of eternal wisdom.

parinama Transformation and decay due to time and motion.

paripluta A condition in which the vagina becomes swollen and painful, with a yellow or blue discharge.


pariseka sveda A shower of medicated decoctions used after an oil massage. The decoction is poured through a hose or a can with many small holes above the patient's head.

pashat krama Rejuvenation; see rasayana.

Patanjali Pätaïjali Name of the celebrated sage who created The Yoga Sutras.

pattiki yoni vyapat This is a condition of burning and ulceration in the wall of the vagina. This is most likely a vaginal infection that has become systemic resulting in fever. Herpes simplex is a form of pattiki yoni vyapat.

paurusha granthi Prostrate gland; also called asthila.

payu Rectum.

peya peyä A meal of drinking thin rice liquid ( 8:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma.

phanta phäëöa Hot infusion.

picchila Oily, sticky.

pinda sveda The local application of a pinda or bolus (small round mass) which is warm.

pingala nadi pingalä nädi The nädi that begins at the base of the spine within the muladhara chakra and ends at the right nostril. It is also called the "solar nädi" and is associated with the fire element. Its energy is warm, and stimulation of this nädi increases the fire of the intellect increasing reason, perception, and discrimination. pista meha A type of prameha in which the urine is thick like corn flour and white in color.

pitta pitta The force in the body that is responsible for digestion and metabolism; its elements are fire along with a small amount of water; its principal quality is heat, although it is also light, slightly oily, unstable and sharp.

pitta dhara kala pitta dhärä kalä The membrane that holds pitta and the raktagni.

pittaka pittodara

pizzichilli An oil treatment in which oil is poured onto the body through a hose and massaged into the body. This is the heaviest oil treatment and therefore the most nourishing.

pliha pléhä Spleen

pliodara Splenic (pléhä) enlargement.

posaka dhatu posaka dhätu The unstable portion of ahara rasa


posya dhatu posya dhätu The stable portion of ahara rasa

prabhava prabhäva (prabhäv) Special action of a substance, an action not easily explained by its qualities; gives substances unique healing capabilities.

pradara Leukorrhea; a white discharge from the vagina.

pradarahara Herbs which aid menstrual and vaginal disorders.

pradhan karma The five classical actions of pancha karma (vamana, virechana, basti, nasya and rakta mokshana).

prajashatapana Herbs that promote conception, reduce miscarriage.

prajnaparadha Intellectual blasphemy; the failure of the intellect; crimes against wisdom

prakarana yoni vyapat Pain following intercourse in the back, calves, and thighs ocurring in girls too young for intercourse.

prakriti prakåiti Pure potential for matter (unmanifested potential); the soul's guna (sattva, rajas or tamas) in its seed form.

prakruti The inherent ideal balance of the three doshas within an individual; this is determined at conception and does not change throughout a person's lifetime.

pramanas pramänas Literally means "proof". The four methods of arriving at truth as outlined in the Nyäya philosophy; these include direct perception, inference, analogy and testimony.

pramanthi Herbs that remove excess doshas at a cellular level; considered a prabhava of some herbs.

prameha Polyuria (excessive urinary volume) and diabetes. There are 20 types of prameha. Not all types of prameha are diabetes, but diabetes is a type of prameha.

pramehaghna Herbs that reduce blood sugar.

prana präna 1) Life-force energy 2) One of the subdoshas of väta 3) Breath 4) One of the energies controlling the functioning of the subtle body (the other two are tejas and ojas); the energetic template of väta responsible for circulation within the subtle energy field and for the movement of the subtle body through the subtle universe.

prana vaha srota präna vaha srota Respiratory system.


prana vayu präna väyu Subdosha of väta; inward moving air. Original or primary väyu because life force energy (präna) must first come into the body. Associated with movement of thought and intake of emotions. Resides in the brain and moves downward into the chest.

pranagni pränagni The agni which metabolizes water (water is the container that präna is held within when it is confined to the body). Faulty metabolism disturbs the präna and causes physical and mental disease.

pranamaya kosha pränamaya kosha The breath sheath; the bridge between the physical body (annamaya kosha) and the astral body (manomaya kosha). It contains the pränagni, which is responsible for metabolizing water.

pranavaha srota pränavaha srota The channel that carries präna; usually refers to the respiratory system (nasal passages, sinuses, bronchi and lungs); also relates to the colon which, through the process of digestion, also extracts and absorbs a large amount of präna; originates in the heart.

pranayama pränäyäma Culivation of breath, the fourth limb of Yoga. Breathing practices such as alternate nostril breathing, lunar pränäyäma, solar pränäyäma, kapalbhati.

prasada The useful components of metabolism.

praschat krama Rasayana; rejuvenation following pancha karma.

prastara sveda A special bed in which a patient lies after oleation. The bed is made with warming grains and leaves combined with spices and herbs.

pratyahara pratyähära Withdrawl of the senses, the fifth limb of Yoga

pratysyaya pratyçyäya Common cold

pravahikahara Herbs which manage dysentery.

prevepana Excessive shaking.

prithvi prithvé Earth; the idea of solidity and mobility

püjä püjä Ritualistic meditation, done with devotion and affection; a Hindu ritual worship designed to concentrate on God.

purisha dhara kala purisha dhärä kalä The membrane that holds feces and bone; it is where asthiagni resides; it is where väta is metabolized.

purishaja krimi See kaphaja krimi.


purishavaha srota The channel that carries feces; consists of the large intestine and rectum, which together make up the excretory system and is the second half of the mahavaha srota; the home of väta dosha.

Purusha Pure potential for consciousness (unmanifested potential); God.

purva karma pürva karma Preparatory techniques for pancha karma; brings ama and any excess doshas present in the body back to their sites of origin in the digestive tract so that they can be removed by the procedures of pradhan karma.

purva rupa pürvarüpa Early signs and symptoms of a condition; in Western terminology this is called the prodrome.



Raja - Yoga Räja - Yoga "The royal yoga", one of the four most important yogic paths towards union with God; its system is presented by Pataïjali as described in the Yoga-Sütra. The path contins the following eight steps: yama (restraint), niyama (observance), asana (posture), präëäyäma(cultivation of breath), pratyahära (sense withdrawal), dhäraëä (concentration), dhyäna(meditation), samädhi (integration)

rajah Menstruation

rajas Action, turbulence, distraction; one of the three gunas, or basic qualities of nature. Applied to the mind, rajas is the state of mind dominated by lots of activity, which distracts people from their true nature as spirit.

rajata Silver, as used in a bhasma made of silver.

rajayaksmadi räjayakñma Tuberculosis. Also called rogarat, sosa, or ksaya.

rajoni vriti, rajonivrit Menopause.

rakta Blood

rakta bhrisaranas Emmenagogue (promotes menstruation).

rakta capa vriddhi Hypertension (high blood pressure).

rakta dhatu rakta dhätu One of the seven "dhätus" or tissues; consists of blood/ red blood cells. Also involves blood vessels, liver and spleen. Contains the fire element; invigorates tissues and the mind.

rakta meha A type of prameha in which the urine is blood red.

rakta mokshana Bloodletting. The purpose is to remove toxic blood from the body and stimulate new blood formation.


rakta pradhara Abnormal menstrual bleeding.

rakta prasadana Blood purifying, alterative herbs.

rakta rodaka Hemostatic herbs (astringent herbs that stop bleeding).

rakta samgrahaka Hemostatic herbs (astringent herbs that stop bleeding).

rakta shodaka Blood purifying, alterative herbs.

rakta shodana Blood purifying, alterative herbs.

rakta stambhana Hemostats; astringent herbs that stop bleeding.

rakta stambhana Hemostat (stops the flow of blood).

rakta vardhana Herbs that increase blood, aid anemia.

raktagni A dhätu agni; helps build rakta; the health of this agni determines the health of rakta. Resides in pitta dhara kalä, the membrane that precedes rakta.

raktaja krimi Systemic parasites that travel through the blood.

raktasthivi sanniat Pneumonia

raktasthivi sanniat Pneumonia

raktavaha srota The channel that carries posaka rasa (the unstable portion of rasa prior to becoming rakta). Also called rudhira or that which carriers the red blood cells and hemoglobin; often used synonymously with blood vessels; originates in the liver and spleen; primary carrier of pitta dosha.

ranjaka pitta raïjaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Imparts color. Resides in liver, gall bladder, spleen, blood.

rasa (rasam) 1) Taste; 2) bodily fluid; "the juice of life"; plasma (the watery component of blood). It can also mean sap, mercury or vitality. In the subtle body, rasa is the substance that provides satisfaction.

rasa dhatu rasa dhätu One of the seven "dhätus" or tissues; consists of all bodily fluids (plasma, lymph, chyle, breast milk, menses). In the subtle body, provides a sense of satisfaction.

rasa shastra Medicinal use of metals

rasa vidya The application of alchemy toward healing.

rasagni A dhätu agni; helps build rasa; the health of this agni determines the health of rasa. Resides in the sleshma dhara kalä, the membrane that precedes rasa.

rasavaha srota rasavaha srota The channel through which ahara rasa flows; originates in the heart and blood vessels and includes lymphatic vessels; primary carrier of kapha dosha.

rasavahini Capillary


rasayana rasäyana Rejuvenative tonic; nourishes all dhätus and builds ojas. A specialized form of tonification that follows purification such as pancha karma; a special term meaning "that which promotes longevity by preventing aging and by making the body young again". Also called pashat krama.

rasayani Lymphatic

rasi Quantity

rechana Strong purgative.

rishi A seer; an enlightened Vedic sage.

rochana Herbs which stimulate appetite or a flavoring agent.

roga Pain; that which gives rise to pain or disease. The terms tapa and shula are also used synonymously for pain.

rogarat That which overpowers.

roma kupa roma küpa Sweat glands; one of the openings of the ambu vaha srotas

roma sanjanana Herbs that promote hair growth.

roma-satana Depilatories.

roopana Vulnerary (firms tissues and organs)

ruchya Herbs that stimulate taste.

rudhira See rakatavaha srota.

ruksha (ruksham) rüksha Rough quality, dry.

rukshana Roughening.

rupa rüpa Signs and symptoms; clinical manifestation of disease; sight

rutu The seasons of the year.

rutu Season or time of the month.


sadhaka pitta sädhaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Digests and makes sense of sensory input; burns illusions away from truth. Fire of sädhaka pitta gives off light and heat; heat provides passion, courage, anger and the light provides wisdom and clarity. Resides in the mind, brain.

sadhana The process of making action sacred (for example, food sadhana is the action of making the consumption of food sacred).

sadhyasadhyata Prognosis. 30 sahasra padma chakra The seventh chakra, located at the crown of the head (also called the crown chakra). It's meaning is "thousand petaled lotus". Contains causal ether, the subtlest ether of all, the ether of the ocean of consciousness itself.

saindhava Rock salt

sakara Urinary gravel (pieces of stone passing through the urine that may cause mild pain and blocked flow).

sama 1. With ama 2. Balanced.

sama prakruti The ideal, tridoshic, balanced prakruti. A balanced state of body, mind and consciousness.

samadhi samädhi integration, the eight limb of Yoga. Absorption and pure awareness; a balanced state of supreme intelligence.

samagni Normal (balanced) agni

samana vayu samäna väyu Subdosha of väta; moves from periphery to center. Balancing air. Carries sensory impressions to the brain, venous blood to the heart, nutrients and oxygen into the bloodstream. Governs absorption. In the mind, balances and stabilizes the other väyus. Resides in small intestine; it's the "air that stokes the fire".

samanya Purvarupaare symptoms which disappear at the onset of the actual disease. samjna-stapana Resuscitative.

samjnavaha srota Channel of consciousness.

samprapti sampräpti Pathogenisis of disease; the disease process from its earliest causal stages until complete manifestation.

samsarjana karma Graduated re-administration of diet; rekindling of agni. Usually used after pradhan karma (the five actions) of PK.

samskaras Generated by karma, they set the stage for our life, giving us our tendencies and creating our basic reactions to the world; they lie deep within our personality and affect our deepest belief systems.

sämudra Sea salt

samyoga Combination, as in food combining.

san Truth

sanair meha A type of prameha in which the urine passes slowly with little effort.


sandha yoni vyapat In the ancient texts it was observed that some women, as they grew to maturity, did not like men. The condition was considered incurable, and could be an observation made of lesbian women.

sandhaniya Healing.

sandhi vata sandhi väta Osteoarthritis

sandra Dense

sandra meha A type of prameha in which the urine is thick when kept overnight, with no sugar present.

sangya sthapana Herbs that restore consciousness.

sankhaka Temporal headache.

Sankhya Sänkhya One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by the sage Käpila. As a dualistic philosophy, it teaches that the univers arises throught the union of prakriti and purusha. Literally means "enumeration".

sannipatika (sannipata) Tri-dosha (all three doshas are involved)

sannipatika yoni vyapat This condition, which is the result of all three doshas becoming vitiated, results in menorrhagia (painful menstruation); leads to infertility.


santosh Contentment; the cultivation of satisfaction.

sapta The number seven (7). Example: sapta dhätus (the seven tissues).

sara sära Healthy essence

sarangadhara saàhitä One of the three supplemental (or "lesser") classical books on Äyurveda (the other two are the Ashtanga Samgraha and the Madhava Nidanam). Written by Sarangadhara sometime between 1200-1500 AD, it is famous for its reference to pulse diagnosis and is the first to bring mention to this art.

sarkara çarkarä Urinary gravel (pieces of stone passing through the urine that may cause mild pain and blocked flow).

sarpa gati The feel of the pulse is likened to the movement of a cobra; the main description of the vata pulse.

sarva general

sarvaroga nidanam The general understanding or diagnosis of pain or disease.


sat All-encompassing, absolute truth; it is what exists beyond the illusion of creation.

sat-chit-ananda sat-chit-änanda Where the distant edge of the anandamaya kosha (the subtlest aspect of human creation) blends with the final two layers of existence (sat and chit), these three layers make up the threefold reality of Purusha itself. Sat-chit-ananda is literally absolute existence-pure consciousness-perfect bliss (on lower levels, in the subtle body, this corresponds to präna-tejas-ojas, and in the physical body, to väta-pitta-kapha).

satmya Comfort; see upasaya.

satsang The company of the wise; the support of others on our journey.

sattva Clarity, purity. One of the three gunas, or basic qualities of nature. Applied to the mind, sattva is the state of mind that is clear, pure, absent of any distraction, turbulence, ignorance; a transcendent state of mind immersed in the perfection of creation.

satva Sun-dried paste prepared from a cold infusion which is set in the sun until all the water has evaporated and the concentrated herbs become solid.

shabdha Sound

shad prefix meaning six, e.g. shad darshan

shad The number six (6). Example: shad darsana (the six philosophical systems).

Shad Darshan The six philosophies of life: Sänkhya, Nyäya, Vasisheshika, Mémämsa, Yoga and Vedänta

shamana (samana) Make balanced; palliation therapy (tonifying while purifying); pacifies doshas without expelling them.

shamana chikitsa shamana chikitsä Palliation therapy; a mild reduction therapy which is generally performed on a patient who is not strong enough for pancha karma procedures. Its overall effect is that of a gentle cleanse.

shankhaka A type of headache precipitated by a pitta-provoking lifestyle and low ojas.

shanti Peace of mind; the cultivation of bliss.

sharada The autumn season.

sharbata Syrup


shastra Science

sheeta (seetha) shéta Cold

sheetali A form of pranayama.

shirah shula Headache; also called shiro roga or shiro tapa.

shiro çhiro head

shiro Head.

shiro roga Headache; also called shirah shula or shiro tapa.

shiro tapa Headache; also called shiro roga or shirah shula.

shirobasti çhirobasti A head oil application where oil is held on top of the head for some time.

shirodhara çhirodhärä Warm oil poured onto the forehead.

shishira Medicated oil applied to the shaved head.

shita kashaya The application of warm medicated oil to the forehead over the sixth chakra.

shita purva jvara shéta pürva jvara The late winter season.

shita virya shita vérya Cold infusion (aka hima).

shitali shétalé 1) Cooling virya. 2) A type of pranayama that is cooling to the system; inhalation is through a curled tongue.

shlakshna Slimy, smooth. shlesma To hug

shodana Purifying.

shodhana Make go away; reducing; includes main practices of P.K.

shodhana chikitsa shodhana chikitsä See pancha karma.

shonitasthapana Hemostat; promotes clotting.

shoolahara Pain-relieving herb. shotha Swelling in both feet.

shothaghna Herbs that reduce swelling; anti-inflammatory.

shothahara (sothahara) Herbs that reduce swelling; anti-inflammatory.

shramsanas (sramsanas) Laxatives; expel feces prior to complete digestion.

shuddha Pure

shukra Reproductive tissue; the most refined of the seven dhatus, containing the essence of all other dhatus.

shukra agni A dhätu agni; helps build shukra; the health of this agni determines the health of shukra. Resides in the shukra dhara kalä, the membrane that precedes shukra.


shukra dhara kala shukra dhärä kalä The membrane that holds semen and creative potential. Contains that shukra agni.

shukra dhatu shukra dhätu One of the seven "dhätus" or tissues; consists of reproductive tissue, sperm, semen, prostrate fluids, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, ovum, ovaries. Composed of highly refined water; contains the essence of all other dhätus. Psychologically, the ability to sustain creativity (sexually and creative projects).

shukrala A Sanskrit term for an herb that increases sperm count, a category of herb specific to Äyurveda.

shukra-shodana Purifies the semen.

shukrasmari çukräçmari Seminal types of asmari (urinary stones).

shukravaha srota The channel that carries posaka majjä or unstable majjä dhätu prior to becoming shukra dhätu; according to the Caraka Saàhitä it originates in the testes and pudendum, according to the Sushruta Saàhitä it originates in the testes and breasts, and according to David Frawley it originates in the testes and uterus; the path that sperm travels from the testes until ejaculated by the penis; carrier of kapha dhätu.

shukravridhikara Herbs which increase sperm count.

shula Pain; the terms roga and tapa are also used synonymously for pain.

shula prasamana Intestinal antispasmodic.

shünya The number zero (0). Example: shünyatä, the emptiness or void; a central notion of Buddhism.

siddha dugdha Medicated milk.

siddha ghrita Medicated ghee

siddha tailam Medicated oil

siddhas Mystical powers

sikita meha A type of prameha in which the urine contains sand-like particles.

sira Vein; head. Also see nadi.

sirakampa Head tremor. sirasakta, siroroga Head disease.

sirsa jala Cerebrospinal fluid.

sisa Lead, as used in a bhasma made of lead.

sita Cold


sita meha A type of prameha in which the urine is sweet and very cold.

slaishmika yoni vyapat Itching in the vagina accompanied by the discharge of pale,

slimy blood (mucous mixed with blood).

sleshaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Provides lubrication in joints, allows for "fluid" motion, provides joint stability. Located in joints.

sleshma Mucous or phlegm; synonymous with kapha.

sleshma dhara kalä The membrane that holds kapha and the rasagni.

smriti Loss of memory.

sneha medicated ghee and oil

snehana 1) Oleation or fat; the term for oil therapy 2) Love

snigdha Unctuous, oily.

so-hum so-hum A mantra used in harmony with inhalation and expiration to enter into meditation; "I am that".

sokaja Grief

soma See amrit.

soma roga Endometriosis

sonita sthapaha Hemostat

sosa That which causes drying up and loss of tissue

spandin Quivering.

sparsha Touch

sramahara Energy compensator, stimulant.

srota Channels in the body; some are gross and some are subtle. In some texts, srota is used synonymously with nadi. The ears are also called srota.

srotämsi Bodily channels; plural for "srotas" (bodily systems or channels).

stambhana Obstruction; restrains or stops flow; astringent.

stanya vaha srota The channel that carries breast milk; consists of the lactation ducts within the breast, but has its origins in the wall of the uterus (so there is a direct connection between the breasts and the uterus and both should be treated when there is a problem with milk production).

stanya-jnana Lactagogue; increases milk.

stanya-shodana Purifies mother's milk.

sthira Static

sthula sthüla Gross

sucimuki yoni vyapat This is a condition where the vaginal canal is narrowed.


sukra meha Considered the second most important book in Äyurveda (the first is the Caraka Saàhitä). Written by Çushrut, it is best known for its expositions on surgery. It also contains much information on anatomy and physiology and on philosophy. It is the only classical text to list the names and locations of the marma points.

sukshma (sookshma) sükshma A type of prameha in which the urine is mixed with sperm.

sundara Subtle, penetrating quality; permeates small spaces.

sura meha Beautiful, beauty

surya sürya 1) A type of prameha in which the urine looks like beer with a clear head and thicker bottom part. 2) Sun.

suryavarta süryävarta 1) Headache following exposure to the sun. 2) The sun, the sun god.

suryavarta A headache which is worse with exposure to the sun.

sushka yoni vyapat Vaginal dryness leading to pain.

sushruta samhita suçruta saàhitä A migraine headache.

sushumna kanda Spinal cord.

sushumna nädi sushumnä nädi Arises from the first chakra (muladhara chakra) and is the energetic template of the spinal canal. Its significance is given the highest importance as all of the charkas are understood to be strung upon it like lotuses. Awakened kundalini energy flows through the sushumna nädi. As it does, it interacts with the chakras resulting in the transformation of consciousness.

sushumna sirsaka Medulla oblongata.

sva Self

svadhishtana chakra The second chakra, located in the region just above the pubic bone. Contains the qualities of the water element.

svarabheda nidana svarabheda nidana Diagnosis of hoarseness of voice.

svasa çväsa Dyspnea (difficulty breathing). Also can refer to asthma.

svastha Perfect health, "established in the self" - "sva" means self and "stha" means established.

svedana chikitsä svedana chikitsä Heat therapy; increases body temperature, causing an increase in circulation.

svedavaha srota The channel that carries sweat; the sebaceous system of the body consisting of hair follicles and skin pores; originates in the adipose tissue of the body.


swarasa Fresh juice.

swarya Herbs that are beneficial to the voice.

swasahara Herbs that make breathing easy.

swedana (svedana) Herbs that induce sweating; diaphoretic; fomentation.

swedanajnana Herbs that induce sweating; diaphoretic; fomentation.

swedu Sweet taste.


taila Oil

takra Indian buttermilk; watered down yogurt, usually mixed with spices.

takra dhara Indian buttermilk as the base (instead of oil) in shirodhara.

tala täla Rhythm ( as with pulse diagnosis).

tamaka /tamaka svasa tamaka /tamaka

çväsa Bronchial asthma

tamas Inertia, darkness, ignorance; one of the three gunas, or basic qualities of nature. Applied to the mind, tamas is a state of mind where there is little activity; the mind is dull and ignorant of its connection to God.

tamogunas Herbs that dull the mind.

tamra Copper, as used in a bhasma made of copper.

tandava Chorea; other terms include ardita and kalashanja.

tanmatras tanmätras The potential for sensory experience on the subtlest level; root energies for sensory experience; sound (shabdha; the guna of ether), touch (sparsha; the guna of air), sight (rupa; the guna of fire), taste (rasa; the guna of water) and smell (gandha; the guna of earth).

tapa Pain; the terms shula and roga are also used synonymously for pain.

tapa sveda The use of dry sources of heat such as bricks or sand to apply fomentation (best for kapha).

tapamana tapamäna The temperature of the pulse.

tarpaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Protects (lubricates) mind, brain, nerves from heat generated by critical thinking and heated emotion and from movement of thought and nerve impulses. Resides in head/brain.

tarpana An oil treatment in which an oily cotton ball is inserted into the ears, vagina, or over the eyes, using medicated oils.

tat twam asi Thou are that (Vedanta philosophy)


tattvas "Truth, true being, fundamental principle", Principles upon which all of creation rests. Every Indian philosopy contains a certain number of tattvas as the basis of its system of thought. In Sänkhya, there are twenty-five tattvas or fundamental principles.

tejas 1) Fire 2)The idea of light, heat and transformation 3) One of the energies controlling the functioning the subtle body (the other two are präna and ojas); the energetic template of pitta. Tejas is responsible for metabolizing psychic or subtle impressions.

tikshna tékshna Sharp, irritant.

tikshnagni tékshnagni High agni; when the strength of the digestive fire is too high. Also called atyagni.

tikta Bitter

tikta ghrita Bitter ghee; a special Ayurvedic preparation of ghee and bitter herbs.

til sesame

trataka träöaka Candle gazing; the focal point is a ghee lamp placed one arm's length away.

tri The number three (3); prefix three. Example: tridosha (the three doshas).

tridosharam (tridosha) Alleviates all three doshas.

trisna tåiñëä Thirst

trisna-nigrahana Reduces thirst.

twachaya Herbs that aid the skin.

twak Skin.


udakä Water

udaka meha Kapha-type diabetes insipidus; a large volume of urine that is cold, white or clear, odorless, not sweet, and has a possible slight sliminess and turbidity.

udakavaha srota See ambuvaha srota.

udakodara A condition of ascites or a fluid-filled abdominal cavity. Also called jalodara or dakodara.

udana udäna Pushes upward.


udana vayu udäna väyu Subdosha of väta. Upward and outward moving air. Energy that motivates action; motivates expressions through the use of the muscles and voice. Resides in the throat and chest.

udara roga Abdominal pain; a generalized term for a wide variety of problems that might occur in the digestive system.

udarda-prasamana Anti-allergy; reduces hives.

udavarta Belching, "upward moving air".

udvritta yoni vyapat Frothy menstrual blood caused by the suppression of natural urges.

unmada unmäda Mental disorder; psychotic disease; insanity.

upadhatu upadhätu Secondary tissues.

upadravya Complications

upanaha Poultice. A hot herbal decoction or infusion is added to flour. The paste is then applied hot to the skin or joint.

upanaha sveda The local application of a poultice used to bandage an affected limb.

upasaya Literally, "that which gives comfort to the patient". An attempt to verify the diagnosis through the proper administration of treatment. If successful (upasaya), the diagnosis is confirmed. If unsuccessful (anupasaya), additional information has been gained through the trial, which is useful for altering the treatment plan. Trial and error. Also called satmya.

upashta Genital organs.

upayogasamstha Rules of intake (guidelines for healthy eating).

upayoktra Responsibility

urdhva Prolonged expiration and an inability to exhale.

urdhva jatru granthi ürdhva jatru granthi Hyperthyroidism.

urdhvarga amlapitta Gastritis; hyperacidity.

urustambha Paraplegia

ushma svedana Sweatbox or steam tent.

ushnodaka Regular intake of hot water throughout the day; a general väta alleviating measure suggested for Raynaud's Disease.

usna (ushna) Hot; also anger, digestion, cleansing, judgement.

usna virya usna vérya Warming virya.

usnavata Hot vata.


usnisaka Pons (a rounded eminence off the ventral surface of the brainstem. The origins of cranial nerves V, VI, VII and VIII are at the border of the pons).

uttara basti 1. Urinary enema. 2. A basti applied to the vagina (vaginal douching).


vacate gana A group of herbs used in a similar fashion to the vataskadi group of herbs. These herbs are similar to calamus in their qualitiesand include ginger and turmeric. They are known to correct kapha, fat, stiffness of the thighs, and breast milk disorders.

vaidya Ayurvedic physician Vaisheshika One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Kanäda. It means "difference" and organizes the world into nine dravyas or substances.

vajikarana Reproductive tonic; aphrodisiac (literally, "the sexual power of a horse").

vajikarana therapy Tonification with herbs and formulations usually used in rasayana therapy but not applied after purification; very strong tonification, however, the extent of the nourishment ends at the shukra dhätu (when tonification is applied without prior purification, ojas is generally not produced in great quantities).

vajra Diamond; Indra's flash of lightning or his "thunderbolt," said to have been made from th bones of the seer Dadhéchi.

vak Speech.

våkkä Kidney

valaya Sore throat.

vamana Vomit; also a category of herbs that induce vomiting.

vamini yoni vyapat This is a condtion where semen is discharged from the vagina a week after intercourse.

vanga Tin, as used in a bhasma made of tin.

varasika Dura mater (the outermost, toughest and most fibrous of the three membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord).

varnya Herbs that aid the complexion.

varsha varshä The rainy season or monsoon season.


Varuna Someone who is sattvic, loving, compassionate.

vasa Muscle fat.

vasa meha A type of pramena in which the urine is mixed with muscle fat.

vasanta The spring season.

vata väta The force within the body responsible for all motion; its elements are air and ether; its qualities are light, cold, dry, mobile, subtle and rough; its root is the large intestine.

vata asthila väta asthila A condition whereby a tumor forms between the rectum and bladder which blocks urination.

vata basti väta basti Difficulty urinating due to the habit of suppressing the urge to urinate.

vata gulma väta gulma Diverticulosis

vata slaishmika jwara väta slaishmika jwara Influenza.

vata vyadhi Diseases of the nervous system.

vatakantaka Sprained or strained ankle.

vatakundalika Circular movement of urine in the bladder.

vataskadi A group of herbs that pacify vata, pitta and kapha. Includes kutki, black pepper, calamus, and vidanga; good for abdominal tumors, rhinitis, fever, colic and hemorrhoids.

vati vaöi Pill

vatiki yoni vyapat This is a condition where there is a pricking pain in the vagina along with the expulsion of gas and a discharge of frothy menstrual blood that is red or blackish.

vayasthapana Herbs that promote longevity.

Vayavya Väyavya A rajasic personality type.

vayu väyu Air; the idea of motion

veda Knowledge; teaching

vedanasthapana Herbs that reduce pain; analgesic.

Vedanta Vedänta One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Bädaräyana. It is the basis of Jïäna Yoga or the Yoga of Knowledge.

vedas India's ancient books of wisdom

vega vega Rate (as with pulse diagnois).

vepathu vepathu Parkinson's disease or tremors; also called kampa väta.

vepathu Shaking as in being off track or out of alignment.


vidahi Potency or action (warming or cooling). Virya has two meanings depending on context; the other is strength, although this is a less common definition. Sweet, bitter and astringent rasas (tastes) have a cool virya and generally pacify pitta and decrease agni. Pungent, sour and salty rasas have a warm virya and generally pacify väta and kapha and increase agni.

vidaryadi gana A group of herbs that is nourishing and alleviates vata and pitta; useful for tumors, weight loss, body aches and coughs.

Vidari kand is an example of this group.

vijnagni Gastric irritant.

vijnamaya kosha The agni responsible for metabolizing air (air in this context is knowledge and its organization in the mind). Faulty metabolism results in confusion, disorganization and poor discrimination.

vikasi vikäsi The intelligence sheath; the bridge between the astral and causal bodies. Contains the vijnagni which is responsible for the metabolism of air. The buddhi (intellect) resides within this sheath, which provides the capacity to reason, deduce, discriminate, and discern.

vikruti Expansive

vikruti vikåuti current doñha imbalance (as differentiated from prakåiti or life constitution)

vilepi vélepé A meal of drinking thick rice soup ( 4:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma.

vipaka (vipakam) vipäka Doshic imbalance

vipluta yoni Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation)

vipluta yoni vyapat Vaginal itching likely caused by a mild and sometimes chronic vaginal infection.

virechena Post digestive effect. Comes from the root "paka", meaning digestion. This is the long-term action that a substance will have on the body after it is digested. There are three long-term actions noted in Äyurveda; nourishing (sweet taste), digestionincreasing (sour taste) and purifying (pungent taste).

virya (veerya, veeryam) vérya Purgation; forceful elimination of feces.

visaghna Anti-poison.

vishada Clear


vishmagni viñhmägni Variable agni; sometimes the agni is high, sometimes low.

vishuddha chakra viñhuddha chakra The fifth chakra, located in the region of the throat. Contains the qualities of the ether element.

vishva Universe; a synonym for the pulse.

visista Purvarupa which do not disappear at the onset of the actual disease.

visphota Herpes zoster or shingles.

vistambhi Anti-carminative

vranarupana Herbs that aid the healing of wounds; vulnerary.

vrata Vows, an ancient Vedic spiritual tradition of women.

vrata katha Vow stories, told to pass cultural and spiritual knowledge from generation to generation.

vriddhi Increased dosha.

vrikka shotha Nephritis (inflammation of the kidney).

vrishya Herbs that increase virility; aphrodisiac.

vrittis våttis Disturbances within the mind.

vyaasthambhana Herbs that reduce pain; analgesic.

vyadhikshamatva Forgiveness, literally forgiveness of disease; immunity.

vyana vayu vyäna väyu Subdosha of väta. Moves from center to periphery. "Diffusing air". Major role in circulation (arterial circulation, nerve energy, movement of thought, carries sweat to outside of body). Force the moves the joints. Resides in the heart (center of circulation).

vyavis Herbs that act rapidly.



yakrdhalayudara Liver (yakrit) enlargement.

yakrit Liver.

yakrtottejaka Liver stimulant, cholegogue.

yakrut The liver.

yakrut roga Liver disorders.

yaksma Symptom complex or syndrome.

yama restraint, the first limb of Yoga

Yama The name of the god of death.

yatra Holy journey.

yava Barley


yoga 1) Union or balance; a holistic system of refining the body, the mind, and the spirit in unison. Ultimately, it is well-being, peace and bliss. 2) "Combination" when used in reference to herbs.

Yoga One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, propounded by Pätaïjali. It outlines an eight fold path that includes: yama (restraint), niyama (observance), asana (posture), präëäyäma(cultivation of breath), pratyahära (sense withdrawal), dhäraëä (concentration), dhyäna(meditation), samädhi (integration)

yogi One who is enlightened, blissful. One who practices yoga.

yoni Vagina.

yoni vyaapat Disorders of the genitourinary tract, specifically of the vagina.

yonivyad Diseases of the female genital tract.

yusha yuñha A meal of rice and split yellow mung dal soup. Part ofsamsarjana karma.

वाह्य सूत्र