द्वापर

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


द्वापरः, पुं, (द्वयोर्विषययोः परस्तत्पर आसक्तः इत्यर्थः । पृषोदरादित्वात् साधुः ।) सन्देहः । (द्वौ सत्यत्रेतायुगौ परौ श्रेष्ठौ यस्मात् ।) युग- विशेषः । इत्यमरः । ३ । ३ । १६१ ॥ तद्युग- परिमाणं यथा, -- लोभो भृतिर्बणिग्युद्धन्तत्त्वानामविनिश्चयः ॥ वेदशास्त्रप्रणयनं धर्म्माणां सङ्करस्तथा । वर्णाश्रमपरिध्वंसः कामद्वेषौ तथैव च ॥ पूर्णे वर्षसहस्रे द्बे परमायुस्तदा नृणाम् । निःशेषे द्वापरे तस्मिन् तस्य सन्ध्या तु पादतः ॥ गुणहीनाश्च तिष्ठन्ति धर्म्मस्य द्वापरस्य तु । तथैव सन्ध्यापादेव अंशस्तस्य प्रतिष्ठितः ॥” इति मत्स्यपुराणे १२० अध्यायः ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


द्वापर पुं।

संशयज्ञानम्

समानार्थक:विचिकित्सा,संशय,सन्देह,द्वापर

1।5।3।2।2

अध्याहारस्तर्क ऊहो विचिकित्सा तु संशयः। सन्देहद्वापरौ चाथ समौ निर्णयनिश्चयौ॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : , गुणः, बुद्धिः

द्वापर पुं।

द्वापरयुगम्

समानार्थक:द्वापर

3।3।162।2।1

निवहावसरौ वारौ संस्तरौ प्रस्तराध्वरौ। गुरू गीर्पतिपित्राद्यौ द्वापरौ युगसंशयौ॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : नाम, द्रव्यम्, कालः

द्वापर पुं।

संशयः

समानार्थक:त्रुटि,द्वापर

3।3।162।2।1

निवहावसरौ वारौ संस्तरौ प्रस्तराध्वरौ। गुरू गीर्पतिपित्राद्यौ द्वापरौ युगसंशयौ॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : , गुणः, बुद्धिः

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


द्वापर¦ पु॰ द्वौ परौ प्रकारौ विषयौ यस्य पृषो॰।

१ संशये। द्वाभ्यां सत्यत्रेताभ्यां परः पृषो॰।

२ सत्यत्रेतायुगानन्तरेयुगभेदे च।

३ द्व्यङ्कसंख्यान्वितपार्श्वकपाशके न॰ अय-शब्दे

३३

४ पृ॰ दृश्यम्। द्वापरयुगमानञ्च
“अष्टौशतसहस्राणि वर्षाणां मानुषाणि तु। चतुःषष्टिःसहस्राणि वर्षाणां द्वापरं युगय्” मत्स्यपु॰

१४

१ अ॰। तद्धर्मभेदश्च तत्र

१४

३ अ॰ उक्तो यथा(
“अत ऊर्द्ध्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि द्वापरस्य विधिं पुनः। तत्र त्रेतायुगे क्षीणे द्वापरं प्रतिपद्यते। द्वापरादौप्रजानान्तु सिद्धिस्त्रेतायुगे तु या। परिवृत्ते युगेतस्मिंस्ततः सा वै प्रणश्यति। ततः प्रवर्त्तिते तासांप्रजानां द्वापरे पुनः। लोभोधृतिर्बणिग्युद्धं तत्त्वा-नामविनिश्चयः। प्रध्वंसश्चैव वर्णानां कर्मणान्तु विप-र्य्ययः। यात्रा बधः परोदण्डोमानोदर्पोऽक्षमा बलम्। तथा रजस्तमोभूतः प्रवृत्ते द्वापरे पुनः। आद्ये कृते ना-धर्मोऽस्ति स त्रेतायां प्रवर्त्तितः। द्वापरे व्याकुलोभूत्वाकलौ धर्मः प्रणश्यति। वर्णानां द्वापरे धर्माः सङ्कीर्यन्ते[Page3808-a+ 38] तथाश्रमाः। द्वैधमुत्पद्यते चैव युगे तस्मिन् श्रुतिस्मृतौ। द्विधा श्रुतिः स्मृतिश्चैव निश्चयो नाधिगम्यते। अनिश्च-यावगमनाद्धर्मतत्त्वं न विद्यते। धर्मतत्त्वे ह्यविज्ञातेमतिभेदस्तु जायते। परस्परं विभिन्नास्ते दृष्टीनांविभ्रमेण तु। अतो दृष्टिविभिन्नैस्तैः कृतमत्याकुलन्त्रि-दम्। एको वेदश्चतुष्पादः संहृत्य तु पुनः पुनः। संक्षेपादायुषश्चैव व्यस्यते द्वापरेत्विह। वेदश्चैकश्चतुर्द्धा तुव्यस्यते द्वापरादिषु। ऋषिपुत्रैः पुनर्वेदा भिद्यन्ते दृष्टि-विभ्रमैः। ते तु ब्राह्मणविन्यासैः स्वरक्रमविपर्ययैः। संहिता ऋग्यजुःसाम्नां संहृतास्तैर्महर्षिभिः। सामा-न्याद्वैकृताच्चैव दृष्टिभिन्नैः क्वचित् क्वचित्। ब्राह्मणंकल्पसूत्राणि भाष्यविद्यास्तथैव च। अन्ये तु प्रस्थिता-स्तान्वै केचित्तान् प्रत्यवस्थिताः। द्वापरेषु प्रवर्तन्तेभिन्नार्थैस्तैः स्वदर्शनैः। एकमाध्वर्यवं पूर्वमासीद्द्वै-धन्तु तत् पुनः। सामान्यविपरीतार्थैः कृतं शास्त्राकुल-न्त्विदम्। आध्वर्यवञ्च प्रस्थानैर्बहुधा व्याकुलीकृतम्। तथैवाथर्वणां साम्नां विकल्पैः स्वस्य संक्षयैः। व्याकुलोद्वापरेष्वर्थः क्रियते भिन्नदर्शनैः। द्वापरे सन्निवृत्ते तेवेदा नश्यन्ति वै कलौ। तेषां विपर्ययोत्पन्ना भवन्तिद्वापरे पुनः। अवृष्टिर्भरणं चैव तथैव व्याध्युपद्रवाः। वाङमनःकर्मभिर्दुःखैर्निर्वेदो जायते ततः। निर्वेदा-ज्जायते तेषां दुःखमोक्षविचारणा। विचारणायांवैराग्यं वैराग्याद्दोषदर्शनम्। दोषाणां दर्शनाच्चैवज्ञानोत्पत्तिस्तु जायते। तेषां मायाविनां पूर्वं मर्त्येस्वायम्भुवेऽन्तरे। उत्पत्स्यन्तीह शास्त्राणां द्वापरेपरिपन्थिनः। आयुर्वेदविकल्पाश्च अङ्गानां ज्योतिषस्यच। अर्थशास्त्रविकल्पाश्च हेतुशास्त्रविकल्पनम्। प्रक्रिया कल्पसूत्राणां भाष्यविद्याविकल्पनम्। स्मृति-शास्त्रप्रभेदाश्च प्रस्थानानि पृथक् पृथक्। द्वापरेष्वभि-वर्त्तन्ते मतिभेदास्तथा नृणाम्। मनसा कर्मणा वाचाकृच्छाद्वार्त्ता प्रसिध्यति। द्वापरे सर्वभूतानां कालःक्लेशपरः स्मृतः। लोभो धृतिर्बणिग्युद्धन्तत्त्वानामवि-निश्चयः। वेदशास्त्रप्रणयनं वर्णानां सङ्करस्तथा। वर्णा-श्रमपरिध्वंसः कामद्वेषौ तथैव च”।
“कारिष्यते परिभवः कलिना नलस्य। तां द्वापरस्तुमतनूमदुनोत् पुरस्तात्। भैमीनलोपयमनं पिशुनौ स-हेते न द्वापरः किल कलिश्च युगे जगत्याम्” नैष॰

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


द्वापर¦ m. (-रः)
1. The third of the four Yugas or great periods, compris- ing 864,000 years.
2. The age personified as a god.
3. Doubt, un- certainty. E. द्वा for द्वि two, पर after.

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


द्वापरः [dvāparḥ] रम् [ram], रम् [द्वाभ्यां सत्यत्रेतायुगाभ्यां परः पृषो˚ Tv.]

N. of the third Yuga of the world; Ms.9.31; अष्टौ शत- सहस्राणि वर्षाणां मानुषाणि तु । चतुःषष्टिः सहस्राणि वर्षाणां द्वापरं युगम् ॥ Matsya P.

The side of a die marked with two points.

Doubt, suspense, uncertainty.

A kind of deity; द्वापरं शकुनिः प्राप धृष्टद्युम्नस्तु पावकम् Mb.18.5.21; N.13.37.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


द्वापर/ द्वा--पर m. n. that die or side of a die which is marked with two spots VS. TS. Ka1t2h. MBh.

द्वापर/ द्वा--पर m. the Die personified Nal. vi , 1

द्वापर/ द्वा--पर m. " the age with the number two " , N. of the 3rd of the 4 युगs or ages of the world (comprising 2400 years ; the -Y युगs itself = 2000 , and each twilight = 200 years ; it is also personified as a god) AitBr. Mn. MBh. etc. RTL. 111 ; 433

द्वापर/ द्वा--पर m. N. of a myth. being MBh. i , 2713

द्वापर/ द्वा--पर m. doubt , uncertainty L.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Dvāpara : m., nt.: Name of the third Yuga among the four Yugas.


A. Place among the four Yugas: Its place is third, mentioned after the Tretā and before the Kali (kṛtaṁ tretā dvāparaṁ ca puṣyaṁ ca kuruvardhana) 6. 11. 3; 12. 224. 18; the Dvāpara starts when the Tretā ends (tretānirmokṣasamaye dvāparapratipādane) 12. 139. 14; and the Kali starts when the Dvāpara ends (saṅkṣepād dvāparasyātha tataḥ puṣyaṁ pravartate) 6. 11. 4; hence also the junctions of the Tretā and the Dvāpara on the one hand and of the Dvāpara and the Kali on the other are referred to 1. 2. 3; 12. 139. 13; 12. 326. 78; 1. 2. 9; 12. 326. 82.


B. Duration: Mārkaṇḍeya told Yudhiṣṭhira that the duration of the Dvāpara Yuga was two thousand years with dawns and twilights of two hundred years each at both ends (tathā varṣasahasre dve dvāparaṁ parimāṇataḥ/ tasyāpi dviśatī saṁdhyā saṁdhyāṁśas ca tataḥ param//saṁdhyāsaṁdhyāṁśayos tulyaṁ pramāṇam upadhāraya) 3. 186. 2021 (for Nī's explanation of saṁdhyā and saṁdhyāṁśa see above Kali, section C, p. 234); the same duration for the Dvāpara was told by Vyāsa to Śuka without naming the Yuga, but indicating it in relation to the Kṛta 12. 224. 20.


C. Events occurring in the Dvāpara:

(1) Bhīṣma told Yudhiṣṭhira that formerly, at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara, there occurred a terrible drought lasting for twelve years due to the working of the fate (daivavidhikramāt); when the Tretā was about to end and the Dvāpara was to set in Indra did not release rain for twelve years (tretānirmokṣasamaye dvāparapratipādane//na vavarṣa sahasrākṣaḥ) 12. 139. 13-15;

(2) Sūta Ugraśravas told the sages assembled in the Naimiṣa forest that at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara (tretādvāparayoḥ saṁdhau) Rāma destroyed the princely Kṣatriyas again and again 1. 2. 3 (but see the next event);

(3) Bhagavān (Nārāyaṇa) told Nārada that at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara (saṁdhau tu samanuprāpte tretāyāṁ dvāparasya ca) he would be born as Rāma, son of Daśaratha 12. 326. 78;

(4) Bhagavān (Nārāyaṇa) told Nārada that towards the end of the junction of the Dvāpara and the Kali (dvāparasya kaleś caiva saṁdhau paryavasānike) he would be born in Mathurā for (the killing of) Kaṁsa 12. 326. 82;

(5) at the junction of the Dvāpara and the Kali the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas fought each other near Samantapañcaka 1. 2. 9.


D. Kṛṣṇa-Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu) and the Dvāpara:

(1) Bhagavān (Nārāyaṇa) told Mārkaṇḍeya that he has red colour in the Dvāpara Yuga (rakto dvāparam āsādya) 3. 187. 31; but according to Hanūmant Viṣṇu becomes yellow in the Dvāpara (dvāpare 'pi yuge… viṣṇur vai pītatāṁ yāti) 3. 148. 26;

(3) Bhīṣma told Yudhiṣṭhira that Kṛṣṇa was strength in the Dvāpara (balaṁ tv āsīd dvāpare pārtha kṛṣṇaḥ) 13. 143. 9.


E. King and the Dvāpara: According to Utathya Aṅgiras all the four Yugas depend on the king's behaviour, hence a king himself is called Yuga (rājavṛttāni sarvāṇi rājaiva yugam ucyate) 12. 92. 6; Bhīṣma had no doubt that all the Yugas were rooted in a king (rājamūlāni sarvāṇi mama nāsty atra saṁśayaḥ) 12. 139. 10; it is the king who created a Yuga--whether it was the Kṛta, the Tretā, or the Dvāpara 5. 130. 16 = 12. 70. 25 (also cf. rājā kālasya kāraṇam 5. 130. 15 = 12. 70. 6); when a king gives up half of the daṇḍanīti and practises only one half of it, then the Dvāpara age sets in (ardhaṁ tyaktvā yadā rājā nītyardham anuvartate/tatas tu dvāparaṁ nāma sa kālaḥ saṁpravartate//) 12. 70. 16; the dharma practised by the king in the Dvāpara is deficient in two quarters (dvāpare tu dvipādena (ūnaḥ)) 12. 259. 32; by bringing about the Dvāpara a king lives in heaven only according to his share (i. e. not for a long time) (pravartanād dvāparasya (svargam) yathābhāgam ypāśnute) 5. 130. 17 = 12. 70. 27; (description of the behaviour of people in the Dvāpara in the absence of the daṇḍanīti 12. 65. 24-27).


F. Dvāpara and dharma: In the Dvāpara Yuga, dharma will lose two of its four feet and the age will be marked by a mixture (of dharma and adharma) (tato vai dvāparaṁ nāma miśraḥ kālo bhaviṣyati/dvipādahīno dharmaś ca yuge tasmin bhaviṣyati) 12. 327. 75; (dvāpare 'rdhena vyāmiśro dharma ucyate) 3. 188. 11 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 3. 190. 10: ardhena adharmeṇa); (aśubhasya tadā ardhaṁ dvāv aṁśāv anuvartate) 12. 70. 17; (dvāpare 'pi yuge dharmo dvibhāgonaḥ pravartate) 3. 148. 26; 12. 259. 32; in the Yugas that follow the Kṛta the traditional dharma is displaced successively by one quarter and instead adharma increases due to the practice of theft, falsehood and deceit 12. 224. 23; the dharmas in the Dvāpara are different from those in the Kṛta and the Tretā 12. 224. 26 = 12. 252. 8; according to Mārkaṇḍeya, however, the dharma for the Kṛta, the Tretā and the Dvāpara was the same (eṣa ḍharmaḥ kṛtayuge tretāyāṁ dvāpare tathā) 3. 189. 13; sacrifice was considered to be the best dharma for the Dvāpara (dvāpare yajñam evāhuḥ (uttamam)) 12. 224. 27; Hanūmant told Bhīma that the times in different Yugas were different; he and Bhīma lived at a time when the Dvāpara was about to end and hence he could not assume the form he had taken in the earlier Yuga (ayaṁ pradhvaṁsanaḥ kālo nādya tad rūpam asti me) 3. 148. 6; Kṛṣṇa-Vāsudeva, along with Saṁkaraṣṇa, is praised following the Sātvata rites when the Dvāpara ends, and the Kali begins (dvāparasya yugasyānte ādau kaliyugasya ca/ sātvataṁ vidhiṁ āsthāya gītaḥ saṁkarṣaṇena yaḥ (i. e. kṛṣṇaḥ) 6. 62. 39.


G. Dvāpara, sacrifice and the Vedas: Vyāsa told his son Śuka that on account of the limitation on the life expectancy (of human beings) sacrifices, in the Dvāparayuga, get into disarray (saṁrcdhād āyuṣas tv ete (i. e. yajñāḥ) vyasyante dvāpare yuge) 12. 224. 65 = 12. 230. 14; they fall into ruin (dvāpare viplavaṁ yānti yajñāḥ) 12. 224. 62 = 12. 230. 15 (viplavaṁ yānti vedāḥ); however, sacrifice considered to be the best dharma for the Dvāpara (dvāpare yajñam evāhuḥ (uttamam) 12. 224. 27; Hanūmant told Bhīma that in the Dvāpara the Veda is fourtold; hence some study all the four Vedas, others three, two, or one; but some do not study a single ṛc; as men did not realize the sacred text to be one Veda, the Veda was divided into many (Vedas) (dvāpare 'pi yuge…caturdhā veda eva ca//tato 'nye ca caturvedās trivedāś ca tathāpare/dvivedāś caikavedāścāpy anṛcaś ca tathāpare//…ekavedasya cājñānād vedās te bahavaḥ kṛtāḥ) 3. 148. 26-27, 29 (Nī., on Bom. Ed. 3. 149. 28, offers an alternative explanation: yad vā caturvedā iti vedatrayoktaṁ karma jyotiṣṭomādikam/atharvaṇopaniṣaduktam dhyānaṁ ca sahaiva vānutiṣṭhantīti karmopāstisamuccaya uktaḥ/trivedā iti kevalakarmaṭhāḥ/dvivedā iti svaśākhoktaṁ saṁdhyāvandanādi karma dhyānaṁ cānutiṣṭhanti/ekavedā dhyānaikaniṣṭhāḥ/ anṛcaḥ kṛtakṛtyāḥ/); (also cf. Maheśvara (Viṣṇu) recommending the performance of sacrifices to satisfy the gods and the gods, on their part, sustaining the worlds in the (three) Yugas other than the Kṛta 12. 327. 53-60).


H. Nature: According to the description of the Dvāpara given by Hanūmant to Bhīma, since in that age the Vedas become fourfold and the śāstras multiply, the Vedic rites are variously performed; people, given to austerities and gifts, become rājasa by nature; since truth falls down, rarely any one abides by truth (evaṁ śāstreṣu bhinneṣu bahudhā niyate kṛiyā/ tapodānapravṛttā ca rājasī bhavati prajā// …satyasya ceha vibhraṁśāt satye kaścid avasthitaḥ//) 3. 148. 28-29; for further description of the Dvāpara cf. 3. 148. 30-31; Hanūmant concludes that people in the Dvāpara perish due to the practice of adharma (evaṁ dvāparam āsādya prajāḥ kṣīyanty adharmataḥ) 3. 148. 32; according to Saṁjaya, in the Dvāpara all the four varṇas are full of energy; they are great heroes, desirous of killing each other; on the whole, the Dvāpara in which Saṁjaya lived was characterized by contraction (of the merits in all respects) (sarvavarṇā mahārāja jāyante dvāpare sati/mahotsāhā mahāvīryāḥ parasparavadhaiṣiṇaḥ//…saṁkṣepo vartate rājan dvāpare 'smin narādhipa) 6. 11. 11, 14 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 10. 15: saṁkṣepo guṇānām iti śeṣaḥ); Vyāsa told Śuka that all the varṇas and the āśramas fall into disarray due to the limitation on the life-span (varṇāśramās tathā/saṁrcdhād āyuṣas tv ete vyasyante dvāpare yuge) 12. 230. 14; he also said that people in the Dvāpara (as in the Tretā and the Kali) entertain doubt (tretāyāṁ dvāpare caiva kalijāś ca sasaṁśayāḥ 12. 230. 7) as to what is at the root of a man's success-his effort, fate, or nature 12. 230. 4; in the Dvāpara, the earth has to be ploughed and even then it does not yield much harvest (kṛṣṭapacyaiva pṛthivī bhavaty alpaphalā tathā) 12. 70. 17; in this Yuga people have to copulate to beget progeny (dvāpare maithuno dharmaḥ prajānām abhavan nṛpa) 12. 200. 37; evil tribes like the Talavaras and the Andharkas from the south and the Yaunas (Yavanas) and the Gāndhāras from the north move on earth from the Tretā onwards (i. e. also in the Dvāpara) 12. 200. 39-40, 42.


I. Life expectancy: Vyāsa told his son Śuka that the life expectancy of people diminishes by a quarter in each succeeding Yuga after the Kṛta, hence in the Dvāpara they live for two hundred years (…tretādiṣv eteṣāṁ pādaśo hrasate vayaḥ) 12. 224. 24; Vyāsa also told Śuka that according to his information life expectancy of people, along with other things, gradually decreased in the successive Yugas (…anuyugaṁ hrasantīti ca naḥ śrutam/āyūṁṣi…) 12. 224. 25; this is also what Mārkaṇḍeya told Yudhiṣṭhira (āyur…manuṣyāṇām anuyugaṁ hrasatīti nibodha me) 3. 188. 13; according to Saṁjaya, however, the life expectancy of people in the Dvāpara was two thousand years (āyuḥsaṁkhyā…saṁktyātā…/dvisahasraṁ dvāpare tu) 6. 11. 5-6 (apparently Saṁjaya made confusion between the duration of the Dvāpara age and the life expectancy of people in that Yuga).


J. Simile: The place where the river Narmadā passes along the Vaiḍūrya mountain is compared to the junction of the Tretā (f.) and the Dvāpara (m.) 3. 121. 18-19.


K. Name of Sūrya: Dvāpara appears as 48th name among the hundred and eight names of Sūrya taught by Dhaumya to Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 3. 22. [The words kṛta, tretā, dvāpara and kali occurring in 5. 140. 7-15 are wrongly interpreted by Nīlakaṇṭha (Bom. Ed. 5. 142. 7-15) as names of the four Yugas, and not as the names of the throws in the game of dice].


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Dvāpara : m., nt.: Name of the third Yuga among the four Yugas.


A. Place among the four Yugas: Its place is third, mentioned after the Tretā and before the Kali (kṛtaṁ tretā dvāparaṁ ca puṣyaṁ ca kuruvardhana) 6. 11. 3; 12. 224. 18; the Dvāpara starts when the Tretā ends (tretānirmokṣasamaye dvāparapratipādane) 12. 139. 14; and the Kali starts when the Dvāpara ends (saṅkṣepād dvāparasyātha tataḥ puṣyaṁ pravartate) 6. 11. 4; hence also the junctions of the Tretā and the Dvāpara on the one hand and of the Dvāpara and the Kali on the other are referred to 1. 2. 3; 12. 139. 13; 12. 326. 78; 1. 2. 9; 12. 326. 82.


B. Duration: Mārkaṇḍeya told Yudhiṣṭhira that the duration of the Dvāpara Yuga was two thousand years with dawns and twilights of two hundred years each at both ends (tathā varṣasahasre dve dvāparaṁ parimāṇataḥ/ tasyāpi dviśatī saṁdhyā saṁdhyāṁśas ca tataḥ param//saṁdhyāsaṁdhyāṁśayos tulyaṁ pramāṇam upadhāraya) 3. 186. 2021 (for Nī's explanation of saṁdhyā and saṁdhyāṁśa see above Kali, section C, p. 234); the same duration for the Dvāpara was told by Vyāsa to Śuka without naming the Yuga, but indicating it in relation to the Kṛta 12. 224. 20.


C. Events occurring in the Dvāpara:

(1) Bhīṣma told Yudhiṣṭhira that formerly, at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara, there occurred a terrible drought lasting for twelve years due to the working of the fate (daivavidhikramāt); when the Tretā was about to end and the Dvāpara was to set in Indra did not release rain for twelve years (tretānirmokṣasamaye dvāparapratipādane//na vavarṣa sahasrākṣaḥ) 12. 139. 13-15;

(2) Sūta Ugraśravas told the sages assembled in the Naimiṣa forest that at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara (tretādvāparayoḥ saṁdhau) Rāma destroyed the princely Kṣatriyas again and again 1. 2. 3 (but see the next event);

(3) Bhagavān (Nārāyaṇa) told Nārada that at the junction of the Tretā and the Dvāpara (saṁdhau tu samanuprāpte tretāyāṁ dvāparasya ca) he would be born as Rāma, son of Daśaratha 12. 326. 78;

(4) Bhagavān (Nārāyaṇa) told Nārada that towards the end of the junction of the Dvāpara and the Kali (dvāparasya kaleś caiva saṁdhau paryavasānike) he would be born in Mathurā for (the killing of) Kaṁsa 12. 326. 82;

(5) at the junction of the Dvāpara and the Kali the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas fought each other near Samantapañcaka 1. 2. 9.


D. Kṛṣṇa-Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu) and the Dvāpara:

(1) Bhagavān (Nārāyaṇa) told Mārkaṇḍeya that he has red colour in the Dvāpara Yuga (rakto dvāparam āsādya) 3. 187. 31; but according to Hanūmant Viṣṇu becomes yellow in the Dvāpara (dvāpare 'pi yuge… viṣṇur vai pītatāṁ yāti) 3. 148. 26;

(3) Bhīṣma told Yudhiṣṭhira that Kṛṣṇa was strength in the Dvāpara (balaṁ tv āsīd dvāpare pārtha kṛṣṇaḥ) 13. 143. 9.


E. King and the Dvāpara: According to Utathya Aṅgiras all the four Yugas depend on the king's behaviour, hence a king himself is called Yuga (rājavṛttāni sarvāṇi rājaiva yugam ucyate) 12. 92. 6; Bhīṣma had no doubt that all the Yugas were rooted in a king (rājamūlāni sarvāṇi mama nāsty atra saṁśayaḥ) 12. 139. 10; it is the king who created a Yuga--whether it was the Kṛta, the Tretā, or the Dvāpara 5. 130. 16 = 12. 70. 25 (also cf. rājā kālasya kāraṇam 5. 130. 15 = 12. 70. 6); when a king gives up half of the daṇḍanīti and practises only one half of it, then the Dvāpara age sets in (ardhaṁ tyaktvā yadā rājā nītyardham anuvartate/tatas tu dvāparaṁ nāma sa kālaḥ saṁpravartate//) 12. 70. 16; the dharma practised by the king in the Dvāpara is deficient in two quarters (dvāpare tu dvipādena (ūnaḥ)) 12. 259. 32; by bringing about the Dvāpara a king lives in heaven only according to his share (i. e. not for a long time) (pravartanād dvāparasya (svargam) yathābhāgam ypāśnute) 5. 130. 17 = 12. 70. 27; (description of the behaviour of people in the Dvāpara in the absence of the daṇḍanīti 12. 65. 24-27).


F. Dvāpara and dharma: In the Dvāpara Yuga, dharma will lose two of its four feet and the age will be marked by a mixture (of dharma and adharma) (tato vai dvāparaṁ nāma miśraḥ kālo bhaviṣyati/dvipādahīno dharmaś ca yuge tasmin bhaviṣyati) 12. 327. 75; (dvāpare 'rdhena vyāmiśro dharma ucyate) 3. 188. 11 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 3. 190. 10: ardhena adharmeṇa); (aśubhasya tadā ardhaṁ dvāv aṁśāv anuvartate) 12. 70. 17; (dvāpare 'pi yuge dharmo dvibhāgonaḥ pravartate) 3. 148. 26; 12. 259. 32; in the Yugas that follow the Kṛta the traditional dharma is displaced successively by one quarter and instead adharma increases due to the practice of theft, falsehood and deceit 12. 224. 23; the dharmas in the Dvāpara are different from those in the Kṛta and the Tretā 12. 224. 26 = 12. 252. 8; according to Mārkaṇḍeya, however, the dharma for the Kṛta, the Tretā and the Dvāpara was the same (eṣa ḍharmaḥ kṛtayuge tretāyāṁ dvāpare tathā) 3. 189. 13; sacrifice was considered to be the best dharma for the Dvāpara (dvāpare yajñam evāhuḥ (uttamam)) 12. 224. 27; Hanūmant told Bhīma that the times in different Yugas were different; he and Bhīma lived at a time when the Dvāpara was about to end and hence he could not assume the form he had taken in the earlier Yuga (ayaṁ pradhvaṁsanaḥ kālo nādya tad rūpam asti me) 3. 148. 6; Kṛṣṇa-Vāsudeva, along with Saṁkaraṣṇa, is praised following the Sātvata rites when the Dvāpara ends, and the Kali begins (dvāparasya yugasyānte ādau kaliyugasya ca/ sātvataṁ vidhiṁ āsthāya gītaḥ saṁkarṣaṇena yaḥ (i. e. kṛṣṇaḥ) 6. 62. 39.


G. Dvāpara, sacrifice and the Vedas: Vyāsa told his son Śuka that on account of the limitation on the life expectancy (of human beings) sacrifices, in the Dvāparayuga, get into disarray (saṁrcdhād āyuṣas tv ete (i. e. yajñāḥ) vyasyante dvāpare yuge) 12. 224. 65 = 12. 230. 14; they fall into ruin (dvāpare viplavaṁ yānti yajñāḥ) 12. 224. 62 = 12. 230. 15 (viplavaṁ yānti vedāḥ); however, sacrifice considered to be the best dharma for the Dvāpara (dvāpare yajñam evāhuḥ (uttamam) 12. 224. 27; Hanūmant told Bhīma that in the Dvāpara the Veda is fourtold; hence some study all the four Vedas, others three, two, or one; but some do not study a single ṛc; as men did not realize the sacred text to be one Veda, the Veda was divided into many (Vedas) (dvāpare 'pi yuge…caturdhā veda eva ca//tato 'nye ca caturvedās trivedāś ca tathāpare/dvivedāś caikavedāścāpy anṛcaś ca tathāpare//…ekavedasya cājñānād vedās te bahavaḥ kṛtāḥ) 3. 148. 26-27, 29 (Nī., on Bom. Ed. 3. 149. 28, offers an alternative explanation: yad vā caturvedā iti vedatrayoktaṁ karma jyotiṣṭomādikam/atharvaṇopaniṣaduktam dhyānaṁ ca sahaiva vānutiṣṭhantīti karmopāstisamuccaya uktaḥ/trivedā iti kevalakarmaṭhāḥ/dvivedā iti svaśākhoktaṁ saṁdhyāvandanādi karma dhyānaṁ cānutiṣṭhanti/ekavedā dhyānaikaniṣṭhāḥ/ anṛcaḥ kṛtakṛtyāḥ/); (also cf. Maheśvara (Viṣṇu) recommending the performance of sacrifices to satisfy the gods and the gods, on their part, sustaining the worlds in the (three) Yugas other than the Kṛta 12. 327. 53-60).


H. Nature: According to the description of the Dvāpara given by Hanūmant to Bhīma, since in that age the Vedas become fourfold and the śāstras multiply, the Vedic rites are variously performed; people, given to austerities and gifts, become rājasa by nature; since truth falls down, rarely any one abides by truth (evaṁ śāstreṣu bhinneṣu bahudhā niyate kṛiyā/ tapodānapravṛttā ca rājasī bhavati prajā// …satyasya ceha vibhraṁśāt satye kaścid avasthitaḥ//) 3. 148. 28-29; for further description of the Dvāpara cf. 3. 148. 30-31; Hanūmant concludes that people in the Dvāpara perish due to the practice of adharma (evaṁ dvāparam āsādya prajāḥ kṣīyanty adharmataḥ) 3. 148. 32; according to Saṁjaya, in the Dvāpara all the four varṇas are full of energy; they are great heroes, desirous of killing each other; on the whole, the Dvāpara in which Saṁjaya lived was characterized by contraction (of the merits in all respects) (sarvavarṇā mahārāja jāyante dvāpare sati/mahotsāhā mahāvīryāḥ parasparavadhaiṣiṇaḥ//…saṁkṣepo vartate rājan dvāpare 'smin narādhipa) 6. 11. 11, 14 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 10. 15: saṁkṣepo guṇānām iti śeṣaḥ); Vyāsa told Śuka that all the varṇas and the āśramas fall into disarray due to the limitation on the life-span (varṇāśramās tathā/saṁrcdhād āyuṣas tv ete vyasyante dvāpare yuge) 12. 230. 14; he also said that people in the Dvāpara (as in the Tretā and the Kali) entertain doubt (tretāyāṁ dvāpare caiva kalijāś ca sasaṁśayāḥ 12. 230. 7) as to what is at the root of a man's success-his effort, fate, or nature 12. 230. 4; in the Dvāpara, the earth has to be ploughed and even then it does not yield much harvest (kṛṣṭapacyaiva pṛthivī bhavaty alpaphalā tathā) 12. 70. 17; in this Yuga people have to copulate to beget progeny (dvāpare maithuno dharmaḥ prajānām abhavan nṛpa) 12. 200. 37; evil tribes like the Talavaras and the Andharkas from the south and the Yaunas (Yavanas) and the Gāndhāras from the north move on earth from the Tretā onwards (i. e. also in the Dvāpara) 12. 200. 39-40, 42.


I. Life expectancy: Vyāsa told his son Śuka that the life expectancy of people diminishes by a quarter in each succeeding Yuga after the Kṛta, hence in the Dvāpara they live for two hundred years (…tretādiṣv eteṣāṁ pādaśo hrasate vayaḥ) 12. 224. 24; Vyāsa also told Śuka that according to his information life expectancy of people, along with other things, gradually decreased in the successive Yugas (…anuyugaṁ hrasantīti ca naḥ śrutam/āyūṁṣi…) 12. 224. 25; this is also what Mārkaṇḍeya told Yudhiṣṭhira (āyur…manuṣyāṇām anuyugaṁ hrasatīti nibodha me) 3. 188. 13; according to Saṁjaya, however, the life expectancy of people in the Dvāpara was two thousand years (āyuḥsaṁkhyā…saṁktyātā…/dvisahasraṁ dvāpare tu) 6. 11. 5-6 (apparently Saṁjaya made confusion between the duration of the Dvāpara age and the life expectancy of people in that Yuga).


J. Simile: The place where the river Narmadā passes along the Vaiḍūrya mountain is compared to the junction of the Tretā (f.) and the Dvāpara (m.) 3. 121. 18-19.


K. Name of Sūrya: Dvāpara appears as 48th name among the hundred and eight names of Sūrya taught by Dhaumya to Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 3. 22. [The words kṛta, tretā, dvāpara and kali occurring in 5. 140. 7-15 are wrongly interpreted by Nīlakaṇṭha (Bom. Ed. 5. 142. 7-15) as names of the four Yugas, and not as the names of the throws in the game of dice].


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Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Dvāpara. See Akṣa and Yuga.
==Foot Notes==

"https://sa.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=द्वापर&oldid=473694" इत्यस्माद् पुनः प्राप्तिः