विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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 काव्यालङ्कारकोश:

यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


क, ककारः । (वर्णस्य स्वरूपग्रहणाय कारः ।) स तु व्यञ्जनप्रथमवर्णः । अस्योच्चारणस्थानं कण्ठः । इति व्याकरणम् ॥ (तंथा चोक्तम् “तुल्यास्य प्रयत्नं सवर्णं” । १ । १ । ९ । सिद्धान्तकौमुद्याम् । “अकुहविसर्जनीयानाङ्कण्ठः” ॥ इति ॥ * ॥) (वङ्गीयभाषायां) तस्य लेखनप्रकारो यथा, -- “वामरेखा भवेद्ब्रह्मा विष्णुर्द्दक्षिणरेखिका । अधोरेखा भवेद्रुद्रो मात्रा साक्षात् सरस्वती ॥ कुण्डली चाङ्कुशाकारा मध्यशून्यं सदाशिवः । कदम्बगोलकाकारं ककारं भावयेत् सुधीः” ॥ इति वर्णोद्धारतन्त्रम् ॥ * ॥ तस्य नामानि यथा, -- “कः क्रोधीशो महाकाली कामदेवप्रकाशकः । कपाली तेजसः शान्तिर्वासुदेवो जयानलः ॥ चक्री प्रजापतिः सृष्टिर्दक्षस्कन्धो विशाम्पतिः । अनन्तः पार्थवो विन्दुस्तापिनी परमात्मकः ॥ वर्गाद्यश्च मुखी ब्रह्मा सखाद्योऽम्भः शिवो जलम् । माहेश्वरी तुला पुष्प मङ्गलश्चरणं करः ॥ नित्या कामेश्वरी मुख्यः कामरूपो गजेन्द्रकः । श्रीपुरं रमणो रङ्गकुसुमा परमात्मकः” ॥ इति तन्त्रशास्त्रम् ॥ “अधुना संप्रवक्ष्यामि ककारतत्त्वमुत्तमम् । रहस्यं परमाश्चर्य्यं त्रैलोक्यानाञ्च संशृणु ॥ वामरेखा भवेद्ब्रह्मा विष्णुर्द्दक्षिणरेखिका । अधोरेखा भवेद्रुद्रो मात्रा साक्षात् सरस्वती ॥ कुण्डली अङ्कुशाकारा मध्ये शून्यः सदाशिवः । जवायावकसंकाशा वामरेखा वरानने ! ॥ शरच्चन्द्रप्रतीकाशा दक्षरेखा च मूर्त्तिमान् । अधोरेखा वरारोहे ! महामरकतद्युतिः ॥ शङ्खकुन्दसमा कीर्त्तिर्म्मात्रा साक्षात् सरस्वती । कुण्डली अङ्कुशा या तु कोटिविद्युल्लताकृतिः ॥ कोटिचन्द्रप्रतीकाशो मध्ये शून्यः सदाशिवः । शून्यगर्ष्मे स्थिता काली कैवल्यपददायिनी ॥ ककाराज्जायते सर्व्वं कामं कैवल्यमेव च । अर्थश्च जायते देवि ! तथा धर्म्मश्च नान्यथा ॥ ककारः सर्व्ववर्णानां मूलप्रकृतिरेव च । ककारः कामदा कामरूपिणी स्फुरदव्यया ॥ कामनीया महेशानि ! स्वयं प्रकृतिसुन्दरी । माता सा सर्व्वदेवानां कैवल्यपददायिनी ॥ ऊर्द्ध्वकोणे स्थिता कामा ब्रह्मशक्तिरितीरिता । वामकोणे स्थिता ज्येष्ठा विष्णुशक्तिरितीरिता ॥ दक्षकोणे स्थिता विन्दू रौद्री संहाररूपिणी । ज्ञानात्मा स तु चार्व्वङ्गि ! कलाचतुष्टयात्मकः ॥ इच्छाशक्तिर्भवेद्ब्रह्मा विष्णुश्च ज्ञानशक्तिमान् । क्रियाशक्तिर्भवेद्रुद्रः सर्व्वे प्रकृतिमूर्त्तिमान् ॥ आत्मविद्या शिवस्तत्र सदा मन्त्रः प्रतिष्ठितः । आसनं त्रिपुरादेव्याः ककारं पञ्चदैवतम् ॥ ईश्वरो यस्तु देवेशि ! त्रिकोणे तस्य संस्थितिः । त्रिकोणमेतत् कथितं योनिमण्डलमुत्तमम् ॥ केवलं प्रपदे यस्याः कामिनी सा प्रकीर्त्तिता । ओ~ जवायावकसिन्दूरसदृशीं कामिनीं परम् ॥ चतुर्भुजां त्रिनेत्राञ्च बाहुवल्लीविराजिताम् । कदम्बकोरकाकारस्तनद्वयविभूषिताम् ॥ रत्नकङ्कणकेयूरमङ्गदैरुपशोभिताम् । रत्नहारैः पुष्पहारैः शोभितां परमेश्वरीम् ॥ एवं हि कामिनीं ध्यात्वा ककारं दशधा जपेत् । प्रफुल्लञ्च ततो ध्यात्वा जपस्य फलभाग्भवेत् ॥ एतत्ते कथितं देवि ! ककारतत्त्वमुत्तमम्” ॥ इति कामधेनुतन्त्रम् ॥ (अनुबन्धविशेषः । यथाह कविकल्पद्रुमः । “कश्चुरादिः किस्तु वा” । एतेन गणत् क संख्याने गणयति कथत् क वाक्यप्रबन्धे कथयति इत्यादि स्यात् ॥)

कम्, क्ली, (कायति शब्दो निर्गच्छति यतः यस्मिन् सतीत्यर्थः सजिह्ववदनस्य शिरोऽन्तर्वर्त्तित्वात् । यद्वा कायति वर्णात्मकं ध्वन्यात्मकं वा शब्दं करोति जीवः यस्मिन् सतीति यावत् ॥ कै शब्दे “अन्येभ्योऽपि दृश्यते” डः । ३ । २ । १०१ ।) शिरः ॥ (यथा, तन्त्रसारे । “द्वाभ्यामोष्ठौ द्विरुन्मृज्य चैकेन क्षालयेत्करम् । मुख-घ्राण-नेत्र-श्रोत्र-नाभ्युरस्कं भुजौ क्रमात्” ॥ अत्र कं शिरः इति तट्टीका ॥ कायति शब्दा- यते स्रोतोवेगेनालोडनेन वेति यावत् ।) जलम् ॥ (यथा, भागवते ६ । १ ४२ । “सूर्य्योऽग्निः खं मरुद्गावः सोमः सन्ध्याहनीदिशः । कं कुः कालो धर्म्म इति ह्येते दैह्यस्य साक्षिणः” ॥ कायन्ति आनन्दोत्सवध्वनिं कुर्व्वन्ति यस्मिन् समा- गते उपस्थिते इत्यर्थः गृहिण इति शेषः । आ- नन्दध्वनेस्तु सुखानुवर्त्तित्वात् ।) सुखम् । इति मेदिनी ॥ (यथा, छान्द्योग्योपनिषदि । ४ । १० । ५ । “प्राणो ब्रह्मकं ब्रह्म खं ब्रह्मेति स होवाच विजा- नाम्यहं यत् प्राणो ब्रह्म कञ्च तु खञ्च न विजा- नामीति ते होचुर्यद् वाव कं तदेव खं यदेव खं तदेव कमिति प्राणञ्च हास्मै तदाकाशञ्चोचुः” ॥ “तमेवमुक्तवन्तं ब्रह्मचारिणं ते ह्यग्नयः ऊचुः । यद्वाव यदेव वयं कमवोचाम तदेव खमाकाशम् इत्येवं खेन विशेष्यमाणं कं विषयेन्द्रियसंयोग- जातसुखान्निवर्त्तितं स्यान्नीलेनेव विशेष्यमाण- मुत्पलं रक्तादिभ्यः ॥ यदेव खमाकाशमवोचाम तदेव च कं सुखमिति जानोहि एवञ्च सुखेन विशेष्यमाणं खं भौतिकादचेतनात् खान्निवर्त्तितं स्यान्नीलोत्पलवदेव” ॥ इति भाष्यम् ॥ कचते दी- प्यते मस्तकोपरि शोभते इति भावः । यद्वा कच्यते बध्यते संयम्यते कराभ्याम् । कच् बन्धने डः ।) केशः ॥ इति धरणी ॥

कः, पुं, (कचति दीप्यते स्वेन ज्योतिषा ज्योति- र्म्मयत्वात् कच् + ड ।) ब्रह्मा (यथा, भागवते । ३ । १२ । ५१ । “एवं युक्तकृतस्तस्य दैवं चावेक्षतस्तदा । कस्य रूपमभूद् द्वेधा यत्कायमभिचक्षते” ॥) विष्णुः । (यथा महाभारते । १३ । विष्णोः सहस्र- नामकथने । १४९ । ९१ । “एको नैकः सवः कः किं यत् तत्पदमनुत्तमम्” ॥ प्रजापतिः । यथा भागवते । ८ । ५ । ३९ । “खेभ्यश्च छन्दांस्यृषयो मेढ्रतः कः प्रसीदतां नः स महाविभूतिः” ॥) दक्षः । (यथा भागवते । ९ । १० । १० ॥ “जघ्नेऽद्भुतैणवपुषाऽश्रमतोऽपकृष्टो मारीचमाशु विशिखेन यथा कमुग्रः” ॥) कामदेवः ॥ अग्निः ॥ वायुः ॥ यमः ॥ सूर्य्यः ॥ आत्मा ॥ राजा ॥ ग्रन्थिः ॥ मयूरः ॥ इति मेदिनी ॥ मनः ॥ शरीरम् ॥ कालः ॥ धनम् ॥ शब्दः ॥ इत्यनेकार्थ- कोषः ॥ प्रकाशः ॥ इत्येकाक्षरकोषः ॥

कः, त्रि, सर्व्वनाम । इति विश्वः । के कि इति भाषा ॥ (यथा विष्णुपुराणे । १ । १७ । २० । “तमृते परमात्मानं तात ! कः केन शास्यते” ॥)

कम्, व्य (कमुकान्तौ णिङभावे विच् ।) जलम् । शिरः । सुखम् । मङ्गलम् । पादपूरणम् । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ (यथा ऋग्वेदे । १ । १२३ । ११ ॥ “सुसंकाशा मातृमृष्टेव योषा विस्तन्वं कृणुषे दृशे कम्” । “अत्र कमिति पादपूरणे अथवा क- मिति सुखवचनं सुखं यथा भवतीति” भाष्यम् ॥)

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


क पुं।

ब्रह्मा

समानार्थक:ब्रह्मन्,आत्मभू,सुरज्येष्ठ,परमेष्ठिन्,पितामह,हिरण्यगर्भ,लोकेश,स्वयम्भू,चतुरानन,धातृ,अब्जयोनि,द्रुहिण,विरिञ्चि,कमलासन,स्रष्टृ,प्रजापति,वेधस्,विधातृ,विश्वसृज्,विधि,नाभिजन्मन्,अण्डज,पूर्व,निधन,कमलोद्भव,सदानन्द,रजोमूर्तिन्,सत्यक,हंसवाहन,क,आत्मन्,शम्भु

3।3।5।1।1

मारुते वेधसि ब्रघ्ने पुंसि कः कं शिरोऽम्बुनोः। स्यात्पुलाकस्तुच्छधान्ये संक्षेपे भक्तसिक्थके॥

जन्य : सनत्कुमारः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, आत्मा, ईश्वरः

क पुं।

सूर्यः

समानार्थक:सूर,सूर्य,अर्यमन्,आदित्य,द्वादशात्मन्,दिवाकर,भास्कर,अहस्कर,ब्रध्न,प्रभाकर,विभाकर,भास्वत्,विवस्वत्,सप्ताश्व,हरिदश्व,उष्णरश्मि,विकर्तन,अर्क,मार्तण्ड,मिहिर,अरुण,पूषन्,द्युमणि,तरणि,मित्र,चित्रभानु,विरोचन,विभावसु,ग्रहपति,त्विषाम्पति,अहर्पति,भानु,हंस,सहस्रांशु,तपन,सवितृ,रवि,पद्माक्ष,तेजसांराशि,छायानाथ,तमिस्रहन्,कर्मसाक्षिन्,जगच्चक्षुस्,लोकबन्धु,त्रयीतनु,प्रद्योतन,दिनमणि,खद्योत,लोकबान्धव,इन,भग,धामनिधि,अंशुमालिन्,अब्जिनीपति,चण्डांशु,क,खग,पतङ्ग,तमोनुद्,विश्वकर्मन्,अद्रि,हरि,हेलि,अवि,अंशु,तमोपह

3।3।5।1।1

मारुते वेधसि ब्रघ्ने पुंसि कः कं शिरोऽम्बुनोः। स्यात्पुलाकस्तुच्छधान्ये संक्षेपे भक्तसिक्थके॥

अवयव : किरणः

पत्नी : सूर्यपत्नी

सम्बन्धि2 : सूर्यपार्श्वस्थः

वैशिष्ट्यवत् : प्रभा

सेवक : सूर्यपार्श्वस्थः,सूर्यसारथिः

पदार्थ-विभागः : नाम, द्रव्यम्, तेजः, ग्रहः

क पुं।

वायुः

समानार्थक:श्वसन,स्पर्शन,वायु,मातरिश्वन्,सदागति,पृषदश्व,गन्धवह,गन्धवाह,अनिल,आशुग,समीर,मारुत,मरुत्,जगत्प्राण,समीरण,नभस्वत्,वात,पवन,पवमान,प्रभञ्जन,क,शार,हरि

3।3।5।1।1

मारुते वेधसि ब्रघ्ने पुंसि कः कं शिरोऽम्बुनोः। स्यात्पुलाकस्तुच्छधान्ये संक्षेपे भक्तसिक्थके॥

 : महावायुः, सवृष्टिकः_वायुः, शरीरवायुः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, आत्मा, देवता

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


¦ पु॰ कै--शब्दे कच--दीप्तौ वा ङ

१ ब्रह्यणि

२ विष्णौ

३ काम-देवे

४ अग्नौ

५ वायौ

६ यमे

७ सूर्य्ये

८ आत्मनि

९ दक्षे-प्रजापतौ

१० राजनि

११ कामग्रन्थौ

१२ मयूरे” मेदि॰।

१३ विहगे शब्दचि॰।

१४ चित्ते

१५ देहे

१६ काले

१७ घने मेघे

१८ शब्दे अनकार्थकोषः

१९ प्रकाशे च एका-क्षरकोषः।

२० शिरसि न॰
“द्वाभ्यामीष्ठौ द्विरुन्मृज्य[Page1602-a+ 38] चैकेन क्षालयेत् करम्। मुखघ्राणनेत्रश्रोत्रनाभ्युरस्कं भु-जौ क्रमात्” तन्त्रसारः कं शिरः

२१ जले

२२ सुखे च न॰मेदि॰

२३ केशे पु॰ धरणी। तत्र ब्रह्मणि
“दिग्वा-तार्कप्रचेतोऽश्विवह्नीन्द्रीपेन्द्रमित्रकाः” शा॰ ति॰। कः ब्रह्मा। तट्टीका
“कस्मै त्वा काय त्वा” यजु॰

२० ,

४ । काय सुखायप्रजापतये इत्येके।
“कस्यासि कोनामासीति प्रजा-पतिर्वै कोनाम” शत॰

४ ,

५ ,

६ ,

४ ।
“कवत्योयाज्यानु-बाक्या कोहि प्रजापतिः”

६ ,

२ ,

२ ,

५ , प्रजापतिर्वै कस्तस्माएवैतदिमां वषट्करोति”

६ ,

४ ,

३ ,

४ । दक्षप्रजापतौ
“ततः प्राचेतसोऽसिक्न्यामनुनोतः खयम्भुवा। षष्टिंस जनयामास दुहितॄःपितृवत्सलाः। दश धर्म्मायकायेन्दोर्द्विषट् त्रिनव दत्तवान्” भाग॰

६ ,

३ ,

२० , कायदक्षप्रजापतये द्विषट्द्वादश।
“खेभ्यस्तु छन्दांस्यृषयो मेढ्रतःकः” भाग॰

८ ,

५ ,

२८ । कः प्रजापतिः।
“यस्मात्पितामहो-भूतः प्रभुरेकः प्रजापतिः। ब्रह्मा सुरगुरुः स्थाणुर्मनुःकः परमेष्ठ्यथ” भा॰ आ॰

१ अ॰।
“मारीचमाशु विशिखेनयथा कमुग्रः”

९ ,

९ ,

१० कं दक्षम्। सुखे
“प्राणो ब्रह्म कंब्रह्म खं ब्रह्मेतिसहोवाच जानाम्यहं यत्प्राणो ब्रह्म कञ्चतु खञ्च न जानामीति तेऽहोचुः यद्वाव कं तदेव खं यदेवखं तदेव कमिति” छा॰ उप॰। अत्र सुखस्वरूपतयाब्रह्मरूपत्वम्। यथाह तद्भाष्ये
“तमेवमुक्तवन्तं ब्रह्मचारिणंते ह्यग्नयः ऊचुः यद्वाव यदेव वयं कमवोचाम तदेव खमा-काश इत्येवं खेन विशेष्यमाणं कं विषयेन्द्रियसंयोभजातसु-खान्निवर्त्तितं स्यान्नीलेतेव विशेष्यमाणमुत्पलं रक्तादिभ्यः। यदेव खमाकाशमवोचाम तदेव च कं सुखमिति जानीहिएवञ्च सुखेन विशेष्यमाणं खं भौतिकादचेतनात् खान्नि-वर्त्तितं स्यान्नीलोत्पलवदेव”। अत्र कंशब्दएव मान्ताव्ययम्इत्यन्ये। जले
“के शवं पतितं दृष्ट्वा द्रोणोहर्षमुपागतः” विदग्धमु॰।
“के यूयं स्थल एव सम्प्रति वयम्” सा॰त॰। कः देवताऽस्य अण्।
“कस्येत्” पा॰ इत्वृद्धिः। काय प्रजापतिदैवते विवाहभेदे।
“स्त्रींस्त्रीन्कायोढजासुतः” मनुः।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


क¦ The first consonant of the Nagari Alphabet, and the first of the guttural letters, corresponding to K or C in can, designated by the latter in Sir. WM. JONES'S system, but in this work by the former.

क¦ m. (-कः)
1. A name of BRAHMA.
2. Of VISHNU.
3. Of KAMADEVA.
4. Of fire.
5. Air or wind.
6. A title of YAMA.
7. The sun.
8. The soul.
9. A clever or dexterous man.
10. A king, a prince.
11. A knot or joint.
12. A peacock.
13. The mind.
14. The body.
15. Time.
16. Wealth, property.
17. Sound.
18. Light, splendor. n. (कं)
1. The head.
2. Water.
3. Pleasure, happiness.
4. Hair.
5. A head of hair. pron. mfn. (-कः-का-किम्) Who or what: see किम्। E. कै to sound, or कच् to shine, &c. affix ड।

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


क [k], A Taddhita affix added to nouns and adjectives, mostly to the former, in the sense of diminution, deterioration, similarity, endearment, or sometimes to express the original meaning of the word itself; e. g. वृक्षकः small tree; बालकः a chap; पुत्रकः dear boy; अश्वकः a bad horse, or like a horse, or a horse itself (स्वार्थे कन्)

कः [kḥ], 1 Brahman. प्रजाः सिसृक्षुः क इवादिकाले Ch.2.51. यावद्गमं रुद्रभयाद्यथा कः Bhāg.1.7.18.

Viṣṇu.

Kāmadeva.

Fire.

Wind or air.

Yama.

The sun.

The soul.

A king or prince.

Knot or joint.

A peacock.

The king of birds.

A bird.

The mind.

Body.

Time.

A cloud.

A word, sound.

Light, splendour.

Wealth, property.

Dakṣa Prajāpati.

कम् Happiness, joy, pleasure (as in नाक which is explained thus; न कं (सुखम्) = अकं न अकं दुःखं यत्र) नुतपदकमला कमला कलधृतकमला करोतु मे कमलम् (कम् + अलम्) Subhāṣ.; Ch. Up.4.1.5.

Water; सत्येन माभिरक्ष त्वं वरुणेत्यभिशाप्य कम् Y.2.18; के शवं पतितं दृष्ट्वा पाण्डवा हर्ष- निर्भराः Subhāṣ. (where a pun is intended on केशव, the apparent meaning being Keśava.)

The head; as in -कन्धरा (= कं शिरो धारयतीति). वलीपलित एजत्क इत्यहं प्रत्युदाहृतः Bhāg.9.6.41.

An act of a woman.

Flock of hair.

A collection of woman's acts (कं केशे कं च नारीणां करणे च तयोर्गणे).

milk.

Misery.

Poison.

Fear; cf. कं शिरः कं सुखं तोयं पयो दुःखं विषं भयम् Enm. -Comp. -ज a. watery, aquatic. -जम् A lotus. -दः a cloud (giving water).

कम् [kam], ind. Ved. A particle used as an expletive or enclitic.

कम् [kam], 1, 1. Ā. (कामयते, कामित, चकमे-कामयाञ्चक्रे, कान्त)

To love, be enmaoured of, be in love with; कन्ये काम- यमानं मां न त्वं कामयसे कथम् Kāv.1.63 (an instance of ग्राम्यता); कलहंसको मन्दारिकां कामयते Māl.1.

To long for, wish, desire; न वीरसूशब्दमकामयेताम् R.14.4.; निष्क- ष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् 5.26;4.48;1.53; Bk.14.82.

To have intercourse with; त्वं च मा वरुण कामयासे Rv.1.124.5.

To value highly.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


क the first consonant of the alphabet , and the first guttural letter (corresponding in sound to k in keep or king).

क कस्, का, किम्, interrog. pron. (See. किम्and 2. कद्, and See. the following words in which the interrogative base कappears , कतम, कतर, कति, कथम्, कदा, कर्हि, का, etc. ) , who? which? what? In its declension कfollows the pronoun तद्except in nom. acc. sing. neut. , where किम्has taken the place of कद्or कत्in classical Sanskrit

क but the old form कद्is found in the वेद(See. Gram. 227 ) ;([ cf. Zd. ka , ko7 , kA7 , kat ; Gk. ? , ? , (Ion. ? , ? ,) ? , ? ; Lat. quis , quid ; Lith. kas क; Goth. hvas , hvo7 , hva , Angl.Sax. hwa1 , hwaet ; Eng. who , what.])The interrogative sentence introduced by कis often terminated by इति( e.g. कस्य स पुत्र इति कथ्यताम्, let it be said , " whose son is he? ") , but इतिmay be omitted and the sentence lose its direct interrogative character( e.g. कस्य स पुत्रो न ज्ञायते, it is not known whose son he is). कwith or without1. अस्may express " how is it possible that? " " what power have I , you , they , etc. ? "( e.g. के मम धन्विनोऽन्ये, what can the other archers do against me? के आवाम् परित्रातुम्, what power have we to rescue you?) कis often connected with a demonstrative pron. ( e.g. को ऽयम् आयाति, who comes here?) or with the potential( e.g. को हरिं निन्देत्, who will blame हरि?) कis sometimes repeated( e.g. कः को ऽत्र, who is there? कान् कान्, whom? whom? i.e. which of them? cf. Gram. 54) , and the repetition is often due to a kind of attraction( e.g. केषां किं शास्त्रम् अध्ययनीयम्, which book is to be read by whom? Gram. 836. अ). When किम्is connected with the inst. c. of a noun or with the indecl. participle it may express " what is gained by doing so , etc. ? "(= कोऽर्थस्)Page240,3

क ( e.g. किं विलम्बेन, what is gained by delay? किम् बहुना, what is the use of more words? धनेन किं यो न ददाति, what is the use of wealth to him who does not give? with inst. and gen. , नीरुजः किम् औषधैः, what is the use of medicine to the healthy?) कis often followed by the particles इव, उ, नाम, नु, वा, स्विद्, some of which serve merely to generalize the interrogation( e.g. किम् इव एतद्, what can this be? क उ श्रवत्, who can possibly hear? को नाम जानाति, who indeed knows? को न्व् अयम्, who , pray , is this? किं नु कार्यम्, what is to be done? को वा देवाद् अन्यः, who possibly other than a god? कस्य स्विद् हृदयं ना-स्ति, of what person is there no heart?) कis occasionally used alone as an indefinite pronoun , especially in negative sentences( e.g. न कस्य को वल्लभः, no one is a favourite of any one ; ना-न्यो जानाति कः, no one else knows ; कथं स घातयति कम्, how does he kill any one?) Generally , however , कis only made indefinite when connected with the particles च, चन, चिद्, वा,and अपि, in which case कmay sometimes be preceded by the relative य( e.g. ये के च, any persons whatsoever ; यस्यै कस्यै च देवतायै, to any deity whatsoever ; यानि कानि च मित्राणि, any friends whatsoever ; यत् किंच, whatever). The particle चन, being composed of चand न, properly gives a negative force to the pronoun( e.g. यस्माद् इन्द्राद् ऋते किंचन, without which इन्द्रthere is nothing) , but the negative sense is generally dropped( e.g. कश्चन, any one ; न कश्चन, no one) , and a relative is sometimes connected with it( e.g. यत् किंचन, anything whatsoever). Examples of चिद्with the interrogative are common

क वाand अपिare not so common , but the latter is often found in classical Sanskrit( e.g. कश्चिद्, any one ; केचिद्, some ; न कश्चिद्, no one ; न किंचिद् अपि, nothing whatsoever ; यः कश्चिद्, any one whatsoever ; केचित्- केचित्, some - others ; यस्मिन् कस्मिन् वा देशे, in any country whatsoever ; न को ऽपि, no one ; न किमपि, nothing whatever). कmay sometimes be used , like 2. कद्, at the beginning of a compound.See. क-पूय, etc.

क m. (according to native authorities) N. of प्रजापतिor of a प्रजापतिVS. xx , 4 ; xxii , 20 TS. i S3Br. etc.

क m. of ब्रह्मन्MBh. i , 32 BhP. iii , 12 , 51 ; xii , 13 , 19 ; 20

क m. of दक्षBhP. ix , 10 , 10

क m. of विष्णुL.

क m. of यमL.

क m. of गरुड

क m. the soul Tattvas.

क m. a particular comet VarBr2S.

क m. the sun L.

क m. fire L.

क m. splendour , light L.

क m. air L.

क m. a peacock L.

क m. the body L.

क m. time L.

क m. wealth L.

क m. sound L.

क m. a king L.

क m. = काम-ग्रन्थि(?)

क n. happiness , joy , pleasure ChUp. iv , 10 , 5 Nir. etc.

क n. water MaitrS. i , 10 , 10 S3Br. x Ya1jn5. etc.

क n. the head

क n. hair , a head of hair L.

क n. (also regarded as ind. ; See. 1. कम्.)

क a तद्धितaffix (much used in forming adjectives ; it may also be added to nouns to express diminution , deterioration , or similarity e.g. पुत्रक, a little son ; अश्वक, a bad horse or like a horse).

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--the Lord of Creatures: The Great पुरुष. भा. II. 1. ३२; III. 6. १९; VIII. 5. ३९; वा. 4. ४३.
(II)--a name of ब्रह्मा. भा. X. १३. १८; १४. 2; ८५. ४७.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Andhakāra(ka) : m.: Name of a mountain.

Andhakāraka is situated in the Krauñcadvīpa, beyond the mountain Vāmana(ka); beyond Andhakāra is the mountain Maināka 6. 13. 17-18.


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*2nd word in left half of page p288_mci (+offset) in original book.

Ekapāda(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a people.


A. Location: In the south (prayayau dakṣiṇāṁ diśam) 2. 28. 1; (dakṣiṇabhimukho yayau) 2. 28. 8; (prāyād…dakṣiṇāṁ diśam) 2. 28. 37.


B. Description: Living in forests (vanavāsinaḥ) 2. 28. 47.


C. Epic events:

(1) Mentioned among those whom Sahadeva subjugated in his expedition to the south before the Rajasūya and made them pay tribute just by sending messengers (ekapādāṁś ca puruṣān …dūtair eva vaśe cakre karaṁ cainān adāpayat) 2. 28. 47;

(2) When they arrived for the Rājasūya they were stopped at the gate and were not allowed to enter; as tribute, they brought with them precious gold and silver as also forest-bred, very swift horses having different colours and therefore looking like fire-flies, others having the colour of parrots, or resembling rainbows, or twilight clouds (ekapādāṁś ca…dvāri vāritān/balyarthaṁ dadatas tasmai hiraṇyaṁ rajataṁ bahu//indragopakavarṇābhāñ śukavarṇān manojavān/tathaivendrāyudhanibhān saṁdhyābhrasadṛśān api//anekavarṇān āraṇyān gṛhītvāśvān manojavān/ jātarūpam anarghyaṁ ca dadus tasyaikapādakāḥ//) 2. 47. 16-18.


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*1st word in left half of page p641_mci (+offset) in original book.

Cedi(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a country and its people, often mentioned along with Kāśis, Karūṣas, Pāñcālas, and Matsyas; the people once referred to as caidya (5. 4. 14); the country is referred to as Janapada (4. 1. 9; 6. 10. 39), Deśa (1. 57. 7, 9), or Viṣaya (1. 57. 2); its warriors once designated as Cedika (8. 32. 34).


A. Location: Mentioned by Saṁjaya among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of Bhāratavarṣa (cedivatsāḥ karūṣāś ca) 6. 10. 39, 37, 5; one of the Janapadas lying around Kuru country (paritaḥ kurūn/pāñcālās cedimatsyāś ca) 4. 1. 9.


B. Capital: Śukti (purīṁ ramyāṁ cedīnāṁ śuktisāhvayām) 14. 84. 2; it is referred to as Cedirājapurī 3. 62. 20, or as Cedipura 2. 40. 14, or as Cedipurī 3. 65. 6.


C. Description:

(1) Country: holy (puṇya) 1. 57. 8; gentle (saumya) 1. 57. 8; delightful (ramya) 1. 57. 2; 4. 1. 9; worth accepting (grahaṇīya) 1. 57. 2; firmly established (susthira) 1. 57. 8; called the udder of the land (ūdhaḥ pṛthivyā yo deśaḥ) 1. 57. 7; hence rich in food (bahvanna) 4. 1. 9; having ample corn, wealth, jewels (dhanadhānyavant) 1. 57. 8; (dhanaratnādibhir yutaḥ) 1. 57. 9; the land was full of wealth (vasupūrṇā ca vasudhā) 1. 57. 9; thus having all enjoyable qualities of (good piece of) land (bhogyair bhūmiguṇair vṛtaḥ) 1. 57. 8; suitable for cattle (paśavya) 1. 57. 8; excelled other countries (atyanyān eṣa deśo hi) 1. 57. 9; to be well protected (svārakṣya) 1. 57. 8;

(2) People: They were virtuous, followed their dharma, were quite satisfied; they did not utter a lie even in joke, were obedient to fathers, intent on doing good to teachers; cows were never put to yoke, the lean ones were nourished; all varṇas lived within the limits of their dharma (dharmaśīlā janapadāḥ susaṁtoṣāś ca sādhavaḥ/na ca mithyāpralāpo 'tra svaireṣv api kuto 'nyathā//na ca pitrā vibhajyante narā guruhite ratāḥ/yuñjate dhuri no gāś ca kṛśāḥ saṁdhukṣayanti ca) 1. 57. 10-11 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 1. 63. 11 takes gāḥ as mas. pl. and explains saṁdhukṣayanti as puṣṭān kurvanti); the most excellent among them knew eternal dharma; virtuous and, distinguished they lived according to the ancient dharma (cedayaś ca mahābhāgā dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam; cedayo ye viśiṣṭāḥ/dharmaṁ purāṇam upajīvanti santo…) 8. 30. 61-62;

(3) Warriors: brave (śūra) 7. 8. 27; 7. 101. 68; 8. 8. 19; honoured by the brave (śūrasaṁmata) 8. 40. 62; distinguished chariot-fighters (mahāratha) 6. 102. 17; 8. 40. 2, 51; 8. 56. 23; born in noble familes (kulaputra) 6. 102. 17; they were willing to die but not turn away from the battlefield (tanutyajaḥ/aparāvartinaḥ sarve) 6. 102. 17; (cedīnām anivartinām) 8. 32. 80; their banners made of gold (suvarṇavikṛtadhvaja) 6. 102. 17.


D. Epic events:

(1) At the birth of Arjuna, a noncorporeal voice declared that Arjuna would bring under his control Cedis, Kāśis and Karūṣas 1. 114. 31;

(2) King Pauṇḍraka was known as puruṣottama among the Cedi people (puruṣottamavijñāto yo 'sau cediṣu durmatiḥ) 2. 13. 17;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira installed the son of Śiśupāla as the ruler of the Cedi country (cedīnām ādhipatye) 2. 42. 31;

(4) Drupada suggested to Pāṇḍavas to send messengers (5. 4. 25) to different kings to seek their help, one of them being Dhṛṣṭaketu, the king of the Cedis (caidyādhipatir eva ca) 5. 4. 14;

(5) Dhṛṣṭaketu joined the Pāṇḍavas with an akṣauhiṇī army of Cedi warriors 5. 19. 7; 5. 22. 24; 5. 56. 33; 5. 70. 14; 5. 142. 3; 5. 197. 2; Dhṛṣṭaketu was the lone principal warrior from the Cedis who joined the Pāṇḍavas (eko 'pasṛtya cedibhyaḥ pāṇḍavān yaḥ samāśritaḥ/dhrṣṭaketum tam…) 7. 9. 39;

(6) Others joined the Kauravas (cedayaś cāpare vaṅgā mām eva samupāśritāḥ) 7. 23. 7;

(7) Cedis mentioned among those who would consecrate Karṇa as the king if he were to join the Pāṇḍavas 5. 138. 17;

(8) Kuntī grieved at the prospect of Cedis fighting against Bhāratas (cedipāñcālāḥ… bhāratair yadi yotsyanti kiṁ nu duḥkham ataḥ param) 5. 142. 12;

(9) Before the war Duryodhana boasted that, helped by his army, he would fight against Cedis and all those on the side of Pāṇḍavas 9. 2. 23;

(10) On the first day of the war, Bhīṣma's banner was seen moving in the army of the Pāṇḍavas consisting of warriors from Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa countries 6. 45. 3-4;

(11) On the second day, Bhīṣma showered them with arrows 6. 48. 9;

(12) On the same day Bhīma faced the attack of Ketumant helped by the Cedis (on the side of the Kauravas) (bhīmasenaḥ…ārchad…ketumantaṁ ca…āyātaṁ saha cedibhiḥ) 6. 50. 5; Śrutāyu and Ketumant attacked Bhīma surrounded by Cedis (on the Pāṇḍavas' side) 6. 50. 6, 8; Cedis were outnumbered by Kaliṅgas and Niṣādas; they fought bravely but, finally, they returned abandoning Bhīma; even though Cedis deserted Bhīma (saṁṇivṛtteṣu cediṣu) he continued to fight with Kaliṅgas 6. 50. 13-16;

(13) On the third day, Cedis, led by Dhṛṣṭaketu, stood on the right side of the Ardhacandravyūha of Pāṇḍavas 6. 52. 10, 13; towards the end of the same day, Cedis and others raised a loud roar with delīght due to the great havoc caused by Arjuna 6. 55. 126;

(14) On the fourth day, Cedis occupied the same place in the Vyūha as on the previous day 6. 56. 11;

(15) On the ninth and tenth day, Bhīṣma killed fourteen thousand Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa warriors along with their horses, chariots and elephants (savājirathakuñjarāḥ) 6. 102. 17-18; 6. 112. 73;

(16) On the tenth day, Śikhaṇḍin, along with Cedis and Pāñcālas, attacked Bhīṣma 6. 111. 26; they rushed at Bhīṣma, producing noise, riding chariots and horses and elephants; some of them were footsoldiers (tataḥ hilahilāśabdáḥ kṣaṇena samapadyata/matsyapāñcālacedīnām… te varāśvarathavrātair vāraṇaiḥ sapadātibhiḥ) 6. 113. 47-48; on the seventeenth day of war, Kṛṣṇa, while recounting the past incidents, reminded Arjuna that Cedis and others, protected by him, had reduced the army of the enemies; but Bhīṣma succeeded in putting many of them to death 8. 51. 6, 27, 32;

(17) On the eleventh day, Dhṛtarāṣṭra feared that Dhṛṣṭadyumna, helped by Cedis and others, had killed Droṇa 7. 8. 27;

(18) On the twelfth day, seeing Yudhiṣṭhira running away from Droṇa, Cedis, Kārūṣas and others attacked Droṇa; Droṇa defeated them repeatedly 7. 20. 18, 23; Droṇa's arrows put Cedis, Kekayas into utter disorder; they were carried away like small boats by the strong current of the river (sindhor iva mahaughena hriyamāṇān yathā plavān) 7. 21. 7-8; Droṇa killed many Cedis 7. 31. 39;

(19) The king of Cedis showering arrows, kept Ambaṣṭha away from Droṇa 7. 24. 47;

(20) Subhadrā blamed Cedis and others neglecting Abhimanyu's fall in battle 7. 55. 13;

(21) On the fourteenth day, Alambusa Rākṣasa made a river of blood flow carrying away many Cedis and others 7. 83. 30; Kṛtavarman defeated Cedis and others 7. 90. 47; Cedis and others, delighted, attacked Droṇa crying ‘kill Droṇa, kill Droṇa’; they made effort with all their might to kill Droṇa; Droṇa killed them, specially their chiefs, with arrows; seeing them diminished Pāñcālas trembled 7. 101. 5053; Duryodhana struck Cedis with many sharp arrows 7. 128. 23;

(22) During the night war (fourteenth-fifteenth day), distinguished archers among Cedis (cedayaś ca maheṣvāsā…) attacked Droṇa; he defeated them and killed them 7. 161, 30, 32, 35;

(23) On the fifteenth day, the crown prince of Cedis (yuvarājaś ca cedīnām) struck Aśvatthāman with five arrows; he killed the prince, who was dear to Cedis (cedipriyam), along with his horses and the chariot-driver 7. 171. 56, 65;

(24) On the sixteenth day, Cedis and others rushed at the Kaurava army 8. 8. 19; they also attacked Karṇa 8. 21. 26;

(25) On the seventeenth day, Cedis and others fought fiercely with the Kaurava army; Duryodhana offered protection to Karṇa while he was fighting with Cedis and others; in their renewed battle with Karṇa, three hundred Cedi chariotfighters, who did not turn back, lost their life (sa rathāṁs triśatān hatvā cedīnām anivartinām) 8. 32. 15, 20, 43, 80; in the meantime Karṇa had also killed hundreds and thousands of ordinary Cedi fighters (cedikān avadhīd vīraḥ śataśo'tha sahasraśhaḥ) 8. 32. 34; when Yudhiṣṭhira, defeated and humiliated by Karṇa in a duel, retreated from the battlefield, Cedis and other warriors followed him 8. 33. 41; when Cedi and Pāñcāla armies were engaged with Karṇa, he destroyed them; then they began to flee 8. 43. 24, 26-28; in his fight with Karṇa, Bhīma was accompanied by Cedis; Karṇa killed great Cedi chariot-fighters (mahārathān) and many others, respected by brave (śūrasaṁmatāḥ) 8. 40. 1, 2, 51, 62, 68; 8. 45. 41; Śalya drove Karṇa's chariot towards Cedis, Pāñcālas and Karūṣas; Karṇa killed Pāñcalas and the great chariot-fighters (mahārathān) of the Cedis; Cedis and others, although being killed by Karṇa, continued to shoot arrows at Karṇa; Karṇa killed more than a hundred Cedi horse-riders (sādayaḥ krodhāc cedayaś ca paraḥśatāḥ) 8. 56. 9. 23-24, 49;

(26) On the last day of the war, Śalya wanted to show his valour to Pāñcālas, Cedis and the rest 9. 6. 13; he killed twenty five Cedi warriors 9. 11. 53; during the war of eighteen days, all Cedis were killed (cedayaś ca niṣūditāḥ) 9. 1. 30; 15. 44. 34;

(27) The Aśvamedha horse, wandering at will, reached the beautiful town of the Cedis called Śukti (āsasāda purīṁ ramyāṁ cedīnāṁ śuktisāhvayām) 14. 84. 2.


E. Past events:

(1) King Vasu Uparicara, a Paurava, accepted the rulership of the Cedi country as directed by Indra (sa cediviṣayaṁ ramyaṁ vasuḥ pauravanandanaḥ/indropadeśāj jagrāha grahaṇīyaṁ mahīpatiḥ//) 1. 57. 2, (vasa cediṣu cedipa) 1. 57. 9; while living in Cedi country, he protected the earth according to dharma 1. 57. 27;

(2) Bhīma mentioned king Sahaja of Cedis and Matsyas among the eighteen kings who were responsible for the destruction of their kinsmen, friends and relatives (aṣṭādaśeme rājānaḥ…/ ye samuccicchidur jñātīn suhṛdaś ca sabāndhavān//…sahajaś cedimatsyānām) 5. 72. 11, 16.


F. Certain persons referred to as the king of the Cedis or as the foremost among the Cedis: cedipa:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 3. 13. 2; 5. 78. 14; 5. 81. 31; 6. 91. 23, 39; 7. 34. 3;

(2) Vasu Uparicara 1. 57. 9; cedipati:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 3. 120. 25; 5. 49. 43; 5. 168. 9; 11. 25. 20;

(2) Vasu Uparicara 1. 57. 23, 27; 13. 116. 54;

(3) Śiśupāla 2. 35. 5; 2. 37. 13, 15; 2. 39. 20; 2. 41. 1, 24; 2. 42. 22; 2. 49. 6; 5. 22. 24, 27;

(4) Subāhu 3. 65. 33; cedipuṁgava:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 11. 25. 18;

(2) Śiśupāla 2. 36. 15; 2. 37. 9; cedirāj:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 3. 23. 47; 5. 56. 8; 6. 43. 75;

(2) Śiśupāla 2. 35. 27; 2. 41. 4; 2. 42. 1; cedirāja:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 5. 168. 8; 6. 43. 37; 6. 112. 23; 7. 24. 47; 7. 82. 15; 7. 101. 38; 11. 25. 21, 22;

(2) Śiśupāla 2. 26. 12, 14; 2. 33. 32; 2. 35. 14; 2. 37. 12; 2. 39. 18; 2. 41. 24; 2. 42. 16, 22; 7. 10. 13; 7. 155. 29; 7. 156. 2, 5, 21;

(3) Subāhu 3. 61. 125; 3. 62. 18; cedivṛṣa: Śiśupāla 2. 26. 13; cedīnām adhipatiḥ: Dhṛṣṭaketu (cedīnām ādhipatye) 5. 42. 31; caidyādhipati: Dhṛṣṭaketu 5. 4. 14; cedīnām īśvaraḥ prabhuḥ: Vasu 14. 94. 22; cedīnām ṛṣabhaḥ: Dhṛṣṭaketu 5. 19. 7; 7. 22. 16; 7. 81. 9; 7. 101. 25; cedīnāṁ pravaro rathaḥ: Dhṛṣṭaketu 8. 4. 80.


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Tāmralipta(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a people.


A. Characteristic: Skilled in fighting while riding elephants (gajayodhinaḥ/… tāmraliptakāḥ//…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 2-3.


B. Epic events:

(1) Their kings brought fine cloth, silk material, thin cotton cloth and mantles as tribute for Yudhiṣṭhira's Rājasūya, but they were not allowed to enter the sacrificial enclosure by the gate-keepers; on being asked to give more, each one of them gave a thousand well-bred elephants of the Kāmyaka lake, huge like mountains, having long tusks, gold girdles, lotus-coloured, covered with painted cloth and protected by armours, always in rut yet patient; then they were allowed to enter the gate (tāmraliptāḥ…dukūlaṁ kauśikaṁ caiva patrorṇaṁ prāvarān api) 2. 48. 17; (īṣādantān hemakakṣān padmavarṇān kuthāvṛtān/śailābhān nityamattāṁś ca abhitaḥ kāmyakaṁ saraḥ//dattvaikaiko daśaśatān kuñjarān kavacāvṛtān/kṣamāvataḥ kulīnāṁś ca) 2. 48. 19-20;

(2) On the fourteenth day of war, Sātyaki, while advancing to meet Arjuna had to fight with them who were armed with various weapons (tāmraliptakāḥ…vividhāyudhapāṇayaḥ) 7. 95. 13;

(3) On the sixteenth day of war, their elephant-riders (gajayodhinaḥ) attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna and showered on him arrows of the nārāca type and tomaras 8. 17. 2, 4; on the same day they also attacked Nakula with arrows and tomaras (tāmraliptakāḥ/śaratomaravarṣāṇi vimuñcanto jighāṁsavaḥ) 8. 17. 20, 21.


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Puṇḍra(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people; the people, warriors and their certain kings also designated as Pauṇḍra(ka); once used as an adj. (2. 13. 19).


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya twice among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of Bhāratavarṣa (janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37, 5: (puṇḍrā bhārgāḥ kirātāś ca) 6. 10. 49; (oṣṭrāḥ puṇḍrāḥ sasairandhrāḥ) 6. 10. 56; located along the eastern ocean: From Magadha, Arjuna directed the Aśvamedha horse to the south along the sea passing through Vaṅgas, Puṇḍras and Keralas (pāṇḍavaḥ …dakṣiṇāṁ diśam āsthāya cārayām āsa taṁ hayam 14. 84. 1; tataḥ samudratīreṇa vaṅgān puṇḍrān sakeralān) 14. 83. 29; called Janapada also in 6. 46. 49-50 (puṇḍrāḥ…ete janapadā rājan).


B. Origin: Nandinī, the cow of Vasiṣṭha, created Puṇḍras from her foam (puṇḍrān …phenataḥ sā sasarja ha) 1. 165. 36.


C. Social status: Paunḍras, listed among those Kṣatriyas who became degraded as vṛṣala because they disregarded Brāhmaṇas (pauṇḍrāḥ…kṣatriyajātayaḥ/vṛṣalatvam anuprāptā brāhmaṇānām adarśanāt) 13. 35. 17-18; and also because they violated the dharma of Kṣatriyas (kṣatriyāḥ kecit… teṣāṁ…prajā vṛṣalatāṁ prāptā brāhmaṇānām adarśanāt//ta ete…puṇḍrāś ca…/ vṛṣalatvaṁ parigatā vyutthānāt kṣatradharmataḥ/) 14. 29. 14-16; called mlecchas (puṇḍrān sakeralān/tatra tatra ca bhūrīṇi mlecchasainyāny anekaśaḥ vijigye... dhanaṁjayaḥ) 14. 83. 29-30.


D. Special feature: Their warriors fought riding elephants; they were skilled in fighting battles while riding elephants (gajayodhinaḥ; gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 2-3.


E. Epic events:

(1) Pāṇḍu spread the fame of Kurus in the Puṇḍra country (puṇḍreṣu…kurūṇām akarod yaśaḥ) 1. 105. 12;

(2) King Vāsudeva was known as ‘Pauṇḍraka Vāsudeva’ among the Vaṅgas, Puṇḍras and Kirātas (vaṅgapuṇḍrakirāteṣu rājā…/pauṇḍrako vāsudeveti…lokeṣu viśrutaḥ) 2. 13. 19; Bhīma, in his expedition to the east (yayau prācīṁ diśaṁ prati 2. 26. 1; 2. 23. 9) before the Rājasūya, defeated the king of the Pauṇḍra people in battle (pauṇḍrādhipaṁ …vāsudevam…nirjityājau) 2. 27. 20-21;

(3) Puṇḍra Kṣatriyas brought wealth in hundreds for the Rājasūya (āhārṣuḥ kṣatriyā vittaṁ śataśo 'jātaśatrave) 2. 48. 15-16; they (Puṇḍrakas) also brought fine cloth, silk and woolen materials, and mantles; they were asked by the gatekeepers to bring more; when they brought additional tribute they were allowed to enter through the gate (for citation see Tāmralipta) 2. 48. 17-20; a Pauṇḍra king (not named, Vāsudeva ?), among others, served as server at Rājasūya (yatra sarvān mahīpālān…sapauṇḍroḍrān…yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 22;

(4) On the second day of war, Puṇḍras were one of the Janapadas who stood at the right wing (dakṣiṇaṁ pakṣam) of the Krauñcāruṇavyūha (6. 46. 39; Krauñca 6. 47. 1) of Pāṇḍavas 6. 46. 4950;

(5) On the third day, Puṇḍras (puṇḍrāviṣas tathā ?) stood at the left wing (vāmaṁ pakṣam) of the Gāruḍavyūha (6. 52. 2) of Kauravas 6. 52. 9;

(6) Among the past exploits of Kṛṣṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra mentioned his victory over Puṇḍras in battle 7. 10. 15;

(7) On the the twelfth day, Pauṇḍras formed the back of the Suparṇavyūha (pṛṣṭhe…pauṇḍramadrakāḥ) (7. 19. 4) of Kauravas 7. 19. 11;

(8) On the fourteenth day, Arjuna killed Puṇḍras and others in hundreds and thousands (na te sma śakyāḥ saṁkhyātum vrātā śatasahasraśaḥ) 7. 68. 42-43;

(9) On the sixteenth day, Karṇa's former victory over Puṇḍras mentioned by Dhṛtarāṣṭra 8. 5. 19 (a reference to Karṇa's digvijaya before Duryodhana's Vaiṣṇavayāga 3. 241. 29, 32; 3. App. I. 24. 28-34); the same day, incited by Duryodhana, Puṇḍras, riding elephants, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna showering him with arrows, tomaras and nārāca arrows 8. 17. 2;

(10) Arjuna, accompanying the horse for the Aśvamedha, reached Puṇḍras in the south and conquered their mleccha armies (mlecchasainyāny anekaśaḥ) 14. 83. 30.


F. Certain kings called Puṇḍra, Puṇḍraka, king of the Pauṇḍras or they have the epithet pauṇḍraka:

(1) Puṇḍra 1. 1. 174; Puṇḍraka 2. 4. 21;

(2) A king (Vāsudeva ?): pauṇḍrādhipa 2. 27. 20; he was known among Puṇḍras, Aṅgas and Kīrātas as Pauṇḍraka Vāsudeva 2. 13. 19.


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Pauṇḍra(ka): : See Puṇḍra(ka).


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Prāvara(ka) : m. (sg.): Name of a Deśa.

One of the Deśas on the Krauñcadvīpa (deśāṁs tatra pravakṣyāmi); Prāvaraka lay beyond the Deśa called Uṣṇa, and beyond Prāvara was the Deśa called Andhakāraka (uṣṇāt paraḥ prāvarakaḥ prāvarād andhakārakaḥ) 6. 13. 20-21; (Was Prāvaraka also related to the mountain Vāmana ? 6. 13. 20); all these Deśas were visited by gods and Gandharvas (ete deśā mahārāja devagandharvasevitāḥ) 6. 13. 23.


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kākudīka ...................................... p95
kākṣa ............................................ p652
kāñcanaśaila .............................. p306
kāñcanākṣī .................................. p306
kāñcanāmbuvaha .......................... p306
kāñcya .......................................... p652
kādraveya .................................... p11
kānana .......................................... p652
kāntipura .................................... p522
kāntīka ........................................ p653
kāpavyacarita ............................ p178
kāpila .......................................... p653
kāma .............................................. p307
kāmaduh ........................................ p11
kāmaśāstra .................................. p178
kāmpilya ...................................... p523
kāmboja ........................................ p653
kāmboja (addition) .................. p944
kāmyaka^1 .................................... p307
kāmyaka^2 .................................... p307
kāmyaka ........................................ p603
kāmyāṣṭamī .................................. p237
kāyavya ........................................ p656
kāyaśodhana ................................ p309
kāraṁdhama .................................. p309
kārapacana .................................. p309
kāraskara .................................... p656
kārāpatana .................................. p309
kārūṣa .......................................... p646
kārūṣaka ...................................... p656
kārūṣaka (addition) ................ p944
kārtikeyasya tīrtham .............. p309
kārttika ...................................... p237
kārttikī ...................................... p237
kārtyayuga .................................. p237
kārpāsika .................................... p656
kārṣika ........................................ p656
kārṣṇa .......................................... p178
kālakūṭa ...................................... p309
kālakūṭa ...................................... p656
kālaṁjara .................................... p309
kālatīrtha .................................. p310
kālatoyaka .................................. p656
kāladaṇḍa .................................... p95
kāladantaka ................................ p12
kālaparvata^1 ............................ p310
kālaparvata^2 ............................ p310
kālamukha .................................... p657
kālaśaila .................................... p310
kālāmra ........................................ p310
kālikāśrama ................................ p523
kālikāsaṁgama ............................ p310
kālindī ........................................ p310
kāliya .......................................... p12
kālīya .......................................... p12
kālīyaka ...................................... p12
kāloda .......................................... p310
kāverakā ...................................... p310
kāverī .......................................... p310
kāśa .............................................. p657
kāśī .............................................. p657
kāśī (addition) ........................ p944
kāśinagarī .................................. p523
kāśipurī ...................................... p523
kāśmīra ........................................ p659
kāśmīramaṇḍala .......................... p659
kāśyapa ........................................ p12
kāśyapa ........................................ p659
kāśyapāśrama .............................. p523
kāśyapī ........................................ p12
kāṣṭhavant .................................. p311
kiṁkara ........................................ p95
kiṅkiṇīkāśrama .......................... p524
kiṅkīṇikāśrama .......................... p311
kiṁjapya ...................................... p311
kitava .......................................... p660
kiṁdatta ...................................... p311
kiṁdāna ........................................ p311
kirāta .......................................... p660
kirāta (addition) .................... p945
kirmīravadha .............................. p179
kiṣkindhā .................................... p524
kīkaṭa .......................................... p663
kīcaka .......................................... p663
kīcakānāṁ vadhaḥ ...................... p179
kīṭa .............................................. p86
kukuṇa .......................................... p12
kukura^1 ...................................... p12
kukura^2 ...................................... p663
kukura^3 ...................................... p664
kukura^4 ...................................... p945
kukkura ........................................ p664
kukkuśa ........................................ p664
kukṣimant .................................... p311
kucarā .......................................... p311
kuñjara ........................................ p12
kuṭṭa ............................................ p664
kuṭhāramukha .............................. p12
kuṇapa .......................................... p664
kuṇinda ........................................ p664
kuṇindaviṣaya ............................ p664
kuṇḍadhāra .................................. p935
kuṇḍala ........................................ p12
kuṇḍaladhara .............................. p12
kuṇḍalā ........................................ p311
kuṇḍalāharaṇa ............................ p179
kuṇḍalin ...................................... p12
kuṇḍina ........................................ p524
kuṇḍoda ........................................ p311
kuṇḍodara .................................... p12
kunaṭa .......................................... p666
kuntala^1 .................................... p666
kuntala^2 .................................... p666
kunti ............................................ p666
kuntika ........................................ p666
kundamāna .................................... p666
kuberanalinī .............................. p312
kubjāmraka .................................. p312
kumāra^1 ...................................... p12
kumāra^2 ...................................... p12
kumāraka ...................................... p13
kumārakoṭi .................................. p312
kumāradhārā ................................ p312
kumāraviṣaya .............................. p666
kumārikāṇāṁ tīrtham ................ p312
kumārī^1 ...................................... p312
kumārī^2 ...................................... p312
kumārī^3 ...................................... p312
kumuda .......................................... p13
kumuda .......................................... p312
kumudākṣa .................................... p13
kumudottara ................................ p667
kumbhakarṇāśrama ...................... p524
kuraka .......................................... p667
kuraṅga ........................................ p667
kurara .......................................... p13
kuru .............................................. p667
kurukṣetra .................................. p312
kurukṣetra .................................. p694
kurukṣetrasya dvāram .............. p313
kurukṣetrāśrama ........................ p524
kurujāṅgala ................................ p697
kurutīrtha .................................. p313
kulaka .......................................... p698
kulaṁpuna .................................... p313
kulika .......................................... p13
kulinda ........................................ p698
kulindopatyakā .......................... p698
kuliśa .......................................... p96
kulūta .......................................... p698
kulyā ............................................ p313
kuśaka .......................................... p13
kuśadvīpa .................................... p699
kuśadhārā .................................... p313
kuśaplavana ................................ p314
kuśabindu .................................... p699
kuśala^1 ...................................... p700
kuśala^2 ...................................... p700
kuśavatī ...................................... p524
kuśavant ...................................... p314
kuśastamba .................................. p314
kuśasthala .................................. p524
kuśasthalī .................................. p525
kuśāvarta .................................... p314
kuśika .......................................... p700
kuśeśaya^1 .................................. p314
kuśeśaya^2 .................................. p314
kūpa^1 .......................................... p314
kūpa^2 .......................................... p314
kūrma ............................................ p13
kṛta .............................................. p238
kṛtayuga ...................................... p238
kṛtaśauca .................................... p314
kṛttikā ........................................ p243
kṛttikāṅgāraka .......................... p314
kṛttikānāṁ āśramaḥ .................. p525
kṛttikāmaghayos tīrtham ........ p314
kṛmi .............................................. p700
kṛtyā ............................................ p314
kṛśa .............................................. p13
kṛṣṇa ............................................ p13
kṛṣṇa ............................................ p315
kṛṣṇa ............................................ p700
kṛṣṇa (addition) ...................... p947
kṛṣṇaveṇā .................................... p315
kṛṣṇaveṇṇā .................................. p315
kṛṣṇā ............................................ p315
kekaya .......................................... p700
kekaya (addition) .................... p945
kekaya (addition) .................... p946
kekaraka ...................................... p706
ketu .............................................. p283
ketumāla ...................................... p706
ketumālā ...................................... p315
kerala .......................................... p706
kesara .......................................... p315
kesarin ........................................ p13
kesarin ........................................ p315
kaikaya ........................................ p700
kaikaya ........................................ p707
kaikeya ........................................ p700
kaikeya ........................................ p707
kairāta ........................................ p179
kairāta ........................................ p315
kailāsa ........................................ p316
kailāsaka .................................... p13
kaiśika ........................................ p96
kaiśika ........................................ p707
kokanada ...................................... p707
kokā .............................................. p318
kokāmukha .................................... p318
koṅkaṇa ........................................ p707
koṭanaka ...................................... p13
koṭika .......................................... p13
koṭitīrtha^1 .............................. p318
koṭitīrtha^2 .............................. p318
koṭitīrtha^3 .............................. p318
koṭitīrtha^4 .............................. p318
koṭirūpa ...................................... p318
koṇapa .......................................... p14
koṇavāsana .................................. p14
koṇavega ...................................... p14
kopana .......................................... p707
komaṭhaka .................................... p14
kolāhala ...................................... p318
kollagira .................................... p707
kollagiri .................................... p319
kollagireya ................................ p707
kośala .......................................... p707
kośalā .......................................... p525
kośeśvarasya tīrthāni ............ p319
kosala .......................................... p707
kosala (addition) .................... p946
kosala (correction) ................ p948
kosalā .......................................... p525
kosalā .......................................... p708
kaukuṭṭaka .................................. p708
kaukura ........................................ p708
kaubera astra ............................ p161
kaubera^1 .................................... p319
kaubera^2 .................................... p319
kaumāra ........................................ p709
kaumuda ........................................ p245
kaumudī ........................................ p245
kaumodakī .................................... p96
kaurava ........................................ p709
kauraveya .................................... p709
kauravya ...................................... p14
kauravya ...................................... p709
kauravyakulanandinī ................ p14
kauravyaduhitṛ .......................... p14
kauśanta ...................................... p319
kauśika ........................................ p87
kauśika ........................................ p700
kauśika ........................................ p719
kauśikasya āśrmaḥ .................... p525
kauśikasya hradaḥ .................... p319
kauśikī ........................................ p319
kauśija ........................................ p719
kauśīka ........................................ p96
kaustubha .................................... p937
krathaka ...................................... p719
krathaka (addition) ................ p946
krathana ...................................... p14
krātha .......................................... p14
krodhavaśa .................................. p87
krauñca ........................................ p96
krauñca^1 .................................... p321
krauñca^2 .................................... p321
krauñcadvīpa .............................. p719
krauñcapādī ................................ p321
krauñcāruṇa ................................ p96
kṣudraka ...................................... p719
kṣemaka ........................................ p14
kṣemadarśīya .............................. p179

Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Andhakāra(ka) : m.: Name of a mountain.

Andhakāraka is situated in the Krauñcadvīpa, beyond the mountain Vāmana(ka); beyond Andhakāra is the mountain Maināka 6. 13. 17-18.


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*2nd word in left half of page p288_mci (+offset) in original book.

Ekapāda(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a people.


A. Location: In the south (prayayau dakṣiṇāṁ diśam) 2. 28. 1; (dakṣiṇabhimukho yayau) 2. 28. 8; (prāyād…dakṣiṇāṁ diśam) 2. 28. 37.


B. Description: Living in forests (vanavāsinaḥ) 2. 28. 47.


C. Epic events:

(1) Mentioned among those whom Sahadeva subjugated in his expedition to the south before the Rajasūya and made them pay tribute just by sending messengers (ekapādāṁś ca puruṣān …dūtair eva vaśe cakre karaṁ cainān adāpayat) 2. 28. 47;

(2) When they arrived for the Rājasūya they were stopped at the gate and were not allowed to enter; as tribute, they brought with them precious gold and silver as also forest-bred, very swift horses having different colours and therefore looking like fire-flies, others having the colour of parrots, or resembling rainbows, or twilight clouds (ekapādāṁś ca…dvāri vāritān/balyarthaṁ dadatas tasmai hiraṇyaṁ rajataṁ bahu//indragopakavarṇābhāñ śukavarṇān manojavān/tathaivendrāyudhanibhān saṁdhyābhrasadṛśān api//anekavarṇān āraṇyān gṛhītvāśvān manojavān/ jātarūpam anarghyaṁ ca dadus tasyaikapādakāḥ//) 2. 47. 16-18.


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*1st word in left half of page p641_mci (+offset) in original book.

Cedi(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a country and its people, often mentioned along with Kāśis, Karūṣas, Pāñcālas, and Matsyas; the people once referred to as caidya (5. 4. 14); the country is referred to as Janapada (4. 1. 9; 6. 10. 39), Deśa (1. 57. 7, 9), or Viṣaya (1. 57. 2); its warriors once designated as Cedika (8. 32. 34).


A. Location: Mentioned by Saṁjaya among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of Bhāratavarṣa (cedivatsāḥ karūṣāś ca) 6. 10. 39, 37, 5; one of the Janapadas lying around Kuru country (paritaḥ kurūn/pāñcālās cedimatsyāś ca) 4. 1. 9.


B. Capital: Śukti (purīṁ ramyāṁ cedīnāṁ śuktisāhvayām) 14. 84. 2; it is referred to as Cedirājapurī 3. 62. 20, or as Cedipura 2. 40. 14, or as Cedipurī 3. 65. 6.


C. Description:

(1) Country: holy (puṇya) 1. 57. 8; gentle (saumya) 1. 57. 8; delightful (ramya) 1. 57. 2; 4. 1. 9; worth accepting (grahaṇīya) 1. 57. 2; firmly established (susthira) 1. 57. 8; called the udder of the land (ūdhaḥ pṛthivyā yo deśaḥ) 1. 57. 7; hence rich in food (bahvanna) 4. 1. 9; having ample corn, wealth, jewels (dhanadhānyavant) 1. 57. 8; (dhanaratnādibhir yutaḥ) 1. 57. 9; the land was full of wealth (vasupūrṇā ca vasudhā) 1. 57. 9; thus having all enjoyable qualities of (good piece of) land (bhogyair bhūmiguṇair vṛtaḥ) 1. 57. 8; suitable for cattle (paśavya) 1. 57. 8; excelled other countries (atyanyān eṣa deśo hi) 1. 57. 9; to be well protected (svārakṣya) 1. 57. 8;

(2) People: They were virtuous, followed their dharma, were quite satisfied; they did not utter a lie even in joke, were obedient to fathers, intent on doing good to teachers; cows were never put to yoke, the lean ones were nourished; all varṇas lived within the limits of their dharma (dharmaśīlā janapadāḥ susaṁtoṣāś ca sādhavaḥ/na ca mithyāpralāpo 'tra svaireṣv api kuto 'nyathā//na ca pitrā vibhajyante narā guruhite ratāḥ/yuñjate dhuri no gāś ca kṛśāḥ saṁdhukṣayanti ca) 1. 57. 10-11 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 1. 63. 11 takes gāḥ as mas. pl. and explains saṁdhukṣayanti as puṣṭān kurvanti); the most excellent among them knew eternal dharma; virtuous and, distinguished they lived according to the ancient dharma (cedayaś ca mahābhāgā dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam; cedayo ye viśiṣṭāḥ/dharmaṁ purāṇam upajīvanti santo…) 8. 30. 61-62;

(3) Warriors: brave (śūra) 7. 8. 27; 7. 101. 68; 8. 8. 19; honoured by the brave (śūrasaṁmata) 8. 40. 62; distinguished chariot-fighters (mahāratha) 6. 102. 17; 8. 40. 2, 51; 8. 56. 23; born in noble familes (kulaputra) 6. 102. 17; they were willing to die but not turn away from the battlefield (tanutyajaḥ/aparāvartinaḥ sarve) 6. 102. 17; (cedīnām anivartinām) 8. 32. 80; their banners made of gold (suvarṇavikṛtadhvaja) 6. 102. 17.


D. Epic events:

(1) At the birth of Arjuna, a noncorporeal voice declared that Arjuna would bring under his control Cedis, Kāśis and Karūṣas 1. 114. 31;

(2) King Pauṇḍraka was known as puruṣottama among the Cedi people (puruṣottamavijñāto yo 'sau cediṣu durmatiḥ) 2. 13. 17;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira installed the son of Śiśupāla as the ruler of the Cedi country (cedīnām ādhipatye) 2. 42. 31;

(4) Drupada suggested to Pāṇḍavas to send messengers (5. 4. 25) to different kings to seek their help, one of them being Dhṛṣṭaketu, the king of the Cedis (caidyādhipatir eva ca) 5. 4. 14;

(5) Dhṛṣṭaketu joined the Pāṇḍavas with an akṣauhiṇī army of Cedi warriors 5. 19. 7; 5. 22. 24; 5. 56. 33; 5. 70. 14; 5. 142. 3; 5. 197. 2; Dhṛṣṭaketu was the lone principal warrior from the Cedis who joined the Pāṇḍavas (eko 'pasṛtya cedibhyaḥ pāṇḍavān yaḥ samāśritaḥ/dhrṣṭaketum tam…) 7. 9. 39;

(6) Others joined the Kauravas (cedayaś cāpare vaṅgā mām eva samupāśritāḥ) 7. 23. 7;

(7) Cedis mentioned among those who would consecrate Karṇa as the king if he were to join the Pāṇḍavas 5. 138. 17;

(8) Kuntī grieved at the prospect of Cedis fighting against Bhāratas (cedipāñcālāḥ… bhāratair yadi yotsyanti kiṁ nu duḥkham ataḥ param) 5. 142. 12;

(9) Before the war Duryodhana boasted that, helped by his army, he would fight against Cedis and all those on the side of Pāṇḍavas 9. 2. 23;

(10) On the first day of the war, Bhīṣma's banner was seen moving in the army of the Pāṇḍavas consisting of warriors from Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa countries 6. 45. 3-4;

(11) On the second day, Bhīṣma showered them with arrows 6. 48. 9;

(12) On the same day Bhīma faced the attack of Ketumant helped by the Cedis (on the side of the Kauravas) (bhīmasenaḥ…ārchad…ketumantaṁ ca…āyātaṁ saha cedibhiḥ) 6. 50. 5; Śrutāyu and Ketumant attacked Bhīma surrounded by Cedis (on the Pāṇḍavas' side) 6. 50. 6, 8; Cedis were outnumbered by Kaliṅgas and Niṣādas; they fought bravely but, finally, they returned abandoning Bhīma; even though Cedis deserted Bhīma (saṁṇivṛtteṣu cediṣu) he continued to fight with Kaliṅgas 6. 50. 13-16;

(13) On the third day, Cedis, led by Dhṛṣṭaketu, stood on the right side of the Ardhacandravyūha of Pāṇḍavas 6. 52. 10, 13; towards the end of the same day, Cedis and others raised a loud roar with delīght due to the great havoc caused by Arjuna 6. 55. 126;

(14) On the fourth day, Cedis occupied the same place in the Vyūha as on the previous day 6. 56. 11;

(15) On the ninth and tenth day, Bhīṣma killed fourteen thousand Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa warriors along with their horses, chariots and elephants (savājirathakuñjarāḥ) 6. 102. 17-18; 6. 112. 73;

(16) On the tenth day, Śikhaṇḍin, along with Cedis and Pāñcālas, attacked Bhīṣma 6. 111. 26; they rushed at Bhīṣma, producing noise, riding chariots and horses and elephants; some of them were footsoldiers (tataḥ hilahilāśabdáḥ kṣaṇena samapadyata/matsyapāñcālacedīnām… te varāśvarathavrātair vāraṇaiḥ sapadātibhiḥ) 6. 113. 47-48; on the seventeenth day of war, Kṛṣṇa, while recounting the past incidents, reminded Arjuna that Cedis and others, protected by him, had reduced the army of the enemies; but Bhīṣma succeeded in putting many of them to death 8. 51. 6, 27, 32;

(17) On the eleventh day, Dhṛtarāṣṭra feared that Dhṛṣṭadyumna, helped by Cedis and others, had killed Droṇa 7. 8. 27;

(18) On the twelfth day, seeing Yudhiṣṭhira running away from Droṇa, Cedis, Kārūṣas and others attacked Droṇa; Droṇa defeated them repeatedly 7. 20. 18, 23; Droṇa's arrows put Cedis, Kekayas into utter disorder; they were carried away like small boats by the strong current of the river (sindhor iva mahaughena hriyamāṇān yathā plavān) 7. 21. 7-8; Droṇa killed many Cedis 7. 31. 39;

(19) The king of Cedis showering arrows, kept Ambaṣṭha away from Droṇa 7. 24. 47;

(20) Subhadrā blamed Cedis and others neglecting Abhimanyu's fall in battle 7. 55. 13;

(21) On the fourteenth day, Alambusa Rākṣasa made a river of blood flow carrying away many Cedis and others 7. 83. 30; Kṛtavarman defeated Cedis and others 7. 90. 47; Cedis and others, delighted, attacked Droṇa crying ‘kill Droṇa, kill Droṇa’; they made effort with all their might to kill Droṇa; Droṇa killed them, specially their chiefs, with arrows; seeing them diminished Pāñcālas trembled 7. 101. 5053; Duryodhana struck Cedis with many sharp arrows 7. 128. 23;

(22) During the night war (fourteenth-fifteenth day), distinguished archers among Cedis (cedayaś ca maheṣvāsā…) attacked Droṇa; he defeated them and killed them 7. 161, 30, 32, 35;

(23) On the fifteenth day, the crown prince of Cedis (yuvarājaś ca cedīnām) struck Aśvatthāman with five arrows; he killed the prince, who was dear to Cedis (cedipriyam), along with his horses and the chariot-driver 7. 171. 56, 65;

(24) On the sixteenth day, Cedis and others rushed at the Kaurava army 8. 8. 19; they also attacked Karṇa 8. 21. 26;

(25) On the seventeenth day, Cedis and others fought fiercely with the Kaurava army; Duryodhana offered protection to Karṇa while he was fighting with Cedis and others; in their renewed battle with Karṇa, three hundred Cedi chariotfighters, who did not turn back, lost their life (sa rathāṁs triśatān hatvā cedīnām anivartinām) 8. 32. 15, 20, 43, 80; in the meantime Karṇa had also killed hundreds and thousands of ordinary Cedi fighters (cedikān avadhīd vīraḥ śataśo'tha sahasraśhaḥ) 8. 32. 34; when Yudhiṣṭhira, defeated and humiliated by Karṇa in a duel, retreated from the battlefield, Cedis and other warriors followed him 8. 33. 41; when Cedi and Pāñcāla armies were engaged with Karṇa, he destroyed them; then they began to flee 8. 43. 24, 26-28; in his fight with Karṇa, Bhīma was accompanied by Cedis; Karṇa killed great Cedi chariot-fighters (mahārathān) and many others, respected by brave (śūrasaṁmatāḥ) 8. 40. 1, 2, 51, 62, 68; 8. 45. 41; Śalya drove Karṇa's chariot towards Cedis, Pāñcālas and Karūṣas; Karṇa killed Pāñcalas and the great chariot-fighters (mahārathān) of the Cedis; Cedis and others, although being killed by Karṇa, continued to shoot arrows at Karṇa; Karṇa killed more than a hundred Cedi horse-riders (sādayaḥ krodhāc cedayaś ca paraḥśatāḥ) 8. 56. 9. 23-24, 49;

(26) On the last day of the war, Śalya wanted to show his valour to Pāñcālas, Cedis and the rest 9. 6. 13; he killed twenty five Cedi warriors 9. 11. 53; during the war of eighteen days, all Cedis were killed (cedayaś ca niṣūditāḥ) 9. 1. 30; 15. 44. 34;

(27) The Aśvamedha horse, wandering at will, reached the beautiful town of the Cedis called Śukti (āsasāda purīṁ ramyāṁ cedīnāṁ śuktisāhvayām) 14. 84. 2.


E. Past events:

(1) King Vasu Uparicara, a Paurava, accepted the rulership of the Cedi country as directed by Indra (sa cediviṣayaṁ ramyaṁ vasuḥ pauravanandanaḥ/indropadeśāj jagrāha grahaṇīyaṁ mahīpatiḥ//) 1. 57. 2, (vasa cediṣu cedipa) 1. 57. 9; while living in Cedi country, he protected the earth according to dharma 1. 57. 27;

(2) Bhīma mentioned king Sahaja of Cedis and Matsyas among the eighteen kings who were responsible for the destruction of their kinsmen, friends and relatives (aṣṭādaśeme rājānaḥ…/ ye samuccicchidur jñātīn suhṛdaś ca sabāndhavān//…sahajaś cedimatsyānām) 5. 72. 11, 16.


F. Certain persons referred to as the king of the Cedis or as the foremost among the Cedis: cedipa:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 3. 13. 2; 5. 78. 14; 5. 81. 31; 6. 91. 23, 39; 7. 34. 3;

(2) Vasu Uparicara 1. 57. 9; cedipati:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 3. 120. 25; 5. 49. 43; 5. 168. 9; 11. 25. 20;

(2) Vasu Uparicara 1. 57. 23, 27; 13. 116. 54;

(3) Śiśupāla 2. 35. 5; 2. 37. 13, 15; 2. 39. 20; 2. 41. 1, 24; 2. 42. 22; 2. 49. 6; 5. 22. 24, 27;

(4) Subāhu 3. 65. 33; cedipuṁgava:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 11. 25. 18;

(2) Śiśupāla 2. 36. 15; 2. 37. 9; cedirāj:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 3. 23. 47; 5. 56. 8; 6. 43. 75;

(2) Śiśupāla 2. 35. 27; 2. 41. 4; 2. 42. 1; cedirāja:

(1) Dhṛṣṭaketu 5. 168. 8; 6. 43. 37; 6. 112. 23; 7. 24. 47; 7. 82. 15; 7. 101. 38; 11. 25. 21, 22;

(2) Śiśupāla 2. 26. 12, 14; 2. 33. 32; 2. 35. 14; 2. 37. 12; 2. 39. 18; 2. 41. 24; 2. 42. 16, 22; 7. 10. 13; 7. 155. 29; 7. 156. 2, 5, 21;

(3) Subāhu 3. 61. 125; 3. 62. 18; cedivṛṣa: Śiśupāla 2. 26. 13; cedīnām adhipatiḥ: Dhṛṣṭaketu (cedīnām ādhipatye) 5. 42. 31; caidyādhipati: Dhṛṣṭaketu 5. 4. 14; cedīnām īśvaraḥ prabhuḥ: Vasu 14. 94. 22; cedīnām ṛṣabhaḥ: Dhṛṣṭaketu 5. 19. 7; 7. 22. 16; 7. 81. 9; 7. 101. 25; cedīnāṁ pravaro rathaḥ: Dhṛṣṭaketu 8. 4. 80.


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Tāmralipta(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a people.


A. Characteristic: Skilled in fighting while riding elephants (gajayodhinaḥ/… tāmraliptakāḥ//…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 2-3.


B. Epic events:

(1) Their kings brought fine cloth, silk material, thin cotton cloth and mantles as tribute for Yudhiṣṭhira's Rājasūya, but they were not allowed to enter the sacrificial enclosure by the gate-keepers; on being asked to give more, each one of them gave a thousand well-bred elephants of the Kāmyaka lake, huge like mountains, having long tusks, gold girdles, lotus-coloured, covered with painted cloth and protected by armours, always in rut yet patient; then they were allowed to enter the gate (tāmraliptāḥ…dukūlaṁ kauśikaṁ caiva patrorṇaṁ prāvarān api) 2. 48. 17; (īṣādantān hemakakṣān padmavarṇān kuthāvṛtān/śailābhān nityamattāṁś ca abhitaḥ kāmyakaṁ saraḥ//dattvaikaiko daśaśatān kuñjarān kavacāvṛtān/kṣamāvataḥ kulīnāṁś ca) 2. 48. 19-20;

(2) On the fourteenth day of war, Sātyaki, while advancing to meet Arjuna had to fight with them who were armed with various weapons (tāmraliptakāḥ…vividhāyudhapāṇayaḥ) 7. 95. 13;

(3) On the sixteenth day of war, their elephant-riders (gajayodhinaḥ) attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna and showered on him arrows of the nārāca type and tomaras 8. 17. 2, 4; on the same day they also attacked Nakula with arrows and tomaras (tāmraliptakāḥ/śaratomaravarṣāṇi vimuñcanto jighāṁsavaḥ) 8. 17. 20, 21.


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Puṇḍra(ka) : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people; the people, warriors and their certain kings also designated as Pauṇḍra(ka); once used as an adj. (2. 13. 19).


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya twice among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of Bhāratavarṣa (janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37, 5: (puṇḍrā bhārgāḥ kirātāś ca) 6. 10. 49; (oṣṭrāḥ puṇḍrāḥ sasairandhrāḥ) 6. 10. 56; located along the eastern ocean: From Magadha, Arjuna directed the Aśvamedha horse to the south along the sea passing through Vaṅgas, Puṇḍras and Keralas (pāṇḍavaḥ …dakṣiṇāṁ diśam āsthāya cārayām āsa taṁ hayam 14. 84. 1; tataḥ samudratīreṇa vaṅgān puṇḍrān sakeralān) 14. 83. 29; called Janapada also in 6. 46. 49-50 (puṇḍrāḥ…ete janapadā rājan).


B. Origin: Nandinī, the cow of Vasiṣṭha, created Puṇḍras from her foam (puṇḍrān …phenataḥ sā sasarja ha) 1. 165. 36.


C. Social status: Paunḍras, listed among those Kṣatriyas who became degraded as vṛṣala because they disregarded Brāhmaṇas (pauṇḍrāḥ…kṣatriyajātayaḥ/vṛṣalatvam anuprāptā brāhmaṇānām adarśanāt) 13. 35. 17-18; and also because they violated the dharma of Kṣatriyas (kṣatriyāḥ kecit… teṣāṁ…prajā vṛṣalatāṁ prāptā brāhmaṇānām adarśanāt//ta ete…puṇḍrāś ca…/ vṛṣalatvaṁ parigatā vyutthānāt kṣatradharmataḥ/) 14. 29. 14-16; called mlecchas (puṇḍrān sakeralān/tatra tatra ca bhūrīṇi mlecchasainyāny anekaśaḥ vijigye... dhanaṁjayaḥ) 14. 83. 29-30.


D. Special feature: Their warriors fought riding elephants; they were skilled in fighting battles while riding elephants (gajayodhinaḥ; gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 2-3.


E. Epic events:

(1) Pāṇḍu spread the fame of Kurus in the Puṇḍra country (puṇḍreṣu…kurūṇām akarod yaśaḥ) 1. 105. 12;

(2) King Vāsudeva was known as ‘Pauṇḍraka Vāsudeva’ among the Vaṅgas, Puṇḍras and Kirātas (vaṅgapuṇḍrakirāteṣu rājā…/pauṇḍrako vāsudeveti…lokeṣu viśrutaḥ) 2. 13. 19; Bhīma, in his expedition to the east (yayau prācīṁ diśaṁ prati 2. 26. 1; 2. 23. 9) before the Rājasūya, defeated the king of the Pauṇḍra people in battle (pauṇḍrādhipaṁ …vāsudevam…nirjityājau) 2. 27. 20-21;

(3) Puṇḍra Kṣatriyas brought wealth in hundreds for the Rājasūya (āhārṣuḥ kṣatriyā vittaṁ śataśo 'jātaśatrave) 2. 48. 15-16; they (Puṇḍrakas) also brought fine cloth, silk and woolen materials, and mantles; they were asked by the gatekeepers to bring more; when they brought additional tribute they were allowed to enter through the gate (for citation see Tāmralipta) 2. 48. 17-20; a Pauṇḍra king (not named, Vāsudeva ?), among others, served as server at Rājasūya (yatra sarvān mahīpālān…sapauṇḍroḍrān…yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 22;

(4) On the second day of war, Puṇḍras were one of the Janapadas who stood at the right wing (dakṣiṇaṁ pakṣam) of the Krauñcāruṇavyūha (6. 46. 39; Krauñca 6. 47. 1) of Pāṇḍavas 6. 46. 4950;

(5) On the third day, Puṇḍras (puṇḍrāviṣas tathā ?) stood at the left wing (vāmaṁ pakṣam) of the Gāruḍavyūha (6. 52. 2) of Kauravas 6. 52. 9;

(6) Among the past exploits of Kṛṣṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra mentioned his victory over Puṇḍras in battle 7. 10. 15;

(7) On the the twelfth day, Pauṇḍras formed the back of the Suparṇavyūha (pṛṣṭhe…pauṇḍramadrakāḥ) (7. 19. 4) of Kauravas 7. 19. 11;

(8) On the fourteenth day, Arjuna killed Puṇḍras and others in hundreds and thousands (na te sma śakyāḥ saṁkhyātum vrātā śatasahasraśaḥ) 7. 68. 42-43;

(9) On the sixteenth day, Karṇa's former victory over Puṇḍras mentioned by Dhṛtarāṣṭra 8. 5. 19 (a reference to Karṇa's digvijaya before Duryodhana's Vaiṣṇavayāga 3. 241. 29, 32; 3. App. I. 24. 28-34); the same day, incited by Duryodhana, Puṇḍras, riding elephants, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna showering him with arrows, tomaras and nārāca arrows 8. 17. 2;

(10) Arjuna, accompanying the horse for the Aśvamedha, reached Puṇḍras in the south and conquered their mleccha armies (mlecchasainyāny anekaśaḥ) 14. 83. 30.


F. Certain kings called Puṇḍra, Puṇḍraka, king of the Pauṇḍras or they have the epithet pauṇḍraka:

(1) Puṇḍra 1. 1. 174; Puṇḍraka 2. 4. 21;

(2) A king (Vāsudeva ?): pauṇḍrādhipa 2. 27. 20; he was known among Puṇḍras, Aṅgas and Kīrātas as Pauṇḍraka Vāsudeva 2. 13. 19.


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Pauṇḍra(ka): : See Puṇḍra(ka).


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Prāvara(ka) : m. (sg.): Name of a Deśa.

One of the Deśas on the Krauñcadvīpa (deśāṁs tatra pravakṣyāmi); Prāvaraka lay beyond the Deśa called Uṣṇa, and beyond Prāvara was the Deśa called Andhakāraka (uṣṇāt paraḥ prāvarakaḥ prāvarād andhakārakaḥ) 6. 13. 20-21; (Was Prāvaraka also related to the mountain Vāmana ? 6. 13. 20); all these Deśas were visited by gods and Gandharvas (ete deśā mahārāja devagandharvasevitāḥ) 6. 13. 23.


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kakṣaka ........................................ p9
kakṣasenasya āśramaḥ .............. p520
kaṅka ............................................ p645
kaccha .......................................... p645
kacchapa ...................................... p9
kaṇvāśrama^1 .............................. p520
kaṇvāśrama^2 .............................. p521
kaṇvāśrama^3 .............................. p521
kadrū ............................................ p9
kanakaparvata ............................ p303
kanakhala .................................... p303
kanyakubja .................................. p522
kanyā ............................................ p304
kanyākūpa .................................... p304
kanyātīrtha^1 ............................ p304
kanyātīrtha^2 ............................ p304
kanyātīrtha^3 ............................ p304
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kanyāśrama^2 .............................. p522
kanyāsaṁvedya ............................ p304
kanyāhrada .................................. p304
kapālamocana .............................. p304
kapiñjalā .................................... p304
kapilasya tīrtham .................... p304
kapilā .......................................... p304
kapilātīrtha .............................. p305
kapilāvaṭa .................................. p522
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karatoyā ...................................... p305
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kaliṅga^3 .................................... p652
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kāmyaka^2 .................................... p307
kāmyaka ........................................ p603
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kārtyayuga .................................. p237
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kālakūṭa ...................................... p309
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kālatīrtha .................................. p310
kālatoyaka .................................. p656
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kāladantaka ................................ p12
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kālaparvata^2 ............................ p310
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kālāmra ........................................ p310
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kālindī ........................................ p310
kāliya .......................................... p12
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kāverakā ...................................... p310
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kāśa .............................................. p657
kāśī .............................................. p657
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kāśyapa ........................................ p659
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kitava .......................................... p660
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kuntala^2 .................................... p666
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kubjāmraka .................................. p312
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kumāra^2 ...................................... p12
kumāraka ...................................... p13
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kumārī^1 ...................................... p312
kumārī^2 ...................................... p312
kumārī^3 ...................................... p312
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kurara .......................................... p13
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kurukṣetra .................................. p694
kurukṣetrasya dvāram .............. p313
kurukṣetrāśrama ........................ p524
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kurutīrtha .................................. p313
kulaka .......................................... p698
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kulika .......................................... p13
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kuliśa .......................................... p96
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kuśaka .......................................... p13
kuśadvīpa .................................... p699
kuśadhārā .................................... p313
kuśaplavana ................................ p314
kuśabindu .................................... p699
kuśala^1 ...................................... p700
kuśala^2 ...................................... p700
kuśavatī ...................................... p524
kuśavant ...................................... p314
kuśastamba .................................. p314
kuśasthala .................................. p524
kuśasthalī .................................. p525
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kuśika .......................................... p700
kuśeśaya^1 .................................. p314
kuśeśaya^2 .................................. p314
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kūpa^2 .......................................... p314
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kṛṣṇa ............................................ p13
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kekaya (addition) .................... p945
kekaya (addition) .................... p946
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kesarin ........................................ p315
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kaikaya ........................................ p707
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kaikeya ........................................ p707
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koṭitīrtha^2 .............................. p318
koṭitīrtha^3 .............................. p318
koṭitīrtha^4 .............................. p318
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kośala .......................................... p707
kośalā .......................................... p525
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kosala (correction) ................ p948
kosalā .......................................... p525
kosalā .......................................... p708
kaukuṭṭaka .................................. p708
kaukura ........................................ p708
kaubera astra ............................ p161
kaubera^1 .................................... p319
kaubera^2 .................................... p319
kaumāra ........................................ p709
kaumuda ........................................ p245
kaumudī ........................................ p245
kaumodakī .................................... p96
kaurava ........................................ p709
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kauravya ...................................... p709
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kauśika ........................................ p700
kauśika ........................................ p719
kauśikasya āśrmaḥ .................... p525
kauśikasya hradaḥ .................... p319
kauśikī ........................................ p319
kauśija ........................................ p719
kauśīka ........................................ p96
kaustubha .................................... p937
krathaka ...................................... p719
krathaka (addition) ................ p946
krathana ...................................... p14
krātha .......................................... p14
krodhavaśa .................................. p87
krauñca ........................................ p96
krauñca^1 .................................... p321
krauñca^2 .................................... p321
krauñcadvīpa .............................. p719
krauñcapādī ................................ p321
krauñcāruṇa ................................ p96
kṣudraka ...................................... p719
kṣemaka ........................................ p14
kṣemadarśīya .............................. p179

Vedic Rituals Hindi[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


क पु.
प्रजापति का वाचक ‘क’ वर्ण (मन्त्र ‘कोऽसि, वा.सं. 7.29) इसका वाचन तब किया जाता है, जब (सोमयाग में) यजमान द्रोणकलश पर दृष्टि डालता है, पञ्च.ब्रा. 4.5.6.4; का.श्रौ.सू. 9.7.11 (“कोऽसी”ति द्रोणकलशम्); आश्व.श्रौ.सू. 4.4.4; बौ.श्रौ.सू. 14.8; 27।

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