गरुड

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


गरुडः, पुं, (गरुद्भ्यां पक्षाभ्यां डयते उड्डयते । इति गरुत् + डी + डः । पृषोदरात् तलोपे साधुः । यद्वा, “गिर उडच् ।” उणां ४ । १५५ । इति उडच् ।) स्वनामख्यातपक्षी । तत्- पर्य्यायः । गरुत्मान् २ तार्क्ष्यः ३ वैनतेयः ४ खगेश्वरः ५ नागान्तकः ६ विष्णु रथः ७ सुपर्णः ८ पन्नगाशनः ९ । इत्यमरः । २ । २ । ३२ ॥ महा- वीरः १० पक्षिसिंहः ११ उरगाशनः १२ । इति जटाधरः ॥ शाल्मली १३ हरिवाहनः १४ अमृताहरणः १५ नागाशनः १६ । इति हारा- वली ॥ शाल्मलिस्थः १७ खगेन्द्रः १८ भुजगा- न्तकः १९ तरस्वी २० तार्क्ष्यनायकः २१ । इति राजनिर्घण्टः ॥ * ॥ तस्योत्पत्तिकारणं यथा, -- “यजतः पुत्त्रकामस्य कश्यपस्य प्रजापतेः । साहाय्यमृषयो देवा गन्धर्व्वाश्च ददुः किल ॥ तत्रेध्मानयने शक्रो नियुक्तः कश्यपेन ह । मुनयो वालिखिल्याश्च ये चान्ये देवतागणाः ॥ शक्रस्तु वीर्य्यसदृशमिष्मभारं गिरिप्रभम् । समुत्क्षिप्यानयामास नातिकृच्छ्रादिव प्रभुः ॥ अथापश्यदृषीन् ह्रस्वानङ्गुष्ठोदरवर्ष्मणः । पलाशवृन्तिकामेकां सहितान् वहतः पथि ॥ तान् सर्व्वान् विस्मयाविष्टो वीर्य्योन्मत्तः पुरन्दरः । अवहस्याभ्ययाच्छीघ्रं लङ्घयित्वावमन्य च ॥ तेऽथ रोषसमाविष्टाः सुभृशं जातमन्यवः । आरेभिरे महत् कर्म्म तदा शत्रुभयङ्करम् ॥ कामवीर्य्यः कामगमो देवराजभयप्रदः । इन्द्रोऽन्यो सर्व्वदेवानां भवेदिति यतव्रताः ॥ (व्यूहविशेषः । यथा, मनुः । ७ । १८७ । “वराहमकराभ्यां वा सूच्या वा गरुडेन वा ॥” “सूक्ष्ममुखपश्चाद्भागः पृथुमध्यो वराहव्यूहः । एष एवपृथुतरमध्यो गरुडव्यूहः ।” इति कुल्लूकभट्टः ॥)

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


गरुड पुं।

गरुडः

समानार्थक:गरुत्मत्,गरुड,तार्क्ष्य,वैनतेय,खगेश्वर,नागान्तक,विष्णुरथ,सुपर्ण,पन्नगाशन,अहिभुज

1।1।29।1।2

गरुत्मान्गरुडस्तार्क्ष्यो वैनतेयः खगेश्वरः। नागान्तको विष्णुरथः सुपर्णः पन्नगाशनः॥

स्वामी : विष्णुः

सम्बन्धि1 : विष्णुः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्येतरः, अलौकिकप्राणी

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


गरुड¦ पु॰ गरुद्भां डयते डी--ड पृषो॰ तलोपः। कश्यपा-न्मजे विनतागर्भजाते

१ पक्षिराजे अमरः।
“विनतापिसुसिद्धार्था वभूव मुदिता तदा। जनयामास पुत्रौ{??}-रुणं गरुडं तथा। विकलाङ्गोऽरुणस्तत्र भास्करस्यपुरःसरः। पतत्त्रिणान्तु गरुड इन्द्रत्वेनाभ्यषिच्यत” भा॰ आ॰

३१ अ॰। विंशतिविधप्रासादमध्ये

२ प्रासादभेदे।
“गरुडाकृतिश्च गरुडो नन्दीति षट्चतुष्कविस्तीर्णः। का-र्य्यश्च सप्तभौमो विभूषितोऽण्डैश्च विंशत्या” वृ॰ स॰

५६ अ॰

३ सैन्यनिवेशनभेदरूपे व्यूहभेदे। दण्डव्यूहेन तन्मार्गंयायात्तु शकटेन वा। वराहमकराभ्यां वा सूच्या वा ग-रुडेन वा” मनुः।
“सूक्ष्ममुखपश्चाद्भागः पृथुमध्यो वरा-हव्यूहः एष एव पृथुतरमध्यो गरुडव्यूहः ताभ्यांपार्श्वयोर्भये सति व्रजेत्” कुल्लू॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


गरुड¦ m. (-डः) The bird and vehicle of VISHNU; he is generally re- presented as being something between a man and a bird, and considered as sovereign of the feathered race; he is the son of KASYAPA and VINATA, and younger brother of ARUNA. E. गरुत् a wing, डी, to fly, affix ड, and the त of the noun dropped, who flies like a bird, or गृ to moisten, and उडच् Unadi aff.

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


गरुडः [garuḍḥ], [गरुद्भयां डयते, डी-ड पृषो˚ तलोपः, गॄ-उडच् Uṇ 4. 166.]

N. of the king of birds. [He is a son of Kaśyapa by his wife Vinatā. He is the chief of the feathered race, an implacable enemy of serpents, and elder brother of Aruṇa. In a dispute between his mother and Kadrū, her rival, about the colour of उचैःश्रवस् Kadrū defeated Vinatā, and, in accordance with the conditions of the wager, made her her slave. Garuḍa brought down the heavenly beverage (Amṛita) to purchase her freedom, not, however, without a hard struggle with Indra for the same. Vinatā was then released; but the Amṛita was taken away by Indra from the serpents. Garuḍa is represented as the vehicle of Visnu, and as having a white face, an aquiline nose, red wings and a golden body.]

A building or architecture (such as चिति) shaped like Garuḍa; गरुडो रुक्मपक्षो वै त्रिगुणो$ष्टादशात्मकः Rām.1.14. 29.

N. of a particular military array. -Comp. -अग्रजः an epithet of Aruṇa, the charioteer of the sun; विभिन्नवर्णा गरुडाग्रजेन Śi.4.14. -अङ्कः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अङ्कितम्, -अश्मन् m. -उत्तीर्णम् an emerald. -ध्वजः an epithet of Viṣṇu; समाहितमतिश्चैव तुष्टाव गरुडध्वजम् V. P. -व्यूहः a particular military array.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


गरुड m. (2. गॄUn2. iv , 155 , " devourer " , because गरुडwas perhaps originally identified with the all-consuming fire of the sun's rays) , N. of a mythical bird (chief of the feathered race , enemy of the serpent-race [See. RTL. p.321 ] , vehicle of विष्णु[See. RTL. pp. 65 ; 104 ; 288] , son of कश्यपand विनता; shortly after his birth he frightened the gods by his brilliant lustre ; they supposed him to be अग्नि, and requested his protection ; when they discovered that he was गरुड, they praised him as the highest being , and called him fire and sun MBh. i , 1239 ff. ; अरुण, the charioteer of the sun or the personified dawn , is said to be the elder[or younger See. RTL. p.104 ] brother of गरुड; स्वाहा, the wife of अग्नि, takes the shape of a female गरुडी= सुपर्णीMBh. iii , 14307 and 14343 ) Suparn2. TA1r. x , 1 , 6 MBh. etc.

गरुड m. a building shaped like गरुडR. VarBr2S.

गरुड m. N. of a peculiar military array Mn. vii , 187

गरुड m. N. of the attendant of the 16th अर्हत्of the present अवसर्पिणीL.

गरुड m. N. of the 14th कल्पperiod

गरुड m. N. of a son of कृष्णHariv. 9196

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(II)--a son of विश्वेशा. M. १७१. ५०.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Garuḍa, Garutmant, Tārkṣya, Vainateya, Suparṇa : m.: A mythical bird.


A. Origin: (a) According to 1. 2. 73 the origin is narrated in the Āstīkaparvan; mind-born (saṁkalpaja) son of Kaśyapa and Vinatā (1. 27. 27, hence often called Vainateya; also Vinatātmaja, Vinatāsuta, Vinatāsūnu) 1. 14. 6, 8; 1. 27. 2, 27, 34; 1. 59. 39; 1. 60. 67; 5. 103. 10; born from one of the two eggs of Vinatā placed in a warm pot (sopasveda bhāṇḍa) for over a thousand years; as advised by her elder son Aruṇa, Vinatā did not break the egg prematurely 1. 14. 12 14, 19-20; when the proper time came Garuḍa came out of the egg without mother's help 1. 20. 4; as soon as born he left the mother and flew up in the sky, from there to seek his destined food (serpents, hence pannagasūdana) 1. 14. 22-23; as son of Vinatā, he is counted among the six Vainateyas 1. 59. 39; 1. 114. 62; (1. 60. 38); (b) Garuḍa born due to the penance of the Vālakhilyas 1. 27. 27; once Indra disregarded the Vālakhilyas; so they offered a sacrifice to produce another Indra for gods who would be a hundred times more powerful than the then existing Indra 1. 27. 8-14; at the intervention of Kaśyapa Prajāpati, Vālakhilyas agreed to the proposal that the one to be born as a result of their sacrifice would be the ‘Indra’ of the birds 1. 27. 16, 20, 29; hence Garuḍa was consecrated as Indra of birds 1. 27. 35; Rudra gave a boon that the Vālakhilyas will produce by their penance Suparṇa, the bringer of Soma 13. 14. 62-63; (c) At birth, Garuḍa was of big size (mahākāyaḥ), having blazing lustre and looking like a mass of kindled fire 1. 20. 5, 7; all people thought him to be fire; gods and sages requested Agni not to burn the people; they were informed by Agni that the mass of fire was Garuḍa, Agni's equal in lustre 1. 20. 4-8; gods and sages praised Garuḍa, whereupon Garuḍa withdrew his lustre 1. 20. 10-14.


B. Progeny: Suparṇas: six sons of Garuḍa (Vainateya) Sumukha (6. 7. 12) and others, extended the lineage of Suparṇa; these live in the world of Suparṇas with serpents as their food 5. 99. 1; these six are thus the founders of the vinatākula 5. 99. 3.


C. Eminence: Garuḍa compared with Pinākin 1. 28. 20; Upamanyu said that Śiva was Vainateya among the birds 13. 14. 158; as the best among the birds he was counted among the Vibhūtis of Bhagavān 6. 32. 30; Arjuna was like Garuḍa among the birds 6. 116. 32; Vainateya never thought highly of other birds whenever he confronted them 6. 4. 34.


D. Bringer of amṛta (Soma): Some time after his birth Garuḍa approached his mother who, as the slave of Kadrū was on the other side of the ocean; at her instance Vainateya carried on his back serpents near the sun; serpents fainted due to sun's (hot) rays 1. 21. 5-6; when revived at Indra's intervention, Suparṇa carried them to a beautiful forest in an island, and from there to another island 1. 23. 1, 6-7; Garuḍa asked Vinatā why he must do whatever serpents asked him to do; knowing the reason (Vinatā's slavery), Garuḍa asked serpents how his mother could be freed from slavery; serpents asked him to get amṛta for them (1. 23. 1-12); before starting on his expedition, Garuḍa asked Vinatā what he might eat on his way; she asked him to eat the Niṣādas living in Niṣādālaya but warned him never to harm a Brāhmaṇa; Vinatā told Garuḍa how to recognize a Brāhmaṇa; at the time of his departure he was blessed by Vinatā; at Niṣādālaya he opened his beak and ate up those that entered it 1. 24. 1-14; a Brāhmaṇa and his wife inadvertently got into his beak and burnt his throat; Garuḍa opened the beak and let the Brāhmaṇa and his wife, a Niṣādī, slip out, he was blessed by the Brāhmaṇa 1. 25. 1-5; further on his way he met his father Kaśyapa whom he told that he was on his way to get Soma (1. 25. 7; amṛta 1. 25. 9) and asked what else he might eat; Kaśyapa asked him to eat Supratīka, (an elephant) and Vibhāvasu (a tortoise), both of enormous size, and blessed him 1. 25. 7-9, 25; Garuda picked up the elephant and the tortoise (who, according to 5. 107. 16, lived in the south and used to fight with each other) with his nails and went to Alambatīrtha and sat on a Rohiṇa tree to eat the two; the branch gave way under the tremendous weight 1. 25. 27-33; on this branch were the Vālakhilyas; to save them from destruction Garuḍa (Tārkṣya 1. 26. 18) held the branch in his beak and flew around; not finding a place to rest Garuḍa went to his father Kaśyapa on the Gandhamādana mountain; Kaśyapa told the Vālakhilyas that Garuḍa's endeavour was in the interest of the living beings; they left the branch; Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja 1. 26. 15) asked Kaśyapa to direct him to a place, free from Brāhmaṇas, where he might leave the branch; as advised, Garuḍa went to an uninhabited mountain covered with snow and there ate the elephant and the tortoise 1. 26. 1-16; as Garuḍa drew near the place of amṛta, there were bad omens for gods; when Indra enquired the reason, Brahaspati told him that Garuḍa was arriving to fetch Soma 1. 26. 36-37 (called also amṛta 1. 26. 38); Bṛhaspati told the gods that Garuḍa was of incomparable strength and would achieve what was most difficult to achieve (asādhyam api sādhayet) 1. 26. 37; Garuḍa (Garutmart 1. 28. 1; Vainateya 1. 28. 14; Vinatāsuta 1. 28. 20) fought with Bhauvana, the protector of Soma (1. 28. 3), with other gods who were protecting amṛta (1. 28. 6), an with birds (pakṣin) like Aśvakranda, Reṇuka and others; he killed these, and put gods to flight; he fought with wings, beak and nails 1. 28. 1-20; after the fight Garuḍa saw amṛta surrounded by fire; he divided his mouth into ninety times ninety, fetched water in them from rivers, poured it on the fire and pacified it; to enter the fire he became small in size 1. 28. 22-25; near the amṛta he saw a wheel of iron (ayasmaya), of sharp edge, which was a device (yantra) created by gods to cut down those who might try to steal Soma; as he entered through the spokes of the wheel he saw two serpents, with poison in their eyes (cakṣurviṣau), guarding amṛta; anyone seen by them would be reduced to ashes; Suparṇa blinded their eyes with dust and, unseen, he (Vainateya) snatched Soma and flew away quickly; with the force of his speed he uprooted (unmath-) the yantra 1. 29. 2-10; he himself did not taste the amṛta but asked a boon from Viṣṇu that he should become undecaying and immortal without tasting amṛta 1. 29. 11, 14; without going near him Indra struck Garuḍa, as he was taking away amṛta, with his vajra; to respect the sage (Dadhīca 1. 127. 12) from whose bones the vajra was fashioned, the vajra itself, and Indra, Garuḍa released a feather from his wings, as though due to the stroke of vajra, but otherwise was not affected by the vajra 1. 29. 17-20; seeing the feather of excellent form all beings (sarvabhūtāni) said “may this bird be Suparṇa” (surūpaṁ patram ālakṣya suparṇo 'yaṁ bhavatv iti) 1. 29. 21; Indra sought Garuḍa's friendship, and Garuḍa agreed 1. 29. 23; 1. 30. 1 (Kaśyapa had prophesied before Garuḍa's birth that he would be the helper of Indra 1. 27. 30); Indra requested Garuḍa to return Soma, but Garuḍa told him the purpose of taking it away; both hatched a plan-Indra was to take away amṛta once Garuḍa had placed it before the serpents and freed his mother from slavery 1. 30. 7-9; Indra granted Garuḍa a boon, and he chose serpents to be his food 1. 30. 10-12 (hence his epithets like pannagāśana 2. 22. 23; 5. 110. 5, 15; 5. 117. 23; pannagasūdana 1. 14. 22; bhujagendrāri 5. 110. 1; bhujagāri 10. 13. 4); Garuḍa brought amṛta to serpents and placed it for them on the kuśa grass; he asked them to take it after they had bathed and become auspicious (maṅgalasaṁyuktāḥ); he asked serpents to free his mother from slavery from that day; the serpents agreed and went to bathe; Garuḍa (Suparṇa) was happy to roam with his mother Vinatā freely in the forest and to gladden her 1. 30. 14-21 (Aruṇa, Garuḍa's elder brother, had prophesied that Garuḍa would free Vinatā from slavery 1. 14. 18); phalaśruti: One who hears or recites this narrative (kathā) will go to heaven due to his glorifying Garuḍa, the lord of the birds (patagapati) 1. 30. 22.


E. Gālava episode: Gālava was asked by his teacher Viśvāmitra to give him as dakṣiṇā eight hundred moon-like white horses, each having a black ear on one side (5. 104. 26); not knowing how to procure these, Gālava desired to take recourse to Viṣṇu; just then Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja), the friend of Gālava, appeared before him and offered to take him to any place 5. 105. 14-19; Suparṇa described to Gālava the four directions 5. Adh. 106-109; he told Gālava the etymology of the name of the direction uttarā (yasmād uttāryate pāpāt ‘because one is freed there from sin’ 5. 109. 1; also guṇair anyair dig uttarā ‘a direction superior (to others) in different qualities’, and sarvakarmasu cottarā ‘better (than other directions) for performing all rites’ 5. 109. 24); Gālava requested Garuḍa (named variously as Garutmant, Suparṇa, Vinatātmaja, Tārkṣya, Aruṇānuja) to take him to the east; Garuḍa (Vinatāsūnu) agreed and asked Galava to mount him 5. 110. 1-4; unable to stand the speed of Garuḍa, Gālava requested him (Vinatātmaja) not to proceed further but to return to their place 5. 110. 14-15; Gālava told Garuḍa that his real purpose was to obtain the eight hundred horses and since he knew no way to obtain them he thought of giving up his life that way 5. 110. 16-17; Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja) found fault with Gālava for wanting to end his life and told him: “The time of death is not determined by any person, Kāla is rather supreme (na cāpi kṛtrimaḥ kālaḥ kālo hi parameśvaraḥ [Nīla.: kṛtrimaḥ svecchāsampādyaḥ 5. 112. 20 Bom. Ed.]) 5. 110. 19-20; he told Gālava that they would first repair to mountain Ṛṣabha in the heart of the ocean, eat, rest, and then return 5. 110. 22; on the peak of the Ṛṣabha mountain Suparṇa and Gālava met a Brāhmaṇī Śāṇḍilī; they ate the food cooked by her and slept; when Suparṇa woke up he found himself to be just a ball of meat, bereft of wings, with only mouth and feet left; he was reduced to that state because he belittled Śāṇḍilī and had planned to take her away from that place; he begged for forgiveness; Śāṇḍilī relented and told Garuḍa that he would be ‘Suparṇa’ again; Garuḍa got back his wings which were stronger than before (Nīla. draviṇavattarau = balavattarau 5. 113. 17 Bom. Ed.) 5. 111. 17; Śāṇḍilī advised Garuḍa not to despise women at any time even if they deserved to be despised (na ca te garhaṇīyāpi garhaṇīyāḥ striyaḥ kvacit 5. 111. 16) 5. 111. 1-17; when Viśvāmitra, on his way, saw Gālava without the horses he had asked for, he blamed him in the presence of Vainateya and said he would further wait for a period of the same duration as before; Suparṇa, having heard what Viśvāmitra had said, explained to Gālava the importance of gold and wealth (he told him the etymology of the word dhana: dhatte dhārayate cedam etasmāt kāraṇād dhanam 5. 112. 2) and took him to his friend, king Yayāti, for getting wealth to purchase the required horses; when they met Yayāti, Garuḍa (vinatāsuta) requested him on Gālava's behalf to part with some wealth; Garuḍa assured Yayāti that Gālava in return would give him a part of his tapas; Garuḍa told Yayāti that since he was qualified to give a gift and Gālava to receive it his giving gift to Gālava would be like pouring milk in a conch shell (śaṅkhe kṣīram ivāsaktam 5. 112. 20) 5. 111. 18-23; 5. 112. 1-20; Yayāti listened to what Suparṇa had said; he was delighted to meet Tārkṣya, his friend; but Yayāti told him that he was no longer wealthy; however as it was not meet to frustrate the hopes of a viprarṣi, he was prepared to part with his daughter Mādhavī by marrying whom to some king Gālava could acquire wealth as bride price (śulka) to buy the horses; Garuḍa having shown the way to Gālava to acquire the horses left him and went to his residence 5. 113. 1-16; when Gālava had procured six hundred out of the eight hundred required śyāmakarṇa horses, he met Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja) again 5. 116. 21; Garuḍa (Vainateya) heard Gālava's story; he (Suparṇa) told Gālava that he would never find more than six hundred horses as, before him, Ṛcīka did not get more than six hundred horses; Garuḍa advised Gālava to give Mādhavī to Viśvāmitra in lieu of the remaining two hundred horses; Suparṇa then took Gālava, Mādhavī and the six hundred horses to Viśvāmitra; Gālava was thus able to pay the dakṣiṇā his teacher had demanded with the help of Suparṇa; Gālava permitted Suparṇa to leave 5. 117. 1-23.


F. Sumukha (a serpent) episode: Serpent Āryaka told Mātali who wanted his daughter to be married to Sumukha that Cikura, his son, was killed by Vainateya and that the same fate awaited his grand-son Sumukha in a month's time; Mātali assured Āryaka that he would endeavour to mitigate the threat of Suparṇa to Sumukha; when they all approached Indra, Viṣṇu asked Indra to give amṛta to Sumukha and make him immortal; Indra, remembering the prowess of Vainateya, was reluctant to part with amṛta and asked Viṣṇu himself to give it to Sumukha; when asked by Viṣṇu again, Indra gave only long life to Cikura but not amṛta 5. 102. 14-27; 5. 101. 24.


G. Association with Viṣṇu:

(1) As standing on his flag-staff and as his vehicle: While fetching amṛta from heaven, Vainateya met Viṣṇu on way; when offered a boon by Viṣṇu, Garuḍa chose that he should stay above Viṣṇu (tava tiṣṭheyam upari); when Garuḍa in return offered a boon to Viṣṇu, he chose Garuḍa to serve him as his vehicle (vāhana), and since Garuḍa wanted to stand above him Viṣṇu asked Garuḍa to stand on his flag-staff (dhvajaṁ ca cakre) 1. 29. 12-16; hence after the death of Jarāsandha when Kṛṣṇa thought of Garuḍa (Garutmant), he instantly appeared and took his seat on (the flag-staff of) the chariot; the flag-staff then appeared as a raised caitya post 2. 22. 2223; Kṛṣṇa's flag marked with Garuḍa when he started for Hāstinapura 5. 81. 20; when Dāruka brought Kṛṣṇa's chariot for the use of Sātyaki it was marked with Suparṇa 7. 122. 43; also 7. 56. 33 (Vainateya); when Kṛṣṇa got his chariot ready to pursue Aśvatthāman, Vainateya stood on the flag-staff 10. 13. 4; when, at the end, the Vṛṣṇis were helplessly looking on, Suparṇa on the flag of Kṛṣṇa was taken away day and night by the Apsaras 16. 4. 5; Kṛṣṇa (Viṣṇu) is called Garuḍadhvaja 7. 57. 2; 13. 11. 5; 13. 135. 51; Suparṇaketu 3. 173. 15; Tārkṣyaketana 2. 2. 12; 12. 48. 14; Tārkṣyapravaraketana 2. 42. 55; Tārkṣyadhvaja 8. 27. 65; (also cf. 12. 46. 34); Tārkṣyalakṣaṇa 12. 43. 8; Kṛṣṇa used Vainateya as his vehicle while fetching Pārijāta from Amarāvatī 7. 10. 22; he used Tārkṣya as vehicle while going to Himavant to propitiate Śiva 13. 14. 26 and Vainateya while waiting on him 13. 14. 142; Garuḍa felt he was disregarded by Indra because he stood on the flag of Indra's younger brother and because he carried him (Kṛṣṇa) on his back and was thus reduced to the state of a servant 5. 103. 13, 8; Viṣṇu asked Garutmant to bring king Vasu Uparicara from Pātāla and make him a khecara 12. 324. 30-35;

(2) Removal of Garuḍa's pride: When Garuḍa knew that Indra had granted long life to the serpent Sumukha he blamed Indra for depriving him of his food; he threatened to give up his life and said that as long as Indra was there he had nothing to do with Viṣṇu (na viṣṇuḥ kāraṇaṁ mama) 5. 103. 1-17; Viṣṇu scolded Garuḍa (Tārkṣya, Garutmant) for praising himself although in reality he was very weak; Viṣṇu told Garuḍa that he did not really carry Viṣṇu but Viṣṇu carried himself and also Garuḍa (aham evātmanātmānaṁ vahāmi tvāṁ ca dhāraye 5. 103. 20); however he asked Garuḍa to carry only his right arm, and when the arm was placed on Garuḍa he fell down under its weight and became almost unconscious (vicetāḥ); he shed many feathers; Viṣṇu did not deprive him of his life; finally Garuḍa bowed down to Viṣṇu and begged for forgiveness 5. 103. 18-30.


H. Association with Śeṣa: Śeṣa complained to Pitāmaha that his dull-witted brothers (serpents) hated their brother (cousin) Vainateya and he in turn hated them 1. 32. 10-11; Pitāmaha then made Garuḍa (Suparṇa, Vainateya) a friend of Śeṣa 1. 32. 25.


I. Association with Skanda: Suparṇa gave Skanda a feather and a peacock as toy (krīḍanīya) 13. 86. 20-21; he gave peacock to Skanda 9. 45. 46; he attended Skanda's consecration as general of the army 9. 44. 14; some of the warriors of Skanda were Garuḍa-faced (garuḍānanāḥ) 9. 44. 79.


J. Garuḍa's other feats:

(1) Suparṇa swallowed a quail which, however, was freed by Aśvinau 1. 3. 62;

(2) Garutmant often went to the mountain Himavant 12. 314. 6; Suparṇa once carried away forcibly the big snake Ṛddhimant living near a lake on the Gandhamādana mountain; the wonderful feat (adbhutam) was witnessed by the Pāṇḍavas 3. 157. 14-15;

(3) A serpent (not named), husband of the daughter of Airāvata, killed by Suparṇa 6. 86. 7;

(4) Suparṇa (and Suparṇas) fought with Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna who protected the fire at Khāṇḍava; he fought with wings, beak, and nails 1. 218. 19-20; 8. 63. 68 (nakha, daśana (? for beak);

(5) During his fight with demons (Daiteyas) he performed the great feat of killing six of them 5. 103. 11-12.


K. Strength: Indra described Garuḍa as a great being (mahad bhūtam) and wished to know the extent of his strength (1. 29. 22, 23); Garuḍa said that although good persons did not themselves describe their strength and virtues he would do so due to his friendship with Indra; Garuḍa could carry the whole earth with mountains etc., the worlds, even with Śakra, with only a quill of his feather (pakṣanāḍī), and this without feeling fatigue 1. 30. 2-5; also cf. 1. 20. 10-14; 1. 26. 6-9; 5. 103. 10-11, 17.


L. Greatness:

(1) Called mahātman 1. 28. 24;

(2) Destined to be the only Indra of all birds and was so consecrated 1. 27. 29, 35; hence he is called khageśvara 1. 20. 14; khagarāj 9. 16. 57; pakṣirāj 1. 24. 12; 1. 25. 6; 1. 27. 2; 1. 28. 1, 10, 13; 1. 96. 36; 7. 103. 8; 7. 47. 35; pakṣirāja (Garutmān) 12. 314. 6; gaganacareśvara 1. 24. 14; patageśvara 1. 20. 10; patagarāja 5. 113. 17; 7. 99. 12; patagapati 1. 30. 22; patagendra 1. 28. 4, 16; 5. 81. 20; patagottama 1. 23. 6, 9; patagaśreṣṭha 8. 27. 40; patatāṁ vara 3. 13. 82; 5. 112. 1; 5. 117. 3; dvijottama 12. 324. 30-32;

(3) Vainateya is counted among the Ādityas 1. 60. 38;

(4) he moved at will (kāmacārī, kāmagamaḥ) and had any amount of strength according to his wish (kāmavīrya); he was irresistible (adhṛṣya) and could not be killed (avadhya) 1. 21. 1; 1. 27. 2, 3, 29;

(5) Vainateya present among those who greeted Arjuna's birth 1. 114. 62;

(6) The account of Garuḍa is the subject matter of a Purāṇa 1. 27. 4, 3.


M. Comparisons with Garuḍa:

(1) Based on his enmity with serpents: Bhīṣma wanted to kill Śālva as Garuḍa killed a serpent 1. 96. 36; also 7. 35. 27; 7. 149. 26; 8. 63. 68; 8. 66. 22; (Garutmant) 3. 157. 66; 7. 114. 87; 8. 40. 68; (Vainateya) 7. 13. 73; 7. 164. 145; (Tārkṣya) 7. 13. 54; 7. 114. 57; 8. 15. 41; 8. 19. 6; (Suparṇa) 3. 253. 5; (khagarāj) 9. 16. 57; warriors routed by Sātyaki took refuge with Droṇa as serpents, frightened by patagarāja, did in holes 7. 99. 12; 1. 202. 17 (Vainateya); man is freed of sins by seeing Gaṅgā as serpents lose poison at the sight of Tārkṣya 13. 27. 43; [also see the next];

(2) Based on his speed, vehemence and agility: (i) arrows: speed of arrows compared to that of Suparṇa 7. 109. 32; 6. 79. 50 (Garutmant); (ii) horses: Arjuna's horses compared with Garuḍa 8. 45. 68; 7. 103. 8 (Suparṇa); speed of horses dispatched by Duryodhana like that of Garutmant (pl.) 6. 101. 12; the chariot of Duḥṣanta compared with Suparṇa 1. 63. 11; (iii) individual heroes: Aśvatthāman's speed, while rushing to attack Dhṛṣṭadyumna, compared to that of Garuḍa rushing to catch a serpent 8. 42. 39; Abhimanyu so compared 7. 51. 7 (Suparṇa); 7. 47. 35 (pakṣirāj); Bhīma so compared 3. 153. 19 (Vainateya); 7. 31. 61 (Vainateya); Ghaṭotkaca so compared 6. 89. 5 (Vainateya); (iv) birds: swans 8. 28. 14; owl 10. 1. 36 (Suparṇa); laṭvā 8. 27. 40 (Suparṇa, Vainateya);

(3) The breeze produced by his flight: (i) horses compared with it 7. 36. 21 (garuḍānilaraṁhobhiḥ …hayaiḥ); 7. 74. 10 (Tārkṣya); (ii) arrows: 7. 172. 22; 8. 62. 51 (?) (Suparṇa); (iii) strong wind 3. 157. 19 (Suparṇa);

(4) The noise produced by flight: (i) chariot's sound compared with it 3. 230. 18; 6. 86. 18 (Suparṇa); sound of Arjuna's chariot like that of Garuḍa rushing for serpents 8. 55. 22;

(5) Capacity to carry burden: Bhīma, taking his mother and brothers on his back, would fly like Vainateya 3. 13. 82;

(6) Lustre: Śuka flying up from Kailāsa towards heaven had the lustre (dyuti) of Vainateya 12. 319. 11; Sutasoma appeared to have the lustre equal to the prowess of Tārkṣya 8. 18. 32;

(7) Formidable appearance: Bhīma with his mace, ready to fight with Duryodhana, looked like Garutmant 9. 54. 14; Bhīma and Duryodhana fought as two Garutmants would for the flesh of a serpent 9. 57. 23; the capital at Khāṇḍavaprastha protected by gates known as two winged Garuḍa (dvipakṣagaruḍaprakhyaiḥ dvāraiḥ 1. 199. 31);

(8) Superiority among birds: Bhīṣma to be the general of the Kauravas as Suparṇa was of birds 5. 153. 13;

(9) Body shape: (i) a large vyūha (mahāvyūha) called Garuḍa or Gāruḍa Vyūha due to its lay-out 6. 52. 2-9;

(2) agniciti of Yudhiṣṭhira's horse-sacrifice was of the shape of Garuḍa 14. 90. 31;

(10) Persons and birds compared with Garuḍa: Kṛṣṇa 5. 69. 5; Sampāti 3. 266. 46; a hawk 3. 131. 13 (Suparṇa pakṣirāj); a crow mistakenly considered himself to be equal to Suparṇa 8. 28. 49.


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Garuḍa (Suparṇa) : m.: Name of a particular arrangement of the army (vyūha), described as mahāvyūha 6. 52. 2; also called Suparṇa 7. 19. 4, which is described as ‘superhuman’ (atimānuṣa) and ‘invincible by the enemies’ (ajayyam aribhiḥ) 7. 19. 21.

1. On the third day of the war Bhīṣma arranged the Kaurava army according to the Garuḍavyūha; at its ‘beak’ (tuṇḍa) stood Bhīṣma himself; its ‘eyes’ (cakṣuṣī) were Droṇa and Kṛtavarman; Aśvatthāman and Kṛpa, supported by the Trigartas, Matsyas, Kaikayas and Vāṭadhānas, formed the ‘head’ (śīrṣa); at its ‘neck’ (grīvā) were stationed Bhūriśravas, Śala, Śalya, Bhagadatta, Jayadratha, and the Madrakas, the Sindhusauvīras and the Pañcanadas; at its ‘back’ (pṛṣṭha) was king Duryodhana with his brothers and followers; the ‘tail’ (puccha) was made up by Vinda, Anuvinda, the Kāmboja, and the Śakas, as well as the Śūrasenas; the Māgadhas, the Kaliṅgas and the Dāśerakas stood at the right wing (dakṣiṇa pakṣa), while on the left (vāma pakṣa) were the Kānanas, the Vikuñjas, the Muktas, and the Puṇḍrāviṣes together with Bṛhadbala 6. 52. 3-9; 2. On the twelfth day of the war Droṇa arranged the Kaurava army according to the Suparṇa (Garuḍa) vyūha; at its entrance (mukha) stood Droṇa; its ‘head’ (śiras) was Duryodhana with his brothers and followers; its ‘eyes’ (cakṣuṣī) were Kṛtavarman and Gautama (Kṛpa), together with Bhūtavarman, Kṣemaśarman, Karakarṣa, and the warriors from the Kaliṅga and other countries; at its ‘neck’ (grīvā) were Śūrasenas, Daradas and others with their armies consisting of elephants, chariots, horsemen and foot-soldiers; Bhūriśravas, Śala, Śalya, Somadatta and Bāhlika with an army consisting of one akṣauhiṇī formed the right wing (dakṣiṇa pakṣa); Vinda and Anuvinda of the Avanti country, and Sudakṣiṇa from the Kamboja occupied the left wing (vāma pakṣa), and took positions in front of Aśvatthāman; at the ‘back’ (pṛṣṭha) of the vyūha were the Kaliṅgas, the Ambaṣṭhas and others; at the ‘tail’ (puccha) was Karṇa with his sons and relatives; Jayadratha, Bhīmaratha and other heroes stood ‘above’ (?) the vyūha (vyūhasyopari) 7. 19. 5-14; the vyūha looked like an ocean tossed by wind 7. 19. 15; from its wings and ends of wings rushed (elephants) eager to fight; in the midst of this army of elephants stood the king of Prāgjyotiṣa (Bhagadatta) mounted on an elephant duly prepared for fight; Bhagadatta was surrounded by many kings from mountain countries (pārvatīyaiḥ samanvitaḥ) 7. 19. 16-20.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Garuḍa, Garutmant, Tārkṣya, Vainateya, Suparṇa : m.: A mythical bird.


A. Origin: (a) According to 1. 2. 73 the origin is narrated in the Āstīkaparvan; mind-born (saṁkalpaja) son of Kaśyapa and Vinatā (1. 27. 27, hence often called Vainateya; also Vinatātmaja, Vinatāsuta, Vinatāsūnu) 1. 14. 6, 8; 1. 27. 2, 27, 34; 1. 59. 39; 1. 60. 67; 5. 103. 10; born from one of the two eggs of Vinatā placed in a warm pot (sopasveda bhāṇḍa) for over a thousand years; as advised by her elder son Aruṇa, Vinatā did not break the egg prematurely 1. 14. 12 14, 19-20; when the proper time came Garuḍa came out of the egg without mother's help 1. 20. 4; as soon as born he left the mother and flew up in the sky, from there to seek his destined food (serpents, hence pannagasūdana) 1. 14. 22-23; as son of Vinatā, he is counted among the six Vainateyas 1. 59. 39; 1. 114. 62; (1. 60. 38); (b) Garuḍa born due to the penance of the Vālakhilyas 1. 27. 27; once Indra disregarded the Vālakhilyas; so they offered a sacrifice to produce another Indra for gods who would be a hundred times more powerful than the then existing Indra 1. 27. 8-14; at the intervention of Kaśyapa Prajāpati, Vālakhilyas agreed to the proposal that the one to be born as a result of their sacrifice would be the ‘Indra’ of the birds 1. 27. 16, 20, 29; hence Garuḍa was consecrated as Indra of birds 1. 27. 35; Rudra gave a boon that the Vālakhilyas will produce by their penance Suparṇa, the bringer of Soma 13. 14. 62-63; (c) At birth, Garuḍa was of big size (mahākāyaḥ), having blazing lustre and looking like a mass of kindled fire 1. 20. 5, 7; all people thought him to be fire; gods and sages requested Agni not to burn the people; they were informed by Agni that the mass of fire was Garuḍa, Agni's equal in lustre 1. 20. 4-8; gods and sages praised Garuḍa, whereupon Garuḍa withdrew his lustre 1. 20. 10-14.


B. Progeny: Suparṇas: six sons of Garuḍa (Vainateya) Sumukha (6. 7. 12) and others, extended the lineage of Suparṇa; these live in the world of Suparṇas with serpents as their food 5. 99. 1; these six are thus the founders of the vinatākula 5. 99. 3.


C. Eminence: Garuḍa compared with Pinākin 1. 28. 20; Upamanyu said that Śiva was Vainateya among the birds 13. 14. 158; as the best among the birds he was counted among the Vibhūtis of Bhagavān 6. 32. 30; Arjuna was like Garuḍa among the birds 6. 116. 32; Vainateya never thought highly of other birds whenever he confronted them 6. 4. 34.


D. Bringer of amṛta (Soma): Some time after his birth Garuḍa approached his mother who, as the slave of Kadrū was on the other side of the ocean; at her instance Vainateya carried on his back serpents near the sun; serpents fainted due to sun's (hot) rays 1. 21. 5-6; when revived at Indra's intervention, Suparṇa carried them to a beautiful forest in an island, and from there to another island 1. 23. 1, 6-7; Garuḍa asked Vinatā why he must do whatever serpents asked him to do; knowing the reason (Vinatā's slavery), Garuḍa asked serpents how his mother could be freed from slavery; serpents asked him to get amṛta for them (1. 23. 1-12); before starting on his expedition, Garuḍa asked Vinatā what he might eat on his way; she asked him to eat the Niṣādas living in Niṣādālaya but warned him never to harm a Brāhmaṇa; Vinatā told Garuḍa how to recognize a Brāhmaṇa; at the time of his departure he was blessed by Vinatā; at Niṣādālaya he opened his beak and ate up those that entered it 1. 24. 1-14; a Brāhmaṇa and his wife inadvertently got into his beak and burnt his throat; Garuḍa opened the beak and let the Brāhmaṇa and his wife, a Niṣādī, slip out, he was blessed by the Brāhmaṇa 1. 25. 1-5; further on his way he met his father Kaśyapa whom he told that he was on his way to get Soma (1. 25. 7; amṛta 1. 25. 9) and asked what else he might eat; Kaśyapa asked him to eat Supratīka, (an elephant) and Vibhāvasu (a tortoise), both of enormous size, and blessed him 1. 25. 7-9, 25; Garuda picked up the elephant and the tortoise (who, according to 5. 107. 16, lived in the south and used to fight with each other) with his nails and went to Alambatīrtha and sat on a Rohiṇa tree to eat the two; the branch gave way under the tremendous weight 1. 25. 27-33; on this branch were the Vālakhilyas; to save them from destruction Garuḍa (Tārkṣya 1. 26. 18) held the branch in his beak and flew around; not finding a place to rest Garuḍa went to his father Kaśyapa on the Gandhamādana mountain; Kaśyapa told the Vālakhilyas that Garuḍa's endeavour was in the interest of the living beings; they left the branch; Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja 1. 26. 15) asked Kaśyapa to direct him to a place, free from Brāhmaṇas, where he might leave the branch; as advised, Garuḍa went to an uninhabited mountain covered with snow and there ate the elephant and the tortoise 1. 26. 1-16; as Garuḍa drew near the place of amṛta, there were bad omens for gods; when Indra enquired the reason, Brahaspati told him that Garuḍa was arriving to fetch Soma 1. 26. 36-37 (called also amṛta 1. 26. 38); Bṛhaspati told the gods that Garuḍa was of incomparable strength and would achieve what was most difficult to achieve (asādhyam api sādhayet) 1. 26. 37; Garuḍa (Garutmart 1. 28. 1; Vainateya 1. 28. 14; Vinatāsuta 1. 28. 20) fought with Bhauvana, the protector of Soma (1. 28. 3), with other gods who were protecting amṛta (1. 28. 6), an with birds (pakṣin) like Aśvakranda, Reṇuka and others; he killed these, and put gods to flight; he fought with wings, beak and nails 1. 28. 1-20; after the fight Garuḍa saw amṛta surrounded by fire; he divided his mouth into ninety times ninety, fetched water in them from rivers, poured it on the fire and pacified it; to enter the fire he became small in size 1. 28. 22-25; near the amṛta he saw a wheel of iron (ayasmaya), of sharp edge, which was a device (yantra) created by gods to cut down those who might try to steal Soma; as he entered through the spokes of the wheel he saw two serpents, with poison in their eyes (cakṣurviṣau), guarding amṛta; anyone seen by them would be reduced to ashes; Suparṇa blinded their eyes with dust and, unseen, he (Vainateya) snatched Soma and flew away quickly; with the force of his speed he uprooted (unmath-) the yantra 1. 29. 2-10; he himself did not taste the amṛta but asked a boon from Viṣṇu that he should become undecaying and immortal without tasting amṛta 1. 29. 11, 14; without going near him Indra struck Garuḍa, as he was taking away amṛta, with his vajra; to respect the sage (Dadhīca 1. 127. 12) from whose bones the vajra was fashioned, the vajra itself, and Indra, Garuḍa released a feather from his wings, as though due to the stroke of vajra, but otherwise was not affected by the vajra 1. 29. 17-20; seeing the feather of excellent form all beings (sarvabhūtāni) said “may this bird be Suparṇa” (surūpaṁ patram ālakṣya suparṇo 'yaṁ bhavatv iti) 1. 29. 21; Indra sought Garuḍa's friendship, and Garuḍa agreed 1. 29. 23; 1. 30. 1 (Kaśyapa had prophesied before Garuḍa's birth that he would be the helper of Indra 1. 27. 30); Indra requested Garuḍa to return Soma, but Garuḍa told him the purpose of taking it away; both hatched a plan-Indra was to take away amṛta once Garuḍa had placed it before the serpents and freed his mother from slavery 1. 30. 7-9; Indra granted Garuḍa a boon, and he chose serpents to be his food 1. 30. 10-12 (hence his epithets like pannagāśana 2. 22. 23; 5. 110. 5, 15; 5. 117. 23; pannagasūdana 1. 14. 22; bhujagendrāri 5. 110. 1; bhujagāri 10. 13. 4); Garuḍa brought amṛta to serpents and placed it for them on the kuśa grass; he asked them to take it after they had bathed and become auspicious (maṅgalasaṁyuktāḥ); he asked serpents to free his mother from slavery from that day; the serpents agreed and went to bathe; Garuḍa (Suparṇa) was happy to roam with his mother Vinatā freely in the forest and to gladden her 1. 30. 14-21 (Aruṇa, Garuḍa's elder brother, had prophesied that Garuḍa would free Vinatā from slavery 1. 14. 18); phalaśruti: One who hears or recites this narrative (kathā) will go to heaven due to his glorifying Garuḍa, the lord of the birds (patagapati) 1. 30. 22.


E. Gālava episode: Gālava was asked by his teacher Viśvāmitra to give him as dakṣiṇā eight hundred moon-like white horses, each having a black ear on one side (5. 104. 26); not knowing how to procure these, Gālava desired to take recourse to Viṣṇu; just then Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja), the friend of Gālava, appeared before him and offered to take him to any place 5. 105. 14-19; Suparṇa described to Gālava the four directions 5. Adh. 106-109; he told Gālava the etymology of the name of the direction uttarā (yasmād uttāryate pāpāt ‘because one is freed there from sin’ 5. 109. 1; also guṇair anyair dig uttarā ‘a direction superior (to others) in different qualities’, and sarvakarmasu cottarā ‘better (than other directions) for performing all rites’ 5. 109. 24); Gālava requested Garuḍa (named variously as Garutmant, Suparṇa, Vinatātmaja, Tārkṣya, Aruṇānuja) to take him to the east; Garuḍa (Vinatāsūnu) agreed and asked Galava to mount him 5. 110. 1-4; unable to stand the speed of Garuḍa, Gālava requested him (Vinatātmaja) not to proceed further but to return to their place 5. 110. 14-15; Gālava told Garuḍa that his real purpose was to obtain the eight hundred horses and since he knew no way to obtain them he thought of giving up his life that way 5. 110. 16-17; Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja) found fault with Gālava for wanting to end his life and told him: “The time of death is not determined by any person, Kāla is rather supreme (na cāpi kṛtrimaḥ kālaḥ kālo hi parameśvaraḥ [Nīla.: kṛtrimaḥ svecchāsampādyaḥ 5. 112. 20 Bom. Ed.]) 5. 110. 19-20; he told Gālava that they would first repair to mountain Ṛṣabha in the heart of the ocean, eat, rest, and then return 5. 110. 22; on the peak of the Ṛṣabha mountain Suparṇa and Gālava met a Brāhmaṇī Śāṇḍilī; they ate the food cooked by her and slept; when Suparṇa woke up he found himself to be just a ball of meat, bereft of wings, with only mouth and feet left; he was reduced to that state because he belittled Śāṇḍilī and had planned to take her away from that place; he begged for forgiveness; Śāṇḍilī relented and told Garuḍa that he would be ‘Suparṇa’ again; Garuḍa got back his wings which were stronger than before (Nīla. draviṇavattarau = balavattarau 5. 113. 17 Bom. Ed.) 5. 111. 17; Śāṇḍilī advised Garuḍa not to despise women at any time even if they deserved to be despised (na ca te garhaṇīyāpi garhaṇīyāḥ striyaḥ kvacit 5. 111. 16) 5. 111. 1-17; when Viśvāmitra, on his way, saw Gālava without the horses he had asked for, he blamed him in the presence of Vainateya and said he would further wait for a period of the same duration as before; Suparṇa, having heard what Viśvāmitra had said, explained to Gālava the importance of gold and wealth (he told him the etymology of the word dhana: dhatte dhārayate cedam etasmāt kāraṇād dhanam 5. 112. 2) and took him to his friend, king Yayāti, for getting wealth to purchase the required horses; when they met Yayāti, Garuḍa (vinatāsuta) requested him on Gālava's behalf to part with some wealth; Garuḍa assured Yayāti that Gālava in return would give him a part of his tapas; Garuḍa told Yayāti that since he was qualified to give a gift and Gālava to receive it his giving gift to Gālava would be like pouring milk in a conch shell (śaṅkhe kṣīram ivāsaktam 5. 112. 20) 5. 111. 18-23; 5. 112. 1-20; Yayāti listened to what Suparṇa had said; he was delighted to meet Tārkṣya, his friend; but Yayāti told him that he was no longer wealthy; however as it was not meet to frustrate the hopes of a viprarṣi, he was prepared to part with his daughter Mādhavī by marrying whom to some king Gālava could acquire wealth as bride price (śulka) to buy the horses; Garuḍa having shown the way to Gālava to acquire the horses left him and went to his residence 5. 113. 1-16; when Gālava had procured six hundred out of the eight hundred required śyāmakarṇa horses, he met Garuḍa (Vinatātmaja) again 5. 116. 21; Garuḍa (Vainateya) heard Gālava's story; he (Suparṇa) told Gālava that he would never find more than six hundred horses as, before him, Ṛcīka did not get more than six hundred horses; Garuḍa advised Gālava to give Mādhavī to Viśvāmitra in lieu of the remaining two hundred horses; Suparṇa then took Gālava, Mādhavī and the six hundred horses to Viśvāmitra; Gālava was thus able to pay the dakṣiṇā his teacher had demanded with the help of Suparṇa; Gālava permitted Suparṇa to leave 5. 117. 1-23.


F. Sumukha (a serpent) episode: Serpent Āryaka told Mātali who wanted his daughter to be married to Sumukha that Cikura, his son, was killed by Vainateya and that the same fate awaited his grand-son Sumukha in a month's time; Mātali assured Āryaka that he would endeavour to mitigate the threat of Suparṇa to Sumukha; when they all approached Indra, Viṣṇu asked Indra to give amṛta to Sumukha and make him immortal; Indra, remembering the prowess of Vainateya, was reluctant to part with amṛta and asked Viṣṇu himself to give it to Sumukha; when asked by Viṣṇu again, Indra gave only long life to Cikura but not amṛta 5. 102. 14-27; 5. 101. 24.


G. Association with Viṣṇu:

(1) As standing on his flag-staff and as his vehicle: While fetching amṛta from heaven, Vainateya met Viṣṇu on way; when offered a boon by Viṣṇu, Garuḍa chose that he should stay above Viṣṇu (tava tiṣṭheyam upari); when Garuḍa in return offered a boon to Viṣṇu, he chose Garuḍa to serve him as his vehicle (vāhana), and since Garuḍa wanted to stand above him Viṣṇu asked Garuḍa to stand on his flag-staff (dhvajaṁ ca cakre) 1. 29. 12-16; hence after the death of Jarāsandha when Kṛṣṇa thought of Garuḍa (Garutmant), he instantly appeared and took his seat on (the flag-staff of) the chariot; the flag-staff then appeared as a raised caitya post 2. 22. 2223; Kṛṣṇa's flag marked with Garuḍa when he started for Hāstinapura 5. 81. 20; when Dāruka brought Kṛṣṇa's chariot for the use of Sātyaki it was marked with Suparṇa 7. 122. 43; also 7. 56. 33 (Vainateya); when Kṛṣṇa got his chariot ready to pursue Aśvatthāman, Vainateya stood on the flag-staff 10. 13. 4; when, at the end, the Vṛṣṇis were helplessly looking on, Suparṇa on the flag of Kṛṣṇa was taken away day and night by the Apsaras 16. 4. 5; Kṛṣṇa (Viṣṇu) is called Garuḍadhvaja 7. 57. 2; 13. 11. 5; 13. 135. 51; Suparṇaketu 3. 173. 15; Tārkṣyaketana 2. 2. 12; 12. 48. 14; Tārkṣyapravaraketana 2. 42. 55; Tārkṣyadhvaja 8. 27. 65; (also cf. 12. 46. 34); Tārkṣyalakṣaṇa 12. 43. 8; Kṛṣṇa used Vainateya as his vehicle while fetching Pārijāta from Amarāvatī 7. 10. 22; he used Tārkṣya as vehicle while going to Himavant to propitiate Śiva 13. 14. 26 and Vainateya while waiting on him 13. 14. 142; Garuḍa felt he was disregarded by Indra because he stood on the flag of Indra's younger brother and because he carried him (Kṛṣṇa) on his back and was thus reduced to the state of a servant 5. 103. 13, 8; Viṣṇu asked Garutmant to bring king Vasu Uparicara from Pātāla and make him a khecara 12. 324. 30-35;

(2) Removal of Garuḍa's pride: When Garuḍa knew that Indra had granted long life to the serpent Sumukha he blamed Indra for depriving him of his food; he threatened to give up his life and said that as long as Indra was there he had nothing to do with Viṣṇu (na viṣṇuḥ kāraṇaṁ mama) 5. 103. 1-17; Viṣṇu scolded Garuḍa (Tārkṣya, Garutmant) for praising himself although in reality he was very weak; Viṣṇu told Garuḍa that he did not really carry Viṣṇu but Viṣṇu carried himself and also Garuḍa (aham evātmanātmānaṁ vahāmi tvāṁ ca dhāraye 5. 103. 20); however he asked Garuḍa to carry only his right arm, and when the arm was placed on Garuḍa he fell down under its weight and became almost unconscious (vicetāḥ); he shed many feathers; Viṣṇu did not deprive him of his life; finally Garuḍa bowed down to Viṣṇu and begged for forgiveness 5. 103. 18-30.


H. Association with Śeṣa: Śeṣa complained to Pitāmaha that his dull-witted brothers (serpents) hated their brother (cousin) Vainateya and he in turn hated them 1. 32. 10-11; Pitāmaha then made Garuḍa (Suparṇa, Vainateya) a friend of Śeṣa 1. 32. 25.


I. Association with Skanda: Suparṇa gave Skanda a feather and a peacock as toy (krīḍanīya) 13. 86. 20-21; he gave peacock to Skanda 9. 45. 46; he attended Skanda's consecration as general of the army 9. 44. 14; some of the warriors of Skanda were Garuḍa-faced (garuḍānanāḥ) 9. 44. 79.


J. Garuḍa's other feats:

(1) Suparṇa swallowed a quail which, however, was freed by Aśvinau 1. 3. 62;

(2) Garutmant often went to the mountain Himavant 12. 314. 6; Suparṇa once carried away forcibly the big snake Ṛddhimant living near a lake on the Gandhamādana mountain; the wonderful feat (adbhutam) was witnessed by the Pāṇḍavas 3. 157. 14-15;

(3) A serpent (not named), husband of the daughter of Airāvata, killed by Suparṇa 6. 86. 7;

(4) Suparṇa (and Suparṇas) fought with Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna who protected the fire at Khāṇḍava; he fought with wings, beak, and nails 1. 218. 19-20; 8. 63. 68 (nakha, daśana (? for beak);

(5) During his fight with demons (Daiteyas) he performed the great feat of killing six of them 5. 103. 11-12.


K. Strength: Indra described Garuḍa as a great being (mahad bhūtam) and wished to know the extent of his strength (1. 29. 22, 23); Garuḍa said that although good persons did not themselves describe their strength and virtues he would do so due to his friendship with Indra; Garuḍa could carry the whole earth with mountains etc., the worlds, even with Śakra, with only a quill of his feather (pakṣanāḍī), and this without feeling fatigue 1. 30. 2-5; also cf. 1. 20. 10-14; 1. 26. 6-9; 5. 103. 10-11, 17.


L. Greatness:

(1) Called mahātman 1. 28. 24;

(2) Destined to be the only Indra of all birds and was so consecrated 1. 27. 29, 35; hence he is called khageśvara 1. 20. 14; khagarāj 9. 16. 57; pakṣirāj 1. 24. 12; 1. 25. 6; 1. 27. 2; 1. 28. 1, 10, 13; 1. 96. 36; 7. 103. 8; 7. 47. 35; pakṣirāja (Garutmān) 12. 314. 6; gaganacareśvara 1. 24. 14; patageśvara 1. 20. 10; patagarāja 5. 113. 17; 7. 99. 12; patagapati 1. 30. 22; patagendra 1. 28. 4, 16; 5. 81. 20; patagottama 1. 23. 6, 9; patagaśreṣṭha 8. 27. 40; patatāṁ vara 3. 13. 82; 5. 112. 1; 5. 117. 3; dvijottama 12. 324. 30-32;

(3) Vainateya is counted among the Ādityas 1. 60. 38;

(4) he moved at will (kāmacārī, kāmagamaḥ) and had any amount of strength according to his wish (kāmavīrya); he was irresistible (adhṛṣya) and could not be killed (avadhya) 1. 21. 1; 1. 27. 2, 3, 29;

(5) Vainateya present among those who greeted Arjuna's birth 1. 114. 62;

(6) The account of Garuḍa is the subject matter of a Purāṇa 1. 27. 4, 3.


M. Comparisons with Garuḍa:

(1) Based on his enmity with serpents: Bhīṣma wanted to kill Śālva as Garuḍa killed a serpent 1. 96. 36; also 7. 35. 27; 7. 149. 26; 8. 63. 68; 8. 66. 22; (Garutmant) 3. 157. 66; 7. 114. 87; 8. 40. 68; (Vainateya) 7. 13. 73; 7. 164. 145; (Tārkṣya) 7. 13. 54; 7. 114. 57; 8. 15. 41; 8. 19. 6; (Suparṇa) 3. 253. 5; (khagarāj) 9. 16. 57; warriors routed by Sātyaki took refuge with Droṇa as serpents, frightened by patagarāja, did in holes 7. 99. 12; 1. 202. 17 (Vainateya); man is freed of sins by seeing Gaṅgā as serpents lose poison at the sight of Tārkṣya 13. 27. 43; [also see the next];

(2) Based on his speed, vehemence and agility: (i) arrows: speed of arrows compared to that of Suparṇa 7. 109. 32; 6. 79. 50 (Garutmant); (ii) horses: Arjuna's horses compared with Garuḍa 8. 45. 68; 7. 103. 8 (Suparṇa); speed of horses dispatched by Duryodhana like that of Garutmant (pl.) 6. 101. 12; the chariot of Duḥṣanta compared with Suparṇa 1. 63. 11; (iii) individual heroes: Aśvatthāman's speed, while rushing to attack Dhṛṣṭadyumna, compared to that of Garuḍa rushing to catch a serpent 8. 42. 39; Abhimanyu so compared 7. 51. 7 (Suparṇa); 7. 47. 35 (pakṣirāj); Bhīma so compared 3. 153. 19 (Vainateya); 7. 31. 61 (Vainateya); Ghaṭotkaca so compared 6. 89. 5 (Vainateya); (iv) birds: swans 8. 28. 14; owl 10. 1. 36 (Suparṇa); laṭvā 8. 27. 40 (Suparṇa, Vainateya);

(3) The breeze produced by his flight: (i) horses compared with it 7. 36. 21 (garuḍānilaraṁhobhiḥ …hayaiḥ); 7. 74. 10 (Tārkṣya); (ii) arrows: 7. 172. 22; 8. 62. 51 (?) (Suparṇa); (iii) strong wind 3. 157. 19 (Suparṇa);

(4) The noise produced by flight: (i) chariot's sound compared with it 3. 230. 18; 6. 86. 18 (Suparṇa); sound of Arjuna's chariot like that of Garuḍa rushing for serpents 8. 55. 22;

(5) Capacity to carry burden: Bhīma, taking his mother and brothers on his back, would fly like Vainateya 3. 13. 82;

(6) Lustre: Śuka flying up from Kailāsa towards heaven had the lustre (dyuti) of Vainateya 12. 319. 11; Sutasoma appeared to have the lustre equal to the prowess of Tārkṣya 8. 18. 32;

(7) Formidable appearance: Bhīma with his mace, ready to fight with Duryodhana, looked like Garutmant 9. 54. 14; Bhīma and Duryodhana fought as two Garutmants would for the flesh of a serpent 9. 57. 23; the capital at Khāṇḍavaprastha protected by gates known as two winged Garuḍa (dvipakṣagaruḍaprakhyaiḥ dvāraiḥ 1. 199. 31);

(8) Superiority among birds: Bhīṣma to be the general of the Kauravas as Suparṇa was of birds 5. 153. 13;

(9) Body shape: (i) a large vyūha (mahāvyūha) called Garuḍa or Gāruḍa Vyūha due to its lay-out 6. 52. 2-9;

(2) agniciti of Yudhiṣṭhira's horse-sacrifice was of the shape of Garuḍa 14. 90. 31;

(10) Persons and birds compared with Garuḍa: Kṛṣṇa 5. 69. 5; Sampāti 3. 266. 46; a hawk 3. 131. 13 (Suparṇa pakṣirāj); a crow mistakenly considered himself to be equal to Suparṇa 8. 28. 49.


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Garuḍa (Suparṇa) : m.: Name of a particular arrangement of the army (vyūha), described as mahāvyūha 6. 52. 2; also called Suparṇa 7. 19. 4, which is described as ‘superhuman’ (atimānuṣa) and ‘invincible by the enemies’ (ajayyam aribhiḥ) 7. 19. 21.

1. On the third day of the war Bhīṣma arranged the Kaurava army according to the Garuḍavyūha; at its ‘beak’ (tuṇḍa) stood Bhīṣma himself; its ‘eyes’ (cakṣuṣī) were Droṇa and Kṛtavarman; Aśvatthāman and Kṛpa, supported by the Trigartas, Matsyas, Kaikayas and Vāṭadhānas, formed the ‘head’ (śīrṣa); at its ‘neck’ (grīvā) were stationed Bhūriśravas, Śala, Śalya, Bhagadatta, Jayadratha, and the Madrakas, the Sindhusauvīras and the Pañcanadas; at its ‘back’ (pṛṣṭha) was king Duryodhana with his brothers and followers; the ‘tail’ (puccha) was made up by Vinda, Anuvinda, the Kāmboja, and the Śakas, as well as the Śūrasenas; the Māgadhas, the Kaliṅgas and the Dāśerakas stood at the right wing (dakṣiṇa pakṣa), while on the left (vāma pakṣa) were the Kānanas, the Vikuñjas, the Muktas, and the Puṇḍrāviṣes together with Bṛhadbala 6. 52. 3-9; 2. On the twelfth day of the war Droṇa arranged the Kaurava army according to the Suparṇa (Garuḍa) vyūha; at its entrance (mukha) stood Droṇa; its ‘head’ (śiras) was Duryodhana with his brothers and followers; its ‘eyes’ (cakṣuṣī) were Kṛtavarman and Gautama (Kṛpa), together with Bhūtavarman, Kṣemaśarman, Karakarṣa, and the warriors from the Kaliṅga and other countries; at its ‘neck’ (grīvā) were Śūrasenas, Daradas and others with their armies consisting of elephants, chariots, horsemen and foot-soldiers; Bhūriśravas, Śala, Śalya, Somadatta and Bāhlika with an army consisting of one akṣauhiṇī formed the right wing (dakṣiṇa pakṣa); Vinda and Anuvinda of the Avanti country, and Sudakṣiṇa from the Kamboja occupied the left wing (vāma pakṣa), and took positions in front of Aśvatthāman; at the ‘back’ (pṛṣṭha) of the vyūha were the Kaliṅgas, the Ambaṣṭhas and others; at the ‘tail’ (puccha) was Karṇa with his sons and relatives; Jayadratha, Bhīmaratha and other heroes stood ‘above’ (?) the vyūha (vyūhasyopari) 7. 19. 5-14; the vyūha looked like an ocean tossed by wind 7. 19. 15; from its wings and ends of wings rushed (elephants) eager to fight; in the midst of this army of elephants stood the king of Prāgjyotiṣa (Bhagadatta) mounted on an elephant duly prepared for fight; Bhagadatta was surrounded by many kings from mountain countries (pārvatīyaiḥ samanvitaḥ) 7. 19. 16-20.


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