ACHARYA, P. K., Indian. Architecture According to the Maanasaara'silpa'saastra, pp. iv, 268, index: A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture, pp. xx, 861, index. Both printed in Allahaabaad, published by the OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, and without date (1927 or 1928).
These two volumes, the latter especially, are monumental workg and will be indispensable to every student of Indian architecture and realia. Only those who work along these lines will realise the great labour involved in the preparation of such books, especially when they are almost the first of their kind; the serioue study of the Indian 'silpa-'saastras has been too long delayed, and a warm welcome may be extended to the Professor's undertaking. The author, nevertheless, has neglected a good deal of work that has been done in this field; surprising omissions in the references, for example, are Rao, Taalamaana, Jouveau-Dubreuil, Arch�ologie du Sud de I'Inde, and texts such as the Vi.s.nudharmottara and 'Silparatna. Moreover the author is too little, if at all, acquainted with the actual buildings; otherwise, indeed, he could not have remarked that the buildings and sculptures of the time when the text of the Maanasaara was composed "have all been destroyed," overlooking the fact that sculptures and building of this and earlier periods survive in thousands, and that a very great deal of exact information about the early architecture can be gathered from the 'Su.nga, Ku.saana, and AAndhra reliefs. I have myself in preparation a work based on this early material, which can and necessarily will be very fully illustrated. Jouveau-Dubreuil had the immense advantage of a thorough knowledge of the actual architecture, and of personal contact with living sthapatis able to explain the meaning of technical terms; without these qualifications Professor Acharya has attempted an almost impossible task, for here book-learning, however profound, is insufficient. The following notes, however, are meant to be a further contribution to the subject and an acknowledgment of the value of what the Professor has already accomplished, rather than further criticism.
As of most general interest I would call attention to the items AAbhaasa, Candra-'saalaa, Hasti-nakha, Ku.taagaara, Likh, Li^nga, Naaraaca, Tulaa. I should aleo like to emphasize the fact that a study of the early use of the words which later appear as established technical terms in the 'Silpa-'saastras is of great value for the study of architectural history. There is still very much to be accomplished in this direction.
AAbhaasa: together with ardha-citra and citraabhaasa, are completely misunderstood. Neither of these is a material, but as explained by 'Srikumaara, 'Silparatna, Ch.64, vv. 2-6 (see my translation in the Sir Ashutosh Mookerjee Memorial Volume), and by Rao, Elements af Hindu Iconography, I, p. 52, citing the Suprabhedaagama, a method. Both the Maanasaara and Suprabhedaagama as cited by the Professor himself are perfectly clear on the point; as the matter is important, I quote the latter:
Sarvaavayava-sa^mpuur.na^m d.r'sya^m tac citram ucyate Ardhaavayava-sa^md Ardhaavayava-sa^md.r's ca (sic). Pa.te bhittau ca yo(al) likhya^m(1) citraabhaasam ihocyate (sic).
The mistake about aabhaasa has led to the extraordinary view (Dict. p. 65, l. 3) that aalekhya is also a material. Citra, in fact is divided into citra, ardha-citra, and citraabhaasa, respectively sculpture in the round, reliefs, and paintiag. In Indian architecture, p. 70, in the same connection sarvaa^ngad.r'syamaana, rendered "quite transparent," really means "in which all the parts of the body are visible." Of course, there are many cases where citra. by itself is used to mean painting, but some of these need critical examination; for example citraa.ni ma.n.dalaani of Culllavagga, V, 9, 2 does not mean "painted circular linings," as rendered in S. B. E., XX, but simply "carved bowl-rests."
AAdhaara: add the meaning, "reservoir, " Artha'saastra, III. 8 (Meyer).
Adhi.s.thaana, plinth: Mukherji, Report on the Antiquities of the District of Lalitpur, 1899, describes and illustrates the various parts and mouldings. A few diagrams of this kind would have greatly enhanced the value of the Dictionary.
AAjira: a courtyard, see Geiger, Mahava^msa, Ch. XXXV, 3 and transl., p. 246.
AAlambana-baaha: the balustrade, vedikaa, of a stair- way, sopaanaa, Cullavagga, V, 11. Cf. hasti- hasta. AAlambana, per se, is the plinth of a railing or balustrade.
AAlekhya: not in the Dictionary. See above under aabhaasa. The working drawing, on cloth, for the Lohapaasaada is thus designated in the Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII, 10. AAlekhya-sthaana is a space left in a manuscript for the subsequent insertion of an illustration. _____________________________________________________
(1) ? yal lekhya^m. �
AAlinda: balcony, gallery. Cullavagga, VI, 3, 5, glossed pamukha= pramukha: ib. VI, 14, 1, described as hatthi-nakhaka^m, see hastinakha. In Mahaava^msa, XXV, 3, the rendering of aalinda as "terrace in front of a house door" (Geiger, Mahaava^msa, p. 246, note 2) seems very questionable.
AAmalaka: not in the Dictionary, though discussed in the other volume, p. 179, where kala'sa, "vase" (finial) is misrendered "dome." Not in the Maanasaara, and the suggested equivalent muurdhni-i.staka seems a little questionable. I doubt if an example as finial could be cited before the Gupta period, when it can be seen on the reduced edifices of the Saarnaath lintel (Sahni, Catalogue, pls. XV-XSVI); but these imply an already well-established tradition. The form is already employed architecturally in connection with pilasters represented at Amaraavatii. In Cullavagga, VI, 2, 4 a kind of chair is termed aamalaka-va.n.tika-pi.t.ha^m, and this is glossed by Buddbaghosa as "having large aamalaka-formed feet attached to the back." The translation "many feet" of S. B. E. XX, 165, cited by Acharya without comment, can hardly be justified, though Buddhaghosa's bahupaada suggests it at first sight. Amongst the countless representations of chairs and couches in Indian art of all periods I cannot think of a single example with more than four legs.
A^ngana: applied to the enclosure surrounding a stuupa, i. e. the circumambulation-platform between the stuupa and its railing, Dhammapada Atthakathaa, 290 (Bk. 21, Story 1, Burlingame, H. O. S., vol. 30, p 175).
A.nldvaara: Artha'saastra, II, 3,.and III, 8. Meyer renders "sidedoor," Shamctsastry "front door ." In III, 8, the latter meaning would seem to be indicrtted, as only one door is mention- ed, and the window above it is referred to. In the early reliefs we see no side doors to ordinary houses, while there is generally a window above the single (front) door.
Aratni: add references to Kau.tiliya Artha'saastra, II, 20, with a table of measurements practically identical with that of the Maanasaara. In Artha'saastra. II, 5, the rain gauge (s.v. ku.n.da below) is to be an aratni in width, i. e. 2 spans (vitasti) or 24 a^ngulas.
Argala: Pali aggala, Simhalese agula, a bolt. See under dvaara below.
Arghya: not in the Dictionary. In Mahaava^msa, XXX, 92, Geiger's rendering of agghiya as "arches" is impossible. Agghiya-panti may be rows of garlands or swags, a. common enough ornament, or more likely rows of vessels of some kind; phalikagghiya must be a crystal dish or platter, as it has four corners in which are placed heaps (raasiyo) of gold, gems, or pearls-but more likely we should understand phalakagghiya and translate as "wooden offering table" or "altar." In any case "four corners" has no meaning in connection with any sort of known torano. Agghika of Mhv. XXXIV, 73 is more doubtful,
perhaps here equivalent to altars or reredos (Si^mh. wahal-ka.d). See also agghiyac, agghika in P. T. S. Pali Dictionary.
AAryaka-stambha: not in the Dictionary: but see under aave.sanin, below, and Dictionary, p. 669.
AAsandii, a throne, seat: Atharva Veda, XV, 3 (see Whitney, in H. 0. S., Vol. VIII), where the various parts are named; the description sug gests the types still seen at Amaraavati. A detailed nomenclature of seats will be found in Cullavagga, VI, 2. Cf. ib., VI, 14, also Brahmajaala Sutta, (Dialogues, I, p. 11, note 4). Paoe S. B. E. XVII, p. 27, it is by no means demonstrable from Jaataka I, 108, that aasandi means "cushion"; Cowell's "couch" is undoubtedly correct, and this is the sense everywhere else. To suppose a chair or couch placed in a cart presents no difficulty.
A.t.taala: watch.-towers or gate-towers, Milindapannha, V, 4. Gopura.t.thaa, Mahaava^msa, XXV, 30. Gopura.t.taalaga, Uttaraadhyayanasuutram, IX, 18, Charpentier, pp. 97, 314.
Avasaraka: osaraka (Paali) (? that which sheds water) overhanging eaves [of a building without verandahs, anaalinda), Cullavagga, VI, 3, 5: glossed as chadana-pamukha^m, "projecting from the roof." Osaarake, "under the eaves," i. e. outside the house, Jaataka;, 111, 446. Cf. modern chajja.
Ave.sa.nin: not in the Dictionary; architect, foreman. Inscription on Saa~nci south tora.na, "Gift of AAnanda, son of Vaasi.s.thi, dvesa.nin (rendered " foreman of the artisans") of Raja 'Srii 'Saatakar.ni" (Marshall, Guide to Sanci, p. 48). AAyaka (aaryaka)-stambhas dedicated by Siddhaartha son of Naagacanda, both aavesa.nins (Burgess, Notes on the Amaravati Stupa, p. 56); aavesa is stated to mean a workshop, atelier.
Ayas: not in the Dictionary. This word is always used for iron (see loha, below). Mahaava^msa, XXV, 28, ayo-kammata-dvaara, "iron studded gate" (of a city); ib., 30, ayo-gula^m, "iron balls"; ib., XXIX, 8, ayo-jaala, an iron trellis used in the foundations of a stuupa. Reference might have been made to the iron pillars st Delhi and Dhar, and the use of iron in building at Ko.naarak.
Bodhi-ghara, mahaabodhi-ghara: temples of the Bodhi-tree, presumably like the many examples illustrated in the early reliefs. No doubt a pre-Buddhist form, preserved in connection with the cult of the Bodhi tree. See Mahaava^msa, XXXVI, 55, XXXVII, 31, etc.; in the former place provided with a sand court, vaalikaatala; ib., XXXV, 89 (a^ngana. Also called a ma.n.dapa, ib., XVIII, 63.
Bodhi-ma.n.da (la): is treated as synonymous with vajraasana, but is really the special area within which the vajraasana is established; see Hs�an Tsang as cited by Watters, II, 114, 115.
Candra (-'saala) , etc.: some useful material is contributed towards a solution of the problem of the proper designation of the so-called "caitya-window" (dormer or attic window, gable, etc.), one of the
commonest and most distinctive motifs recognizable in Indian architecture from first to last. "Caitya-window" is unsatisfactory, as the form is by no means peculiar to, nor can it have been originally devised expressly for caitya-halls; the gable form is derived from that of an ordinary barrel-vaulted house end. Tora.na is perhaps correct in so far as the window is actually an arch, vaataayana in so far as it is a window, but neither is sufficiently specific. The problem is a little complicated by the fact that we have to do both with arched windows actually admitting air to upper chambers, dormers, or attics, with real internal space, and also with similar forms used decoratively and placed in series on cornices or similarly used in. friezes; but the various architectural forms, complete figures, or heads (see also gandharva-mukha, and g.rha) which appear framed in the niche formed by the window-arch prove that the idea of an opening to internal space is always present. The best established word is Tamil kuu.du (Jouveau-Dubreuil, passim), but there seems to be no similar word in Sanskrit; kuu.du means nest, and it applies both to the window as an ornament, and to actual pavilions (kar.na-kuu.du, JouveauDubreuil, Dravidian Architecture, fig. 4). The proper term in Sanskrit seems to be candra-'saalaa (see s. v. in the Dictionary), meaning either a gabled chamber on or above the kapota (for which candra is given as a synonym), or the goble window itself. In the last case candra'salaa should really be an abbreviation of candra-'saala-vaataayana, and this seems to be the most explicit designation: "gable-window" is probably the best English phrase, German dachfenster. A number of passages seem to show also that gavaak.su may be synonymous with candra-'saalaa-vaataayana. Thus in Raghuva^msa, VII, 11, the gavaak.sas are crowded with the faces of beautiful young women looking out, and ib. XIX, 7, Agnivarman is visible to his subjects only to the extent of hia feet hanging down from the gavaak.sa. The modern vernacular equivalent is of course jharokhaa. The many-cusped arch, known to modern Musalmctn masons as piyaalidar mihraab, and familiar in Rajput, Mughal, and modern Indian architecture, is a development of the "horse-shoe" arch (gable window) which has rightly been regarded as of Indian, pre-Muhammasdan invention (Rivoira, Moslem Architecture, p. 110f); every stage in the evolution cas be followed. Cusped arches are found already in Java by the eighth century (Borobu.dur); there is an excellent example at the Gal Vihaaree, Pa.lonnaaruva, Ceylon. It would take too much space to treat this interesting subject at length here, but it is worth while to note that Mukherji, Antiquities of the Lalipur District, I, p. 9, gives the Indian terminology; the "parts of the so-called Saracenic (five-foiled) arch, are all Hindu." These names are, for the spring of the arch, naaga (cf. naaga-bandha. in the sense ot chamfer-stop); for the foils or cups, ka.tora; and for the top, cuukaa (? = cuulikaa, q.v. in Dictionary).
Ca^nkrama: cloister, monk's walk, at first perhaps only paved, later roofed and railed (Cullavagga, V, 14, 2, 3). Ca^nkamana-saalaa, "hall in a cloister," Cullavagga, V, 14, 2 and Mahaavagga, III, 5.
Cetiya-ghara: in Mahaava^msa, XXXI, 29, and 60, 61, cetiya-ghara is a structure built over a stuupa, thuupain tassopari ghara^m. Some have seen evidence of such a structure in the still standing tall pillars surrounding the The Thuupaaraama Daagaba at Anuraadhapura, and this interpretation seems to be plausible, especially as the pillars are provided with tenons above. An actual example of a stuupa with a roof over it, supportad by four pillars, can be seen at Ga.dalaadeniya, near Kandy, Ceylon. The old caitya-halle are also, of course, cetiya-gharas, and of these there existed also many structural examples. " Thuupaghara... is simply a house over a tope" (Hocart, A.M., Ceylon. Journ. Science, G., Vol. I, p 145).
Channavira: some description might have been given of this very common ornament, found from pre-Mauryan times to the present day. See Rao, Elements of Hindu Iconography,I,p. xxxi, and M. F. A. Bulletin, No. 152, p. 90. The channavira passes over both shoulders and both hips, crossing and fastening in the middle of the breast and middle of the back; it is worn by deities and men, male and female, and occurs also in Java.
Citra: art, ornament, sculpture, painting, see above under aabhaasa. Citra, citra-karma do not always mesn painting. Some places where the word occurs and has been so translated need re�xamination; for example, Cullavagga, V, 9, 2, citraa.ni ma.n.dalaani does not mean "painted circular linings," but rather "carved bowl-rests." Some referencee should be given to citra-sabhaa, citra-'saala which are of very common occurrence in the sense "painted hall or chamber." The citta-sabhaa of Jacobi, Ausgew�hlte Erz�hlungen, p. 39, has a high tower (uttunga siharaa). Description of a. citta-sabhaa cited from the Uttaraadhyayana Suutra, Meyer, Hindu Tales, p. 174. Cittaagaara, in Sutta Vibha^nga, II, 298.
Cuulikaa: as something at the top must be connected with cuu.daa. But in Maanasaana, L. 301, (Dict., p. 197) , lamba-haaram api cuulikaadibhi.h, cuulikaa must be "bodice," and synonymous with co.laka.
Daraninavami-'silaa: not in the Dictionary. A square stone (or rarely bronze) slab or box divided into nine compartments in which are placed symbols connected with water, the whole being laid below the foundations of a temple or below an image (A. S. I., A. R.., 1903-04 p. 98, note). This object is known in Ceylon as a. yantra-gala, where several examples have been found (Parker, Ancient Ceylon, pp. 298, 658; Mem. Colombo Museum, Series A, I, p. 25).
Deva-kula: in the Avadaana-'sataka (Feer, p. 98), used of a temple of Naaraay.na. See also A. S. I., A. R.., 1911-12, p. 124. Devakula of
the Naaga Dadhikar.na, Mathuraa inscription, Luders' List, No. 63. Inscription of Lo.naa'sobhikaa on Mathuraa aayaagapata, see VI Int. Congr. Orientalists, III, p. 143.
Dhavala, whitening: applied to a plastered or other surface, 'silparatna, Ch. 64. Dhavala-hara, a "White House, " palace, Haribhadra, Sanatkumaaracarita, 548, 599, 608.
Drupada: a post,.Rg Veda, 3, 32, 33. The whole passage is very doubtful, but apparently two horses are compared to carved figures of some kind (brackets? )upon a wooden post.
Dvaara: the parts of a door are listed in Cullavagga, V, 14, 3, also ib. VI, 2 (not quite correctly translated in S. B. E., XX, p. 106), as follows: kavaa.ta, the leaves; pi.t.thasa^mghaa.ta(2) (=Sanskrit prasthaasa^mgha.tikaa, "upstanding pair"), the door-posts; udukhallika, threshold; uttarapaasaka, Iintel; aggalava.t.ti, bolt-post; kapi-siisaka, bolt (-handle) ; suucika, the pin or part of the kapi-siisa which fits into the socket in the bolt-post (cf. suuci = cross-bar of a vedikad) ; gha.tikaa, apparently the slot in the bolt-post juat referred to; taalacchidda, key-hole; aavi~nchanacchidda, string-hole; aavi~nchana-rajju, string for pulling the leaves to from outside preparatory to locking. Some of these terms occur elsewhere; with reference to a passage in the Mahaaparinibbaana Sutta where AAnanda leans against the kapi-siisaka Buddhaghosa is certainly right in glossing kapi-sisaka as aggala, for the Si^mhalese agula is big enough to lean against (see my Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, figs. 80-82, for illustrations, ib. p. 133, for the Sinhalese terminology). As in so many other cases the terms are perfectly comprehensible when the objects have been seen as represented in relief, or in use, and when the modern technical terms are known.
As correctly observed in S. B. E., XX, p. 160, dvaara is "doorway," "aperture," always with reference to outer doors or gates of any building, or of a city, while kavaa.ta means the leaves of a door, the door itself. See also under g.rha, and cf. Robert knox's description of the palace? of Raaja Si^mha II, "stately Gates, two-leaved ... with their posts, excellently carved." Bahi-duaala-saaIaa = bahir-dvaara-'saalaa, "outer room," "gate chamber," Mrcchaka.tika, III, 3. From RV. I, 51, 14 we get duryo yupa.h for the door posts, from RV. I, 113, 14 aataa for the door leaves, and from RV. III. 61. 4 a thong (syuuman) fastening.
Dvaara-baahaa: door posts, Mahaava^msa, XXV, 38: ayo-dvaara, ayo-kammatadvaara, ib. XXV, 28, 29, 32.
Dvaara-ko.t.thaka, gate house: cittakuu.ta dvaara-ko .t.thaka, etc., "a gate-house _____________________________________________________
(2) See S. B. E. XX, p. 105, note 2.
with a. decorated peak, and surrounded by statues of Indra, as though guarded by tigers," Jaataka, VI, 125: cf. Dhammapada Atthathaa, Bk. 2, story 7. For ko.t.thaka see also Cullavagga, V, 14, 4 and VI, 3, 10; Jaataka, I, 351 and II, 431; and Meyer, Artha'saastra, p. 75, note 5 (in the sense of "shrine") . Ko.t.thaka is usually "gatehouse, " but pi.t.thiko.t.thaka is "back-room" in Dhammapada Atthakathaa, II, 19. In Jaataka I, 227, dvaara-ko.t.thaka is, as usual, gate-house, not as interpreted in S. B. E. XVII, 219, 'mansion' (the 'mansion' is ghara and it has seven dvaara-ko.t.thakas).
Gaairikaa: red chalk. Cullavagga, V, 11, 6, geruka, red coloring for walls. Medium red color, 'Silparatna, Ch. 64, 117. Brown, Indian painting under the Mughals, p. 124 (used in preprtring the lekhanii or pencil). Used as rouge, Karpuurama~njari, III, 18, see H. O. S., Vol. 4, note on p. 268. as a pigment, dhaatu-raaga, Meghaduuta, 102. Geruka, Culllavagga, V, 11, 6, VI, 3, 1, and VI, 17, 1. Mahaavagga, VII, 11, 2.
Ga.n.da-bhera.n.da: insufficiently explained by the cross-reference to stambhu. The two-headed eagle, a gigantic bird of prey, is first found in India on a Jaina stuupa base st Sirkap (Marshall, Guide to Taxila, p. 74) . In mediaeval art two forms appear, analogous to those of garu.das, one with a human body and two bird heads, the other entirely bird. Connected especially with the kings of Vijayanagar, and appearing on their coins, carrying elephants in its claws. Other examples at 'Sri'saailam (A. S. I.., A. R.., Southern Circle, 1917-18) ; remarkable panels st Korama^ngala and Beluur, Caa.lukyan (Mysore A. S. Rep., 1920, and Narasimachar, Ke'sava temple at Beluur, p. 8). A common motif in south Indian jewellery. In Ceyion, see my Mediaeval Sinhalese art, p. 85. Cf. also hatthilinga-saku.na, Dhammapada Atthakathaa, 1, 164. Further references will appear in the Boston Catalogue of Mughal Paintings.
Gandha-ku.ti, see s. v. Ku.ti.
Gandharva-mukha: designation of the busts or faces framed in the openings of kuu.du, candra-'saalaa-vaataayana, or gavaak.sa, gable windows (Jouveau-Dubreuil, Dravidian Architecture, p. 12). Cf. canda-muha, S. V. candra-'saalaa.
Gavaak.sa: see Candra, Gandharva-mukha, G.rha, and Harmya.
G.rha, ghara, aagaara, geha, etc.: there is an excellent description of Vasantasenaa's house (geha, bhavana) in the M.rcchaka.tika, IV, 30, seq. There are eight courts (pao.t.thaa = prako.s.tha) ;(3) above the outer door (geha-dvara) is an ivory tora.na, supported by tora.na-dhra.na-tham-bha, and stretching up its head (siisa) towards the sky; at each side are festival jars (ma^ngala-kalasa) -- "Yes, Vasantasenaa's house is a beautiful thing." In the first court are paasaada-panti, rows of pavilions, having stairways (sobaa.na), and crystal windows (pha.ti- _____________________________________________________
(3) Paali paku.t.ta, Cullavagga VI, 3, 5 is rendered "inner verandahs" in S. B. E., XX, p. 175.
vaa.da = spha.tika-vaataayana) with moon-faces (muhe-cande), or probably "faces on the candra, " i. e. gandharva-mukhas framed in the candra'saalaa-vataayanas ornamenting the roll-cornice, for which the description " seeming to look down upon Ujjayinii " would be very appropriate. In the third court are courtezans carrying pictures painted in many colors, vivihava.n.ni-aavalitta citraphala =vividhavar.nikaavalipta citraphalaka. In the fourth court, where music and dancing take place, there are water-coolers (salila-gagario =salilogargaraya.h) hanging from the ox-eye windows (gavekkha=gavaak.sa). Tisalaa's palace in the Kalpa Suutra, 32, is a vaasa-ghara, dwelling place; it is sacitta-kamme, decorated with pictures, and ulloya-cittiya, has a canopy of painted cloth (cf. Paali ulloka). Milindapa~nha, II, 1, 13 has "As all the rafters of the roof of a house go up to the apex, slope towards it, are joined together at it." The famous triumph song of the Buddha (Nidaanakathaa, Jaataka, 1, 76 = Dhammapada, 154) has " Broken are all thy beams (phaasuka), the housetop (gaha-kuu.ta) shattered": the housebuilder is gahakaaraka. See also Bodhighara, Cetiyaghara, Cittaagaara, Dhavala, Kuu.taagaara, Samudraagaara, Santhaagaara.
Harmya: ramya^m harmyam, a beautiful palace, Vikrama Carita (Edgerton, text and transl. in H. O. S. 26, p. 258, and 27, p. 239) has the following parts: muulaprati.s.thaana, basement; bhitti-stambha-dvaaratora.na, walls, pillars, doorways and arches; 'saalabha~njikaa, statues; praa^nga.na, courts; kapaa.ta, folding doors; parigha, door-bars;(4) valabhi, roofs; vi.ta^nka, cornices; naaga-danta, pegs; mattavaara.na, turrets; gavaak.sa, ox-eye windows; sopaana, stairs; nandyaavartaadi-g.rha, pavilions (? ) (see Dictionary, s.v.). Harmikaa, the little equare structure on the top of a stuupa. (Divyuvadaana) . A cross reference to raaja-harmya should be given in the Dictionary.
Harmya, dwelling, Atharva Veda, XVIII, 4, 55; RV. I, 121, 1, I, 166, 4, VII, 56, 16, etc. Savitaana-harmya, Raghuva^msa, XIX, 39, "place with an awning"; or perhaps vitaana = modern chajja.
Hasti-hasta, gaja-hasto: amongst innumerable examples might be cited one at Naaraaya.npur, Burgess, A. S. W. I., III, pl. XXXI, 3. Elephanttrunk balustrades in Ceylon are et-ho.n.da-vel, with the same sense as hasti-hasta.
Hasti-nakha: literally "elephant's nail." In Culla- vagga, VI, 14, 1 a paasaada having an aalinda (balcony, gallery), qualified as hatthinakhaka^m, is a permitted monastic residence. According to Buddhaghosa's gloss this means hatthi-kumbha pati.t.thita^m, literally " supported on elephants' frontal globes," and so to be rendered "supported by pillars having elephant capitals"; and this is plausible enough, _____________________________________________________
(4) But see Parikhaa, usually, and perhaps here also, a moat.
as pillars with elephant capitals, supporting galleries and upper storeys, are highly characteristic of early Indian architecture. It is true that one hesitates to accept nakha in any other sense than that of "nail" or "claw." But it is possible to retain the interpretation "elephant capital" without supposing that nakha = kumbha, for in fact the observer, standing at the foot of such columns, e. g. at Be.dsaa (see accompanying Plate), and looking upwards, sees nothing of the actual capital, except the under sides and nails of the fore feet of the elephants, which project beyond the edge of the abacus, and this may well have given rise to the term "elephant's nail" as applied to elephant capitals. On the other hand, hasti-nakha occurring in the 'Si'supaalavadha, III. 68, 'Sanairaniyanta rayaapatanto rathaa.h. k.siti^m hastinakhaat... tura^ngai.h, "the swift chariots are slowly brought down from the hastinakha to earth by the horsee," seems to refer to a place or structure on the rampart. Amara's gloss is puurdvaari m.rtkuu.ta,h "a kuu,ta made of earth at the city gate." The word also occurs in Kau.tiliya Artha'saastra, p. 53 of Shamasastry, the Dictionary citing only Shamasastry's translation s.v. g.rha-vinyaasa. Here too, hasti-nakhas are connected with the gate and rampart of a fort. Meyer's version, p. 71, given here with slight modification, is much to be preferred: " For access, an 'Elephant's nail,' level with the opening of the gateway, and a drawbridge (sa^mkrama.h sa^mhaaryo); or in case there is no water (for a moat), a causeway made of earth." The hasti-nakha is here then presumably a pillar with an elephant capital, standing in the moat, to receive the drawbridge when the latter is let down upon it, or pushed out onto it.(5) It is not impossible that the term hasti-nakha, by an extension of the original and strict meaning, had come to be applied also to the drawbridge itself, and even to the causeway. The 'Si'supaalavadha passage would then imply simply the bringing of the chariots across the drawbridge, or, as understood by Amara, across the causeway of earth which takes its place when there is no water; and thence onto the solid ground. Cf. Ke'sanakha-stuupa, s. v. Stuupa, not explained (Feer, Avadaana 'Sataka, p. 487), but possibly with some reference to a lion capital.
Hasti-praakaara, see Praakaara.
Hasti-prstha gaja-p.r.s.tha: this appropriate name is applied to the buildings with apsidal structures, common in Pallava, Cola, and later Dravidian work (see accompanying Plate). The reference on p. 159 to Indian Antiquary XII should be corrected to XL. On p. 398 hastip.r.s.tha single-storeyed buildings are said to have an "oval steeple"; read instead "apsidal roof." The Professor elsewhere often refers to oval buildings, perhaps meaning apsidal; an oval plan is unknown to Indian architecture. _____________________________________________________
(5) Or, if we read asa^mhaaryo, then supporting a fixed bridge.
Jantaaghara: hot bath room, Mahaava^msa, XV, 3l, not in the Dictionary, though described without citation of the term, Indian Architecture, p. 14. S. B. E. XIII, p. 157, note 2. Cullavagga, V, 14, 3 and VIII, 8, 1; Mahaavagga, 1. 25, 12-13.
Ka.da^nkara, Paali ka.li^ngaraa: plank of a stairway, sopaana, Cullavagga, v, 21, 2.
Kalaa: no reference to the kalaas; see Venkatasubbiah, A., The Kalas, Madras, 1911, and do, with E. M�ller, in J. R. A. S., 1914. The lists include such items as nagaramaa.nam, vatthunivesam, daarukriyaa, etc.
Kalaabhara: artist, expert. According to the Gautama Dharma-suutra, VI, 16, the kalaabhara who is five years older than oneself should be greeted with respect as bho.h or bhavan. Haradatta explains kalaabhara as one who lives by the kalaas, i. e. the knowledge of music, painting, leaf-cutting and the like.
Ka~ncuka: ka~ncuka^m... silaamaya^m of Mahaava^msa, XXXIII, 25, is evidently rightly translated by Geiger as "a mantling made of stone" (for the Hhandhathupa) . This muat be the correct designation for the "casing" and "casing slabs" of archaeologists.
Kapota: should be translated "roll-cornice, " "larmier." It is the main cornice of a. building, derived from the edge of the thatch and the primitive drip-stone cut above cave dwellings to prevent the rain from running in. The synonyms of kapota, candra, lupaa, gopaana, are significant; see candra-'saalaa. The rendering of kapota by "spout" should be avoided. As paalikaa is abacus, kapota-paalikaa should be a fillet above the kapota. Kern is undoubtedly right in rejecting the meaning "dove-cot," so also in the case of vi.ta.nka. M.rcchaka.tika, I, 51 has kavaalapa-vi.ta^nka, glossed kapota-paalikaa uparigrrha and translated in H. O. S. "dove-cot"; "dove-ridge" would be better. In reliefs, birds are commonly represented ae perched on roofs and mouldings. Utpala's definition of kapota-paalikaa quoted on p. 111 of the Dictionary, amounting to "corbel-ended timbers above the kapota" is quite intelligible, as these being seen end on, and coming between the top of the kapota, and the bottom of the next member above (as often represented in the early reliefs), are related to the kapota precisely as the abacus is related to the rest of the capital below it and the entablature above it.
Kappiya-bhuumi: not in the Dictionary. "Outhouse site, " Mahaavagga, VI, 33, 2 = S. B. E., XVII, p. ll9.
Karmaara, Paali kammaara, Mahavagga 1, 48 etc., Sinhalese kammaalar: not in the Dictionary. Artisan, smith, etc. Kammaara-bha.n.du, workers in metals, Mahaavagga, I,48, 1. Highly esteemed by king and people, Jaataka, III, 281. The viceroy of Krr.s.naraaya of Vijayanagar exempt- ed ka.nmaa. lars from taxation (A. S. I., A. R.., 1908-09, p. 184). Prakrit Kamaara, see Charpentier, Uttaraadhyayanasuutram, p. 361. See also my Indian Craftsman, and Mediaeval Sinhalese Art. Kammmaara-saalaa, smithy.
Kar.na-kiila, "the ear rod, fastened with iron (nails) , along the sides of a house, and according to which the house is to be built, " Artha'saastra, III, 8. Probably the frame-work of four beams which rests on stone supports, cf. Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, Pl. VII, fig. 7, at the level of the man's waist.
Ka.taka: add, a position of the fingers used in dancing, and seen in the hands of images holding flowers. See Rao, Elements of Hindu Iconography, I, p. 16; and Mirror of Gesture, p. 31. In this sense, synonymous with si^mhakar.na.
Ka.ti-suutra: in the sense of girdle, Cullavagga. V, 2, 1. Technical terms for special forms, ib. V, 29, 2.
Keyuura: armlet, cf. kaayura in Cullavagga, IV, 2, 1, S. B. E. XX, p. 69.
Kha.n.da door (the actual leaf or leaves) , Artha'sastra, III, 8. Meyer makes it a single leaf. Shamassstry renders as equivalent to kavaa.ta; the choice depends on the meaning assigned to a.nidvaara in the same passage. The door in any case would open inwards, hence Meyer's rendering with reference to the obstruction of space between two houses cannot be quite correct.
Ki~ncikkha-paasaa.na: Mahava^msa, XXXIV, 69, stones apparently used as paving slabs round a stuupa, probably so called as being very smooth (cf. Skt. ki~njalka, filaments of a lotus). Childers gives the form ki~njakkha-paasaa.na.
Ki^nkini-jaalaya: network of bells adorning a vedikaa, Mahaava^msa, XXVII, 16. Often seen on Bharhut and other early rail-copings.
Kiirti-vaktra: add synonymns kiirti-mukha, makara(i) -vaktra, makara-patra, si^mha-mukha; and Sinhalese kibihi, and kaala-makara of Dutch archaeologists. The inclusion of the term in the Maanasaara shows that the text cannot antedate the Gupta period, for the makara face as the crowning element of a tora.na. is not developed before that time at the earliest, the crowning element in earlier types being plain or having the form of a tri'suula or 'Sriivatsa.
Ko'sa-g.rha, store room, treasury: has triple underground cellar with many chambers, amongst which is a devataa-vidhaana, or chapel, with images of the Vaastu-devataa, Kubera, etc., Artha'sastra, II, 5.
Ko.s.thaagaara: a pair of storehouses are referred to by this name in the Sohgaura plaque inscription, and illustrated on the same plaque (Fleet, in JRAS, 1907). They are described as trigarbha, having three rooms; Fleet discusses this at length, but it is evident from the illustrations that these rooms are on three storeys, for the storehouses are represented as small three-storeyed pavilions; it is true that the roof of the top storey is "out of the picture," but its supporting pillars can be clearly eeen. For another use of garbha as designating chambers of a many-storeyed building see under Praasaada, the Lohapaasaada. See also prako.s.tha, s. v. g.rha, dvaara-ko.t.thaka, and ku.n.da.
Kuudu, see s. v. candra-'saalaa.
Kumbha (and kala'sa): I cannot see any evidence in the texts cited to justify the translation "cupola." The jar in question has actually always the form of a jar, and is placed above the dome, cupola, spire, aamalaka, roof-ridge, or whatever otherwise forms the top of a building. Kumbha also = temples of an elephant, see s. u. hasti-nakha.
Kun.da: a bowl used as a rain-gauge (vor.samaana;) and placed in front of s granary (ko.s.thaagaara) (Kau.tilya, Artha'saastra, II, 5).
Ku.n.dikaa: should be equated with kama.n.dalu (not in the Dictionary) and explained as the water-pot carried by Brahmanical hermits and Buddhist monks, and provided with two openings, one a funnel at the side for filling, the other at the top of the neck, which is also the handle. Many examples have been found on Indian Buddhist monastic sites. The ku.n.dikaa is carried only by deities of ascetic type especially Brahmaa and 'Siva, and by.r.sis, and should not be confused with the am.rta-kala'sa, which has only one opening, and is carried by other deities, especially Indra and Maitreya. A full discussion of the Indian and Chinese forms by the present writer and F. S. Kershaw will appear in Artibus Asiae.
Kuutaagaara: regarding the kuu.taagaara-saalaa in the Mahaali Sutta of the Digha Nikaaya, Buddhaghosa, Suma^ngala-Vilaasinii, p. 309, has the following, which I quote here from a letter received from Mre. Rhys Davids: "In that wood they established a Sa^mgha-park. There, having joined the ka.n.nikaa (ear-thing, corner of the upper storey) of the pillars (thambha, lit. supports) above by the sa^mkhepa (holding together, fastening together) of the kuu.taagaara-saalaa, they made the paasada (terraced or balconied mansion) like to a mansion of devas. With reference to this the Sa^mgha-park was known as the Kuu.taagaara-saalaa." Here, cf. sa^mkhepa with k.sepa.na in the sense of cornice; but I suspect a reference to brackets connecting pillars and ka.n.nikaa (the Dictionary has kar.nikaa = upper part of the entablature); such brackets are very frequently represented in the errly reliefs (Bhsrhut and Saa~ncii). Acharya's Index has no entry under "bracket," but there must have been a word or words in use for so common a, structural feature. Geiger's "balconied windows" for kuu.taagaara, in Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII, is scarcely satisfactory; the paasaada of nine storeys has 100 kuu.taagaras on each storey, and little paviliona, pa~njara or (candra) -'saalaa seem to be meant, such as are very common in Pallava architecture; e. g. at Maamallapuram, and cf. Jouveau-Dubreuil, Dravidian Architecture, fig. 4. The pavilion occupied by the Bodhisattva while in his mother's womb is called a kuu.taagaara (Lalita. Vistara, Ch. VII). As Paali pa.n.na-kuti and pa.n.na-saalaa are synonymous designations of hermits huts, and as these are always single-storeyed cells, it follows that kuu.ta-'saalaa need not be a room on the top of a building. I am inclined to suppose that kuu.taagaara generally means simply "a
house with a finial (or finials)." Cf. kuu.ta, "finial" (vase) in inscriptions cited in Dict., p. 708. Gaha-kuu.ta, Jaataka, I, 76. In Ceylon in the eighteenth century the use of such finials was permitted only in the case of devaales, vihaares, resthouses, and the houses of chiefs of Disaawa or higher rank. On this analogy the ultimate meaning of kuu.taagaara would be "honorable building." In all the early reliefs, palaces, city gates, temples, etc., are duly provided with finials, while village houses lack them..
Ku.ti: not in the Dictionary as a separate word, but cf. gandha-ku.ti.
In the 'suulagava (=I'suunabali) ritual of the G.rhya Suutras (citations in Arbmann, Rudra, pp. 104 ff.) ku.ti = aayatana in the sense of shrines erected for II'saana, Mi.dhu.sii and Jayanta. Under gandhaku.ti add: see full discussion in A. S. I., A. R., 1906-07, pp. 97–99, with muulagandhaku.ti and 'sailagandhaku.ti cited from Saarnaath inscriptions. Reference should also be made to the Saa~ncii relief, north tora.na, left pillar, front, second panel, showing the Jetavana, garden with the Gandhaku.ti, Kosambaku.ti, and Karoriku.ti (Marshall, Guide to Sanchi, p. 58), " the three favourite residences of the Buddha." Further references: Kern, Manual of Indian Buddhism, P. 28; Cunningham, A. S. I., Reports, XI, pp. 80 ff.; Sahni and Vogel, Sarnath Catalogue, P. 19, 211; Cr�nwedel, Buddhist Art in India, p. 16. In the Ma.nimekhalai the small temple of Campaapatii, patron deity of Puhaar, is called a gu.tikuu.
Kappiya-ku.ti, vacca-ku.ti, Cullavagga, VI, 4, 10.
Lepa: medium, glue, should be distinguished from sudhaa, plaster. Vajralepa, "adamantine medium, " actually glue, see recipe in the 'Silparatna, Ch. 64 (my translation in Sir Ashutosh Mookerjee Memorial Volume); Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, pp. 118, ll9. Cf. Uttara Ramacarita, III, 40.
Sudhaa-lepya, plaster and paint, Bodhgayaa, 6th-7th century inscription, S. I., A. R., 1908-09, p. 154.
Likh: additional to the common meanings is that of "turning" (wood, etc.). S. B. E., XX, 78, note 3, is wrong in supposing that turning was unknown to ancient India. Metal, wood, and ivory are all turned at the present-day by means of hand-power devices quite unlike the European lathe (see Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, P1. VI, fig. 4, for ivory, and remarks ib. p. 141) ; turned stone pillars are highly characteristic of Caa.lukyan architecture (cf. Rea, Chalukyan Architecture,: p 5); and turning is certainly involved in the manufacture of many objects represented in early reliefs. It is significant that the Sinhalese name of the grooved spindle used in turning is liyana kanda, and the word liyana corresponds to likhitum used in Cullavagga, V, 8, 1 and V, 9, 2 with reference to turned wooden bowls and bowlrests. A meaning, "to turn wood, etc." should therefore be given in Pali and Sanskrit dictionaries under likh. S. B. E., loc cit., trying
to escape the meaning "turning" goes so far as to speak of using an adze on metal; a comical idea, if regarded from the standpoint of practical craft. Another reference to turning will be found in the Mahaasatipa.t.thaana Suttanta (D. N. II, 291 = Dialogues, 2, p. 328), " even as a skilful turner (bhamakaara) "; the simile, ("drawing his string out at length," etc.), implies the actually surviving Sinhalese technique. Steatite boxes "turned on the lathe," found at Bhii.taa and assigned to the eighth century B. C., are described in A. S. I., A. R., 1911-12, pp. 43, 93. For some other references to early turned objects see Ruupam, 32, pp. 122–123.
Li^nga: the following references are of interest in connection with the Deva-Raaja cult in Java and Cambodia: Simpson, in JRAS, 1888 cites numerous instances and regular practice of ereding lingams over the burial places of dead sannyaasis. In A. S. I., Southern Circle, 1911-12, p. 5 " sannyaasins are not cremated, but buried, linga shrines or brindaavana being raised to mark the spot." Ib. 1915-16, p. 34, quoting S. I. Ep., 1914, " In the case of Sannyaasins...a raised masonry platform is sometimes set up over the place of burial, on which a tulsi plant is grown, or a atone lingam is set up as though to proclaim to the world that the body buried below has attained to the sacred form of 'Siva-linga." E. Carpenter, Light from the East, being Letters... by the Hon. P. Arunachalam, 1927, p. 63, quoting a letter from the latter regarding the tomb of his guru, "On the site where his body is interred is a lingam to which the worship is offered as to the Master." For the Deva-Raaja cult and its supposed South Indian origin see F. D. K. Bosch, "Het Lingaheiligdom van Dinaja, " Tijdschr. T. L. en Volkenkunde, LIV, 1924.
Loha: is not iron, but brass or copper, bronze, etc. I do not think that any example of an Indian Image made of iron could be cited, The roofing of the Lohapaasaada (Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII) was of copper or bronze. In Mahaava^msa, XXIX, 11, loha-pa.t.ta is a sheet of copper used in the foundations of a stuupa, but we find ib. 12, ayo-jaala when an iron trellis is designated. One of the most important architectural references to loha is Mahendravarman I's inscription at Ma.n.dagapattu (Jouveau-Dubreuil, Conjeevaram Inscription of Mahendravarman I, Pondicherry, 1919); here brick, timber, loha, and mortar are mentioned as customary building materials. Copper nails are common finds on ancient sites. Other examples of loha will be found in the Dictionary under aabhaasa (! ) . Cf. also Si^mhalese pas-lo, an alloy of flve metals.
Lo.s.ta: the use of lo.s.ta, probably slag, in preparing a ki.t.ta-lekhanii, should be noted ('silparatna, Ch. 64).
Makara-tora.na: hardly an arch "marked" with a makara, but one springing from two makaras, and usually crowned by a full-faced makara or makarii.
Ma~nca: cf. ta^nkita ma~nca, stone couch, the altar of a yakkhacetiya, viz. the bhavana. of the Yakkha, Suciloma (Sa^myutta Nikaaya, X, 3, P. T. S., ed. p. 207), glossed paasaana-ma~nca, thus synonymous with 'silaa-pa.t.ta, see my Yak.sas, p. 20, note 3 (veya.d.di).
See also S. B. E., XX, 87, note 2, ib., 168, note 3; and 278, note 3; Mahaava^msa, XXVII, 39. Also Geiger, Mahava^msa, translation, p 204, note 3; the text has bodhi^m ussiisaka^m... sayana^m but this means the vajraasana at the foot of the Bodhi tree (the description is of the Maaradhar.sa.na), certainly not the Parinibbaa.na ma~nca. He.t.thaama~nca, Jaataka, 1, 197, probably the earthen bench outside a hut. Ma~nca.t.thaana, space for a couch, Culluvagga, VI, 11, 3 (Commentary). Cf. s. v. Pa.t.ta, Sthaana and Vedikaa. Re S. B. E., XX, 278, note 3, I see no reason why the pa.tipaadaka of a ma~noa should not be fixed legs; no ancient representations or modern examples have trestles. The only trestles occur in connection with tables (hatthapii.tha of Suma^ngala Vilaasinii, II, 20, text 1, 163, and as seen on early reliefs) and modern da.n.daasana (Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, P1. X, 1). Pii.tha of the Cullavagga may include both kattka. pi.tha and paada�, tables and footstools, hardly "chairs." The fact that ma~nca. and pi.tha were cleaned by beating does not prove that they were stuffed or upholstered: the actual support may have been made then as now of plaited cane or plaited webbing and anyone who has had experience of such beds will realise that they frequently need airing and beating.
Meru: reference should be given to E. B. Havell, The Himalayas in. Indian Art, and W. Foy, "Indische Kultbauten als Symbole des G�tterbergs, " Festschrift Ernst Windisch, 1914.
Naaga-bandha: is said to be a kind of window, and this would evidently be a perforated window with a design of entwined serpents; there are some in the early Caa.lukyan temples, and one more modern is illustrated in the Victoria and Albert Museum, List of Acquisitions, 1926, fig. 74. Cf. Si^mhalese naaga-dangaya. But naaga-bandha also means both in Ceylon and in southern India, the stop of a chamfer (Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, pp. 88, 129, and Jouveau-Dubreuil, Dravidian Architecture, pp. 10, 25, 42 and fig. 17); this stop often approximates in shape to a cobra's hood. Cf. naaga, s. v. candra-'saalaa.
Nagara: add reference to the detailed description of a city in Milindapa~nha, V, 4 (also ib. I, 2 and II, 1, 9); the terms nagara-va.d.dhaki,, da.lha-gopura, gopur-a.t.taala, ko.t.thaka, deva.t.thaana occur. Another good description of a city is cited in Barnett, Antaga.da Dasaao, p. 1, from the Aupapaatika Suutra.
Naagara: the meaning "secular" as contrasted with satya, "sacred, " vai.nika, "lyrical, " and mi'sra, "mixed," should be cited from the Vi.s.nudharmottara, in relation to painting.
Naaraaca,. etc.: the Dictionary has only "a road running east." In the
Sthaanaanga S�tra(6) we have vajja-risaha- naraya-sa^nghaya.ne = vajra.r.sabha-naaraaca- sa^nghaya.ne, meaning "with joints firmly knit as if by mortise, collar, and pin." Hoernle, Uvaasagadasaao cites Abhayadeva's Sanskrit commentary, according to which vajja= kiilika, risaha= parive.s.tana pa.t.ta or encircling collar, naaraaya= ubhayato-marka.tabandha. or double tenon and mortise joint, and sa^nghaya.na=scarfjoint, five kinds being enumerated (for illustration of one see Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, fig. 75). One would have thought that vajja simply meant "firmly." As regards parive.s.tana pa.t.ta cf. Mahaavagga, V, 11, "Now at that time the Vihaaras were bound together by thongs of skin," explained by Buddhaghosa (cited S. B. E., XVII, p. 31) as referring to the tying together of bhitti-da.n.dakaadi "wall posts; eto." This would seem to have been natural in the case of tho wattle and daub walls of the simple pa.n.na-saalaas; but we do also find early pillars decorated with designs of interlacing ropes or thongs which may be vestigial ornament, and the roof of the shrine of tho Turbanrelic at Saa~nci (south gate, left pillar, inner face) is bound by crossing ligatures which could only be described as parive.s.tana pa.t.ta. Atharva Veda, IX, 3 refers to the parts of a house that are knotted and tied (naddha) . A house ('saalaa) with grass sides has beams (va^m'sa), ties (nahana) and binding (praa.naaha), clamps (sa^mda^m'sa) and "paladas " and "pari.sva~njalaya." See also Upamit. Cf. Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, p. 114, "Nails were not used in ordinary building, but everything was fastened with rattans and other jungle ropes." This refers to modern village practise.
Nayanonmiilana: p. 88 in Indian Architecture: my detailed account of the netra-ma^ngalya ceremony should be cited, Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, p. 70 f.
Paaduka: should be cited also in the sense of sacred footprints, used ae a symbol ('Sriipaada, Vi.s.nupaada, etc.). The vacca-paaduka of a latrine are slso of interest, see S. B. E., XVII, p. 24; good examples have been found on monastery sites in Anuraadhapura. Cf. vacca-ku.ti. Numerous lavatory sites are illustrated in Mem. A. S. C., Vol. 1.
Paalikaa: should be translated "abacus, " with references to Tamil palaga� Jouveau-Dubreuil, Dravidian Architecture, pp. 10, 25, 42, and fig. 17. See also kapota (paalikaa).
Paa^m'su: not in the Dictionary. Not translated where it occurs as a permissible building materictl, Buddhsghosa, Comm. on Cullavagga, VI, 1, 2, cited S. B. E. XIII, 174; the other permitted materials being brick, stone, and wood. Pa^msu, taking all its uses into consideration, should here be rendered "laterite," a common building material especially in Ceylon. In Mahaava^msa XXX, 7-9, where pa^msu is used in making bricks, the word is rendered "sand" by Geiger; but "de- _____________________________________________________
(6) Benares edition, p. 413a, cited by Hoernle, Uvaasagadasaao, II, Appendix, p. 45.
composed rock," "grit," would be preferable. True sand (vaalikaa) would need only sifting, not crushing and grinding as well. In rendering such words some regard must be had both to practical considerations and to the materials actually available in a given locality. In the tropics the country rock decomposes either into true laterite (Sinhalese "cabook") which is soft when cut, but hardens on exposure; or into a friable sandy grit; both of these have their use in building. Of course, there are many places where pa^msu means simply earth, dust, refuse, etc., cf. pa^msu-kuula, rags from dust-heap. See also 'sarkara, s. v. in Dict. and under aabhaasa.
Pa~ncaa^ngula: hattha-bhitti of Cullavagga, VI, 2, 7 explained by Buddhaghosa as pa~nca^ngula bhitti: pa~nca^ngulika-pantikaa, Mahaava^msa, XXXII, 4; pancangulitale, Aupapaatika Suutra, � 2. Possibly colored impressions of the human hand such as one not uncommonly sees on house walls, more likely a five-foliate design such as the palmettes which are so characteristic of early Indian decoration. In all the above passage we have to do with ornament applied to walls or to cloth. Cf. the "three-finger ornament" of Annandale, N., Plant and unimal designs...of an Uriya village, Mem. A. S. B., VIII, 4, fig. 2.
Pa~njara, which has, like candra-'saala-vaataayana, the double significance of 'attic" and "dormer window" (see Jouveau-Dubreuil, passim), occurs in the latter sense in Jataka, III.379"looking down from an open window (va.tasiihapa~njarena) ." Cf. Mahaava^msa, XXVII, 16.
Ratha-po~njara, the body of a carriage, Jaataka II, 172, IV, 60.
Parikhaa: Mahaava^msa, XXV, 48 timahaaparikha, "having a great triple moat." See also under Harmya.
Pa.t.ta: no reference to the meaning "frontlet, " except that under viirapa.t.ta we find "front-plate." In the story of Udayana, Jacobi, Ausgew�hlte Erz�hlungen, p. 32, a sova.n.no pa.t.to is used to cover the brand on a man's forehead and is oontrasted with mau.da, a turban or crown. In Ceylon the gold forehead plate used in investiturea is called a nalal-pa.ta, those thus honored being known as pa.t.ta-bendi. In Prabandhacintaama.ni we get pa.t.ta-hastin, state elephant; now elephants do not wear turbans, but do wear jewelled bands round the temples. In B.rhatsa^mhitaa the section on pa.t.tas, which are not worn by those of the highest rank, seems to imply the meaning frontlet. Even Mahaava^msa, XXIII, 38, dukuulapa.t.tena ve.thayitvaa may refer only to the tying on of a fillet, though "turban" seems plausible. No reference to pa.t.ta in the sense of stone slab, etc. See Maalavikaagnimitra, III, 79 (silaapa.t.taa^m) and Hoernle, Uvaasagadusaao, II, p. 107; sthala (Sthaa1a) as synonym, Maalavikaagnimitra, IV, 132. Loha-, and sajjhu- pa.t.ta, sheets of copper and silver, Mahaava^msa,. XXIX, 11-12 Paa.tika, stone slab at the foot of the steps, Mahaava^msa, XXXI, 61; other terms current in Ceylon for "moonstones" are handa-ka.da pahana (=candra-kha.n.da paa'saa.na), and iri-handa gala (=suurya-
candra kala). UUdhva-pa.t.ta, "stela," should also be noted. Yogapa.t.ta is the braid used by hermits to support the knee when seated on the ground. Cullavagga, V, 11, pa~nca-pa.tika, perhaps a " cupboard with five shelves." See also under naaraaca.
Phalaka: commonly a panel for painting on. Add: appasena�, a board to lean against, when seated on a couch. to protect the walls, Cullavagga, VI, 20, 2, and VIII, 1, 4. Phalakattharasayana, a wooden bed, Jaataka, 1, 304. a kind of cloth, Mahaavagga, VIII, 28, 2 (see note in S. B. E., XVII, 246), and Cullavagga, V, 29, 3. See also s. v. Arghya and Pralamba.
Praakaara: an important reference is misplaced under praasaada, Dictionary, p. 419. The Besnagar inscription (Mem, A. S. I., No. 4, pp. 128, 129) should be cited (puujaa-silaa-paakaara); also Khaaravela's inscription at the Haathigumphaa, Udayagiri. The Mahaava^msa, XXV, 30, has ucca-paakaara, rampart; ib. XXXIII, 5, hatthi-paakaara, in the sense of the basement retaining wall of the platform of a stuupa with the foreparts of elephants projecting in relief (see also Parker, Ancient Ceylon, p. 284). Cullavagga, V, 14, 3 and elsewhere has it.t.ha-, silaa-, and daaru- paakaaras. Other references, Mysore A. S. Reports, 1913-14, pp. 8, 14 and 1919-20, pp. 2, 3, 5. In Kau.tiliiya Artha'saastra, 53, "rampart" rather than "parapets." Paakaara=wall round a park, Buddhaghosa, Suma^ngala Vilaasini, I, p. 41.
Pralamba, (-phalaka): reference should be made to the illustration of a pralamba-phalaka, fig. 94 in my Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, and the full explanation of its use there given according to the Saariputra, as the Bimbamaana (see Dictionary, P.768) is called in Ceylon.
Pramaa.na: the single meaning given, "measurement of breadth" is insufficient. Promaa.na, in the sense of "ideal proportion" appropriate to various types is one of the .sa.da^nga of painting, given in Ya'sodhara's Commentary on the Kaamasuutra. See also Masson-Oursel, "Une connexion dans l'esth'etique et la philosophie de l'Inde, La notion de Pramaa.na," Revue des arts asiatiques, II, 1925 (translated in Ruupam, No. 27/28). Pramaa.na = land area specified in grants, see Thakur in Sir Ashutosh Mookerjee Memorial Volume, 1928, p. 80.
Praasaada: No reference to the Bharhut relief with inscription Vijayanta paasaada, the only early praasaada identified as such by a contemporary inscription; it is a three-storeyed palace (see HIIA, fig. 43); we possess so few positive identifications of this kind that none should be omitted. The Lohapaasaada described in Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII, was an uposatha house of nine storeys each with 100 kuu.taagaaras "provided with vedikaas, and it contained 1000 chambers (gabbha). It was covered with plates of copper, and thence came its name " (ib. XXVII, 42); it was of wood, as it was later burnt down (ib. XXXIII), and rebuilt with only five storeys; the stone pillars on which the superstructure was erected are still standing at Anuraadhapura. The Sat-
mahal-paasaada at Po.lonnaaruva should also be mentioned (HIIA. fig. 287). See also under grrha.
Pu.nya-'saalaa, -grrha: not in the Dictionary. Both have been thought to refer to temples, but the meaning dharma'saalaa is far more probable, as pointed out by Hopkins, Epic Mythology, p. 71 (ib., 70-73 contains a very valuable discussion of images and temples as referred to in the Epics).
Ra^nga, ra^nga-bhuumi, naa.tya 'saalaa, prek.sa-grrha, etc.: not in the Dictionary. No citation in the Dictionary of the Naa.tya-'saastra, where the construction of theatres is described at some length, with much use of technical architectural terms. A ra^nga-bhuumi, stage, set up, Mahaava^msa, XXXI, 82. Ra^nga, Jaataka II, 152.
Rathakaara: " car-maker, " carpenter, not in the Dictionary. A 'sudra, but connected with Vedic sacrifices; a snaataka, may accept food from one (Baudhaayana DhS., I, 3, 5 = S. B. E., XIV, 159). Much information on the social position of craftsmen and related subjects is given in my Indias Craftsman, apparently unknown to the author: see also karmaara and aave.sa.nin, above, and ruupakaara, below. Rathakaara in inscription of Viruupaak.sa I, A. S. I., A. R., Southern Circle, Epigraphy, 1915, p. 106.
Ruupakaara: sculptor, not in the Dictionary. But the 'Silpin Raamadeva, son of the ruupakaara Suhaka, inscription at Dhar, A. S. I., A. R., 1903-04, p. 240, is cited under Raamadeva. Reference should be given to 'sivamitra, a 'sela-ruupakaara of Mathuraa, mediaeval inscription at 'Sraavastii, A. S. I., A. R., 1908-09, p. 133. For Buddha-rakkhita, a ruupakaaraka, see Cunningham, Bharhut, inscription No. 42.
Sabhaa: the Bharhut relief with inscription Sudhammaa Deva-sabhaa, a pillared circular shrine with cornice and dome is not cited (HIIA, fig. 43). See also Se^myutta, Nikaaya, XI, 3, 5 = Kindred Sayings, I, p. 307, and Diigha Nikaaya, II, 207-209.
In Jaataka VI, 127, the Sudhammaa-sabhaa of Indra has octagonal columns (a.t.thamsa sukataa thambhaa). The description of the heavenly sabhaas in Mbh. II, 6-11, is altogether vague.
Sahasra-li^nga: not a " group " of a thousand phalli, but one lingam with a thousand facets, representing a thousand li^ngas. A good example at 'Srii'silam, A. S. I., Southern Circle, 1917-18, Pl. V.
Samudraagaara: a summer house by a lake, Maalavikaagnimitra, Act IV. Samuddavihaara, a monastery on a river-bank, Mahaava^msa, XXXIV, 90. Samuddapa.n.na-saalaaya, ib. XIX, 26, a hall built on the sea-shore. Cf. the pavilions on the bund at Ajmer, and the island palaces at Udaipur.
Santhaagaara: "mote-hall," with a central pillar (majjhima-tthamba^m), Diigha. Nikaaya, III, 209 = S. B. B., IV, 202.
'silpa: in the Atharva Veda, a " work of art" (Bloomfield, Atharva Veda, p. 70).
'silpa-'saastra: Hs�an Tsang's reference to five vidyaas, of which the 'silpasthaana-Vidyaa is one, is important as proving the existence of technical works on 'silpa in his day (Beal, Records, I, p. 78). The much earlier 'sulva Suutras are effectively 'silpa-'saastras, though not actually so designated.
'sivikaa-garbha, sivikaa-gabbha: an inner room shaped like a palankeen, Cullavagga, VI, 3, 3. Glossed by Buddhaghosa as caturassa, foursided. What may be meant may be gathered from the elaborate sivikaas represented in Amaraavati reliefs, where their design is quite architectural (Burgess, Buddhist stupas of Amaravati and Jaggayyapeta, Pl. XI, 2 and p. 55, and Pl. XI, 1).
Sopaana: see s. v. aalamba-baaha, harmya, hasti-hasta, ka.da^nkara, pa.t.ta.
'Sre.ni: that painters were organised in guilds is apparent from Jacobi, Ausgaw�hlte Erz�hlungen. in Maahaaraa.s.trii, P. 49, where the painter Cittanngaya, "working in the king's citta-sabhaa" belongs to a se.ni of cittagaras. It is of interest that his daughter Kanyama~njarii also paints. See also list of 18 guilds in Jaataka VI, 22: other references s.v. se.ni in P. T. S. Pali Dictionary.
'Sriivatsa (sirivaccha) : also characteristic for Mahaavira. The cruciform flower is the later form only; in the Ku.saana period it is what numismatists have called a naaga or shield symbol (good illustration on a coin, Rapson, Coins of the AAndhra Dynasty, pl. VIII, 207, reverse, and on Mahaaviira's breast, Smith, Jaina Stupa of Mathuraa, pl. XCI, right); the development of the early form into the later can be traced. Also cf. Hopkins, Epic Mythology, p. 205.
Sthaana: the sense of pose, stance, is not given. Five sthaanas (frontal, three-quarter, profile, etc.) are defined in the 'silparatna, Ch. 64, and thirteen in the Vi.s.nudharmottara (see translation by S. Kramrisch, 26 edition, 1928). Mahaasthaana, sacred area, inscription of Mahiipaala. Sa^mvat 1083, A. S. I., A. R., 1906-07, p. 99: Naagendrasya.... Dadhikarn.nasya sthaane silapa.t.to, Mathura inscription Luders' List 85, Ep. Ind. I, 390, no. 18, cited Mem. A. S. I., Vol. 5.
Stuupa: no description of the component parts is given: they are sopaana, a.n.da, medhi or garbha harmikaa, ya.s.ti, chattraavali, var.sa-sthaala or a.mrrta-kala'sa. There should be mention of the synonym daagaba (d~hatugarbha), and of e.duuka and jaaluka by which names Buddhist relic shrines are referred to in the Mahaabhaarata (3, 190, 65 and 67). The detailed description of a stuupa in the Divyaavadaana, p. 244, summarised by Foucher' L'Art gr�o-bouddhique,.. I, p. 96, and the detailed account of the building of a stuups in Mahaava^msa, Chs. XXVIII, seq. should be referred to; also the full account in Parker, Ancient Ceylon. The letter quotes a Sanskritic-Pali text defining the shapes and proportions of daagabas, from the Waiddyaanta-pota (Or Vaajayantaya) a 'silpa-'saastra; well known in Ceylon, but not mentioned in the Dictionary. The Avadaana 'Sataka mentions three kinds of stuupas-gandhastuupa, ke'sanakhastuupa, and stuupa—the latter being
the regular dhaatu-stuupa for funerary relics. The Dhammapada Atthakathaa, XXI, 1-290, H. O. S., Vol. 30, p. 175, has a thuupa built over the body of a Brahman's son who had become a Buddhist monk. Were stuupas ever erected by others than Buddhists or Jainas? In Kaa'syapa's Conversion at Saa~ncii (east gate, left pillar, inner face, third panel) a railed stuupa forms part of the Ja.tila aaraama: so also at Amaraavatii, Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship, P1. LXXXVI.
Stuupikaa: cetiyasiise kirii.ta^m viya kanakamaya^m thuupika^m ca yojetvaa (Attanaguluva^msa, Alwis, IX, 7). Dome of a palace, Mahaava^msa, XXXI, I3, with above reference (Geiger).
Cf. silaathuupaka, Mahaava^msa, XXXIII, 24, "a little stone stuupa," probably actually the stuupa of II. I. I. A., fig. 292. But the usual meaning of stuupikaa (as given in Dict.), is "dome." I do not think this terminology implies a derivation of the dome from the stuupa, but only a resemblance of form. Granting the recognized resemblance, however, the point is of interest in connection with the origin of the bulbous dome, for many early stuupas are markedly bulbous. Some Pallava temples have bulbous domes, and even the dome of H. I. I. A. fig., ca. 200 A. D. almost exactly follows the shape of the slightly swelling a.n.da of the stuupa of ib. fig. 146.
'Sulka-'saalaa: a toll-house, Divyaavadaana, 275, seq: 'Sulka-sthaana, Artha'saastra, II, 3.
Taala-maana: here reference should be made to many published accounts, e. g. Rao, Taalamaana, my Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, Ganguly, Orissa and her Remains. On pp. 230, 233, what part of the body is the " hiccough? "
Trr.nacchadana, Pali ti.na-cchadana: "thatch, " Cullavagga, passim. In Atharva Veda, IX, 10, 11, the thatch is called a thousand-eyed net stretched out like an opa'sa on the parting (vi.suvant, here = ridgepole). See also Upamit.
Tulaa: the meaning "well-sweep " should be added (Cullavagga, V, 16, 2); two other means of raising water are mentioned, loc. cit., viz. karaka.ta^nka literally " pot-edge " or '"pot-ridge, " probably the " Persian " water-wheel, and cakkava.t.taka, wheel and axle. All three are still in common use.
But is karaka-.ta^nka really distinct from kara-ka.taka, a hand wheel for drawing water?
Upamit, etc.: RV. I, 59, 4 and IV, 5, 1; AV, IX, 3, 1. See Bloomfield, Atharva Veda, II, 185, 195; Whitney, Atharva Veda, 525; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, Ch. V; etc.
The whole terminology of the 'saalaa is difficult, but the rendering of upamit as (sloping) buttress (by Bloomfield and by Zimmer) is extremely implausible and almost certainly an error. I suggest upamit plinth or pillar base; such bases were probably, as at the present day, of stone, as a, protection against white ants.(7) Then pratimit _____________________________________________________
(7) Cf. Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, p. 129, fig. 72, and pl. VII, fig. 7, "Wooden pillars often rest on a stone base as a protection against white ants."
(= sthuu.na) are the main upright wooden pillars (corner pillars) set up on the upamit; parimit, the horizontal beams of the framework, connecting with the pratimit by means of mortices or dovetails (sa^mda^m'sa);(8) pak.sa, perhaps the wall plates; va^m'sa, the bamboo rafters. The roof (chanda) is thatched with straw or reeds (t.r.na): the cut ends of the reeds may have given rise to the designation "thousand eyed" of AV. IX, 3, 8. Palada (bundles of grass or reeds, according to Zimmer) and pari.sva~njalaya I cannot explain. The 'sikyaani, ropes "tied within for enjoyment, " may have served as partitions, to be hung with cloths so as to divide the interior into separate rooms; the Sinhalese piliv.ela, is used in this way, and I remember to have seen an ornamental example carried by a party of travellers for use in a public resthouse to secure privacy.
Vajraasana: "diamond throne, " though well-established, not a good rendering; "adamantine throne" would be better. See E. Senart, "Vajrapaani dans les sculptures du Gandhara, " Congr.Int. Orientalistes, Alger, 1905, Vol. I, p. 129. Bodhi-palla^mka in the Nidaanakathaa, Jaataka, I, 75, is an interesting synonym. The Buddha's aasana at the Gal Vihaare, Po.lonnaaruva, Ceylon, is decorated with actual vajras, hut this probably represents a late interpretation of the term; I know no other instance. See also Bodhi-ma.n.da and Ma~nca.
Vaana-la.thii, rafters or reepers? As a protection against the rain, the vaanala.thii (of a house, g.rha) are to be covered over with straw (ka.ta, here thatch rather than straw mats), Artha'saastra, III, 8. Cf. Ya.t.thiivana.
Vapra: in Kau.tiliiya A.rtha'saastra, 51, 52, vaprasyopari praakaara^m; "glacis" rather than "rampart," which latter rises above the vapra.
Vardhaki: I cannot think of any case where the vardhaki, Pali va.d.dhaki, is specifically a painter. The usual meaning is architect, artisan. Cf. nagara-va.d.dhaki, the architect of a city, Milindapa~nha, II, 1, 9. In Mahaava^msa, XXX, 5, the 500 i.t.thakaa-va.d.dhakii are certainly not all "master-builders" as rendered by Geiger, but rather brickmakers or bricklayers; even the va.d.dhaki who is their spokesman, ib., 12 is hardly more than primus inter pares. Va.d.dhaii, architect, one of the 14 'jewels' of a Cakravartin, Uttaraadhyayanasuutra commentary, cited Charpentier, p. 321. Numerous designations of craftsmen will be found in the 'satapatha Braahma.na list of symbolic victims of the Puru.samedha (S. B. E., XLIV, 413-417). _____________________________________________________
(8) Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, loc. cit. (p. 129), "where the whole building rests on low stone pillars, the wood pillars are mortised into huge beams forming the framework of the floor." Vedic parimit and Sanskrit kar.na-kiila seem to designate such foundation beams; Vedic pak.sa and Sanskrit kar.nikaa the wall plates forming the framework of the roof. Where we have to do with a colonnade rather than a wall, kar.nikaa is of course 'entablature.'
Vardhamaana: add "powder-box, " one of the a.s.tama^ngala of the Jains. Early illustrations, Smith, Jain. Stupa of Mathura, pl. VII; later, H�ttemann, " Miniaturen zum Jinacarita," Baessler Archiv., 1913, fig. 1. Vardhamaana-g.rha, Uttaraadhyayanasuutra, IX, 24.
Vastra-nip(y)a: is not "a jar-shaped ornament of a column," but the knotted band or ribbon which so often encircles the puur.na-kumbha which forms the base or capital of a column, and the Maanasaara text cited (kumbha-madhye, etc.) is perfectly explicit on this point, "and in the middle of the pot (i. e. round the belly) let there be added a colored band of cloth as a protection." This use of a string or band as protecting charm or "fence" is of course well known in many other connections.
Vaastu, add the meaning "Teal estate" (Meyer, "Liegenschaft") : "Vaastu includes houses, fields, groves, bridges (or ghaa.ts, setu-bandha) , ponds, and reservoirs, " Artha'saastra, III, 8.
Vaataayana: the Dictionary citations show that in the 'silpa-'saastras types of vaataayana are differentiated by preceding qualifying adjectives denoting the pattern of the grille or openwork screen. In the light of this fact, and of the varieties of windows represented in reliefs and the types still in common use, the three designations in Cullavagga, VI, 2, 2 are perfectly intelligible: vedikaa vaatapaana is a window with a rail-pattern grille; jaala-vaatapaana is one with a trellis grille, lattice; salaaka vaatapaana, one provided with upright turned pillars or bars (not " slips of wood") . Buddhaghosa glosses salaaka as thambaka. For turning, s. v. likh.
Vedii, vedikaa, etc.: veiyaa of Jacobi, Ausgew�hlte Erzahlungen, p. 49, must be marriage pavilion rather than balcony, as marriages always take place in special temporary pavilions erected ad hoc. In the common sense of railing, the Mahaasudassana Sutta, I, 60, gives the component parts, viz. stambha, (uprights) , suuci (cross-bar), u.s.nii.sa (coping), and these words often occur in Prakrit forms in the early inscriptions: also plinth, aalambana. In Mahaava^msa, XXXV,2, muddhavedi is the railing of the harmikaa, paadavedii the railing on the basement level of a stuupa; ib. XXXVI, 52 and 103 has paasaa.na- and silaa-vedii, "stone railing" (round the Bodhi-tree) rather than "stone terrace" as interpreted by Geiger, p. 296.
Mahaava.msa, XXXII, 4, vedikaa represented in a painting. AAlamba baaha, the vedikaa of a, sopaana, Cullavagga, V, 11, 6 etc. See also ki^nkini-jaalaya. Cross references to p(r) aakuura, and bhitti, should be given; cf. bhitti-vedikaa of Maalavikaagnimitra, V, 1, where it is built round an a'soka tree. The very curious use of vedikaa to mean a mode of sitting (aasana) is noted by Charpentier, Uttaraadhyayanasuutram, p. 371.
Vidyut-lataa: Pali, vijjul-lataa, Mahaava^msa, XXX, 96, the Commentary having megha-lata naama vijju-kumaariyo, "the cloud-vines called lightning maidens." Real lightnings are evidently intended, not mere zigzag lines as rendered by Geiger. Representations of clouds and lightning are very characteristic of Indian painting; certain rooms in the old palace at Bikanir, entirely decorated with a frieze of clouds, lightning, and falling rain may be cited (see my Rajput Painting, P1. VII). The form vijju-kumaariyo is interesting, as the lightning is similarly always feminine in relation to clouds in rhetoric, and cf. Yajur Veda, IV, 1, 11, Jaataka, V, .407 and M.rcchaka.tika, V, 46.
Vimaana: reference should be made to the long and excellent discussion of this word in the P. T. S. Pali Dictionary.
Vii.naa: as this word and also karu.na-vii.naa are separately rendered "flute," there can hardly be a misprint; the proper word is, of course, lute. Two forms are found in the early reliefs, one like a harp, the other like a Japanese biwa. So far as I know the southern vii.naa with two large gourds as sounding boxes can be seen first in the paintings at Eluura. The parts of a vii.naa are named in Milindapa~ntha, II, 3, 5; see also P. T. S. Pali Dictionary s. v.
Historical Architects, add:
AAnanda, son of Vaasi.s.thii, as above, s. v. aave.sa.nin.
Balaka, pupil of Ka.nha, maker of a 'saalikaa at Konda~ne, and one of the earliest craftsmen known to us by name (Burgess, Report on the Buddhist Cave Temples, 1883, p. 9).
Bammoja, western Caa.lukya inscription. Bammoja was "a clever architect of the Kali age; the master of the 64 arts and sciences; clever builder of the 64 varieties of mansions, and the inventor (?) of the four types of buildings called Naagara, Kaali^nga, Draavi.da, and Vesara" (A. S. I., A. R., 1914-15, Pt. I, p. 29), The description of Kaali^nga as a style is cited in the Dictionary from the Maanasaara.
Diipaa, builder of the Caumukh temple at Raa.npur; belonged to the Sompura class of Brahman architects, whose ancestor is said to have built the temple of Somnaath-Mahaadeva at Prabhaas-Pa.t.tan. The Sompuras, not mentioned in the Dictionary, are said to have built many temples in Gujarat, to have been at AAbu, and to possess MSS. on architecture. One, Nannaa-khumma, was in charge of repairs at Raa.npur; another, Keval-Raam constructed temples at Ahor (D. R. Bhandarkar, "Chaumukh Temple at Raa.npur, " A. S. I., A. R., 1907-08).
Jaita, etc.: an inscription on the window of the second storey of Raa.na Kumbha's kiirtistambha at Chitor (A. D. 1440-49) mentions the architect of the building, and his two sons Naps and Pu~nja. On the fifth storey are effigies of the two last, and a third son, Pama.
another inscription at Chitor mentions the fourth son, Balraaja. See A. S. I., A. R., 1920-21, p. 34.
Sidatha (Siddhaartha), son of Naagacana, as above, s. v. aave.sa.nin.
'Sivamitra, as above, s. v. ruupakaara.
Mallikaarjuna Chinnappa, builder of the Viirabhadra temple at Chikkaba.l.laapur, Mysore, died 1860; there is a tomb (gaddige) in a building to right of the temple.
Treatises on architecture:
Bimbamaana: known in Ceylon as Saariputra. Add reference to translated passages in my Mediaeval Sinhalese Art.
ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY, Vol. 48, no. 3, SEPT 1928.
(c) by The AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY