सामग्री पर जाएँ

यवन

विकिशब्दकोशः तः

यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यवनः, पुं, देशविशेषः । (यथा, मात्स्ये । १२० । ४३ । “तान् देशान् प्लावयन्ति स्मम्लेच्छप्रायांश्च सर्व्वशः । सशैलान् कुकुरान् रौध्रान् वर्वरान् यवनान् खसान् ॥”) वेगः । वेगाधिकाश्वः । इति मेदिनी ॥ गोधूमः । गर्जरतृणम् । तुरुष्कः । इति राजनिर्घण्टः ॥ (यौति मिश्रीभवतीति । यु + “सुयुरुवृञो युच् ।” उणा० २ । ७४ । इति युच् ।) जाति- विशेषः । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ स तु यवन- देशोद्भवययातिराजपुत्त्रतुर्व्वसुवंशः । यथा, -- “यदोस्तु जाता यदवस्तुर्व्वसोर्यवनाः सुताः । द्रुह्योस्तु तनया भोजा अनोस्तु म्लेच्छजातयः । पूरोस्तु पौरवो वंशो यत्र जातोऽसि पार्थिव ! ॥” इति मात्स्ये ३४ अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ सगरराजेनैषां सर्व्वशिरोमुण्डनं सर्व्वधर्म्मराहि- त्यञ्च कृतं ते चात्मधर्म्मपरित्यागात् म्लेच्छत्वं ययुरिति विष्णुपुराणोक्तत्वात् यवनः मोसल- मानेङ्गरेजोभयजातिवाचकः । यवनशब्दश्चवर्ग- तृतीयादिरिति रघुनन्दनभट्टाचार्य्येण लिखि- तम् ॥ जवनादीनान्तु सर्व्वधर्म्मराहित्यमुक्तं हरिवंशे । यथा, -- “सगरस्तां प्रतिज्ञाञ्च गुरोर्वाक्यं निशम्य च । धर्म्मं जघान तेषां वै वेशान्यत्वं चकार ह ॥ अर्द्धं शकानां शिरसो मुण्डयित्वा व्यसर्जयत् । जवनानां शिरः सर्व्वं काम्बोजानान्तथैव च ॥ पारदा मुक्तकेशाश्च पह्नवाः श्मश्रुधारिणः । निःस्वाध्यायवषट्काराः कृतास्तेन महात्मना ॥ शका जवनकाम्बोजाः पारदाः पह्नवास्तथा । कोलिसर्पाः समहिषा दार्व्वाश्चोलाः सकेरलाः ॥ वशिष्ठवचनाद्राजन् ! सगरेण महात्मना । आराधयन्महादेवं सोऽयश्चूर्णमभक्षयत् । ददौ वरञ्च तुष्टोऽस्मै वर्षे द्वादशमे हरः ॥ सभाजयामास च तं यवनेशो ह्यनात्मजः । तद्योषित्सङ्गमाच्चास्य पुत्त्रोऽभूदलिसन्निभः ॥ तं कालयवनं नाम राज्ये स्वे यवनेश्वरः । अभिषिच्य वनं यातो वज्राग्रकठिनोरसम् ॥ स च वीर्य्यमदोन्मत्तः पृथिव्यां बलिनो नृपान् । पप्रच्छ नारदश्चास्मै कथयामास यादवान् ॥ म्लेच्छकोटिसहस्राणां सहस्रैः सोऽभिसंवृतः । गजाश्वरथसम्पन्नैश्चकार परमोद्यमम् ॥ प्रययौ चाव्यवच्छिन्नं छिन्नयानो दिने दिने । यादवान् प्रति सामर्षो मैत्रेय मथुरां पुरीम् ॥ कृष्णोऽपि चिन्तयामास क्षयितं यादवं कुलम् । यवनेन रणे गम्यं मागधस्य भविष्यति ॥ मागधस्य बलं क्षीणं स कालयवनो बली । हन्ता तदिदमायातं यदूनां व्यसनं द्विधा ॥ तस्माद्दूर्गं करिष्यामि यदूनामतिदुर्जयम् । स्त्रियोऽपि यत्र युध्येयुः किं पुनर्वृष्णिपुङ्गवाः ॥” “इति सञ्चिन्त्य गोविन्दो योजनानि महोदधिम् । ययाचे द्वादशपुरीं द्वारकां तत्र निर्म्ममे ॥ मथुरावासिनो लोकांस्तत्रानीय जनार्द्दनः । आसन्ने कालयवने मथुराञ्च स्वयं ययौ ॥ वहिरावासिते सैन्ये मथुराया निरायुधः । निर्जगाम स गोविन्दो ददृशे यवनश्च तम् ॥ स ज्ञात्वा वासुदेवं तं बाहुप्रहरणो नृपः । अनुयातो महायोगिचेतोभिः प्राप्यते न यः ॥ तेनानुयातः कृष्णोऽपि प्रविवेश महागुहाम् । तत्र शेते महावीर्य्यो मुचुकुन्दो नरेश्वरः ॥ सोऽपि प्रविष्टो यवनो दृष्ट्वा शय्यागतं नरम् । पादेन ताडयामास कृष्णं मत्वा सुदुर्म्मतिः ॥ दृष्टमात्रश्च तेनासौ जज्वाल यवनोऽग्निबा । तत्क्रोधजेन मैत्रेय ! भस्मीभूतश्च तत्क्षणात् ॥” इति विष्णुपुराणे ५ अंशे २३ अध्यायः ॥

यवनः, त्रि, (यौतीति । यु + “नन्दिग्रहीति ।” ३ । १ । १३४ । इति ल्युः ।) वेगी । इति मेदिनी । ने, १११ ॥ (यथा, नैषधचरिते । १ । ६५ । “तमश्ववारा यवनाश्वयायिनं प्रकाशरूपा मनुजेशमन्वयुः ॥”)

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यवन¦ पु॰ यु--यु।

१ देशभेदे सोऽभिजनोऽस्य तस्य राजा वाअण् बहुषु तस्य लुक्।

२ तद्देशस्थेषु जनेषु

३ तन्नृपेषुब॰ व॰।

४ वेगे

५ अधिवेगयुताश्वे मेदि॰

६ गोधूमे

७ गर्जर-तृणे

८ तुरष्कजातौ राजनि॰ ययातिशप्तम्य तत्पुत्रस्यतुर्वसोर्षश्ये जातिभेदे च पुंस्त्री॰ स्त्रियां ङीष्।

१० वेगवति त्रि॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यवन¦ m. (-नः)
1. A Country; probably Bactria, or it may be extended from that colony to Ionia, (to which word it bears some resem- blance,) or still further to Greece: by late Hindu writers, it is most commonly applied to Arabia.
2. A Yavan4a, apparently ori- ginally a Greek, but since applied to both the Mohammedan and European invaders of India, and often used as a general term for any foreign or barbarous race.
3. Speed, velocity.
4. A swift horse.
5. Wheat.
6. A carrot. f. (-नी) The wife of a Yavan4a. E. यु to mix, aff. युच्; or जु to be swift, and the consonant changed to its ana- logous semi-vowel; or योनि the womb, (of the cow of VAS4ISH4- T'HA,) and अण् aff.; being born for the purpose of opposing the armies of VIS4WA4MITRA.

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यवनः [yavanḥ], [यु-युच्]

A Greek, an Ionian.

Any foreigner, or barbarian; Ms.1.44; (the word is applied at present to a Mahomedan or a European also).

A carrot.

Olibanum.

A courser or swift horse.

Speed.

Wheat.

A kind of grass.-नाः (m. pl.)

The Ionians or Greeks.

The Greek astrologers. -नम् Mixing, mingling (esp. with water).-Comp. -अरिः N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -आचार्यः the reputed author of astronomical book called Tājak.

इष्टः a kind of garlic.

a kind of onion.

the Nimba tree. (-ष्टा) the wild date-tree.

(ष्टम्) lead.

an onion or garlic.

pepper. -देशजम् benzoin. -द्विष्टः bdellium. -प्रियम् pepper.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यवन mfn. (1. यु)keeping away , averting(See. द्वेषो-यवन).

यवन n. (2. यु)mixing , mingling ( esp. with water) Nya1yam.

यवन mfn. quick , swift

यवन m. a swift horse L. (prob. w.r. for जवन).

यवन w.r. for पैजवनMn. vii , 41.

यवन m. an Ionian , Greek (or a king of the Greeks g. कम्बोजा-दि; in later times also a Muhammadan or European , any foreigner or barbarian) Mn. MBh. etc.

यवन m. N. of a caste Gaut. ( accord. to L. " the legitimate son of a क्षत्रियand a वैश्या" or " an उग्रwho is an elephant catcher ") of a country(= यवन-देश, sometimes applied to Ionia , Greece , Bactria , and more recently to Arabia) W.

यवन m. wheat L.

यवन m. a carrot L.

यवन m. olibanum L.

यवन m. pl. the Ionians , Greeks ( esp. the Greek astrologers) MBh. VarBr2S. etc.

यवन m. N. of a dynasty Pur.

यवन f. = जवनी, a curtain L.

यवन n. salt from saline soil L.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


--an asura who, induced by नारद besieged मथुरा with three crores of म्लेच्छस्; saw कृष्ण and ran [page३-020+ ३७] towards him when he fled to a cave. Yavana followed him and in the cave saw somebody sleeping; thought it was कृष्ण and kicked him, when he woke up and burnt the asura to ashes by his energy. The sleeping person was Mucukunda (s.v.). फलकम्:F1: भा. X. ५०. ४४; ५१. 1-२३, ४२.फलकम्:/F Thus he was vanquished by कृष्ण. फलकम्:F2: Ib. II. 7. ३४; X. ३७. १६; Br. III. ७३. १०२; वा. ९८. १०२.फलकम्:/F

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Yavana : m. (pl.): Name of a people.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the northern Mleccha tribes of Bhāratavarṣa (uttarāś cāpare mlecchā janā…/yavanāś ca sakāmbojā…mlecchajātayaḥ//) 6. 10. 64, 5; lived in different parts:

(1) the north-west (5. 19. 21), (2) the east (2. 47. 12), (3) outside India in Greece (2. 28. 49).


B. Different origins:

(1) Yavanas were sons of Turvasu, the son of Yayāti (turvasor yavanāḥ sutāḥ) 1. 80. 26;

(2) Angered Nandinī, cow of Vasiṣṭha, created Yavanas from her urine (mūtrataś cāsṛjac cāpi yavanān krodhamūrchitā) 1. 165. 35;

(3) Originally Kṣatriyas, they became degraded to the status of vṛṣala due to their disregard of Brāhmaṇas (yavanakāmbojās tās tāḥ kṣatriyajātayaḥ/vṛṣalatvaṁ parigatā brāhmaṇānām adarśanāt//) 13. 33. 19; 13. 35. 18.


C. Description and characteristics: Rough (dāruṇa) 6. 10. 64; fierce and doing cruel deeds (ugra, krūrakarman) 8. 51. 18; very terrible and having fearful eyes (sughora, ghoracakṣus) 7. 68. 41; especially brave (śūrāś caiva viśeṣataḥ) 8. 30. 80; expert in fighting with fists (niyuddhakuśala) 12. 102. 5 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 101. 5: niyuddhaṁ bāhuyuddham; they knew everything correctly (though not expressed in words) (sarvajña) 8. 30. 80; they knew the māyās of Asuras (vidanty asuramāyāṁ ye) 7. 68. 41; they are occasionally characterized as mlecchas 2. 47. 12; 3. 186. 29-30; 6. 10. 63-64; 7. 95. 12-13; although they lived in countries they led the life of Dasyus (sarve viṣayavāsinaḥ/…sarve te dasyujīvinaḥ) 12. 65. 15.


D. Epic events:

(1) Mighty king Kampana all alone always terrified Yavanas (satataṁ kampayām āsa yavanān eka eva saḥ) 2. 4. 20;

(2) Sahadeva, in his expedition to the south (2. 28. 1; 2. 23. 9) subjugated the town of Yavanas (possibly Alexandria) by just sending messengers and made them pay tribute (yavanānāṁ puraṁ tathā/dūtair eva vaśe cakre karaṁ cainān adāpayat) 2. 28. 49 (cf. Edgerton's note on the stanza, Cr. Edn. Vol. II, p. 502); Yavanas, led by Bhagadatta, attended the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 47. 12; kings of Yavanas acted as servants at the Rājasūya sacrifice (yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 20, 22;

(3) Sudakṣiṇa, a Kāmboja, with an army of Yavanas and Śakas, akṣauhiṇī strong, joined the side of Duryodhana 5. 19. 21; at the instance of Duryodhana, Yavanas and others marched out of Hāstinapura towards Kurukṣetra in the second division (dvitīye niryayur bale) 5. 196. 7-8;

(4) Before the start of the war Yavanas and others led by Kṛpa stood guard in the north for the Vyūha of the Kauravas (6. 20. 3) (camūm uttarato 'bhipāti) 6. 20. 13;

(5) On the second day of the war, Yavanas and others, led by Duḥśāsana, were to protect Bhīṣma (bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu) 6. 47. 7, 9;

(6) On the sixth day, Yavanas were among those who were posted at the right wing of the Krauñcavyūha (6. 71. 14) of the Kauravas (dakṣiṇaṁ pakṣam āśritya sthitā vyūhasya) 6. 71. 20;

(7) On the eighth day, Trigarta, accompanied by thousands of Yavanas, followed Bṛhadbala in the Mahāvyūha (6. 83. 9) of Kauravas 6. 83. 10;

(8) On the eleventh day, Yavanas and Śakas riding swift horses guarded the extreme end (prapakṣa) of the left wing of the Śakaṭavyūha (7. 6. 15) of the Kauravas (savyaṁ pārśvam apālayan) 7. 6. 4-5; that day, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, while recounting Kṛṣṇa's past exploits, mentioned his victory over Yavanas and their followers (yavanāṁś ca sahānugān) 7. 10. 18;

(9) On the twelfth day, Yavanas were posted at the neck (grīvāyām) of the Suparṇavyūha (7. 19. 4) of the Kauravas 7. 19. 7;

(10) On the fourteenth day, Arjuna killed hundreds of thousands of Yavanas (śatasahasraśaḥ) 7. 68. 41, 43; on that day, striking Yavanas holding bows and arrows in their hands and wearing armours, led by Duryodhana faced Sātyaki to fight with him; but Sātyaki was going to kill them all, foot-soldiers and those driving in chariots or riding elephants along with their horses and elephants, and break their chariots, (yatraite satanutrāṇāḥ suyodhanapurogamāḥ/… śarabāṇāsanadharā yavanāś ca prahāriṇaḥ) 7. 95. 11-14; when Sātyaki reached the Yavanas, many of them, quick in action (laghuhastāś ca) showered arrows on him; Sātyaki cut off their arrows and missiles; he also cut off their arms and heads; his arrows pierced through their steel armours (śaikyāyasāni varmāṇi) and went through their bodies; dead, they fell down on the ground by hundreds 7. 95. 31-36; Sātyaki killed five, six, seven or even eight (pañca ṣaṭ sapta cāṣṭau ca) of them at a time with his arrows 7. 95. 37; thus Sātyaki routed (vidrāvya) the large army of Yavanas and proceeded towards Arjuna 7. 95. 45; 7. 96. 1; at the instance of Duryodhana and led by him Yavanas returned to fight once again with Sātyaki and attacked him (te punaḥ saṁnyavartanta…/parāṁ yuddhe matiṁ kṛtvā putrasya tava śāsanāt//) 7. 97. 12-14;

(10) On the seventeenth day Yavanas, in chariots and on horse-backs and their footsoldiers, stood at the extreme end of left side of the Bārhaspatyavyūha (8. 31. 26) of Kauravas and, as directed by Karṇa, challenged Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa (vāmaṁ pārśvam apālayan/…teṣāṁ prapakṣaḥ…śakāś ca yavanaiḥ saha//nideśāt sūtaputrasya sarathāḥ sāśvapattayaḥ/āhvayanto 'rjunaṁ tasthuḥ keśavaṁ ca…//) 8. 31. 14-16; at the instance of Śakuni, three thousand Yavanas, honoured by the brave, holding śaktis, ṛṣṭis, and prāsas in their hands attacked Bhīma; when beaten and slashed by Bhīma with sword, they raised a loud roar (tāḍitānāṁ ca sarvaśaḥ/ asibhiś chidyamānānām) 8. 35. 37; Arjuna attacked the extreme end (of the left side of) the vyūha (8. 40. 99-100, 110) and fought with Kāmbojas, Yavanas and Śakas who rode horses; they were all smeared with blood (yavanaiḥ…/śonitāktais tadā raktaṁ sarvam āsīd…) 8. 40. 108; Kṛṣṇa told Arjuna that no one else but he (Arjuna) could conquer Yavanas and others who had joined hands with Kauravas for the sake of Duryodhana (ete duryodhanasyārthe saṁrabdhāḥ kurubhiḥ saha/na śakyā yudhi nirjetuṁ tvadanyena paraṁtapa//) 8. 51. 18, 20; Yavanas riding horses attacked Arjuna to kill him; Arjuna cut off their arms, holding excellent weapons, and their heads with kṣura arrows (yavanāś ca sādinaḥ/…kṣurair nyakṛntaṁs tvaritāḥ śirāṁsi ca) 8. 64. 16-17;

(11) On the eighteenth day, Kṛpa accompanied by Śakas and Yavanas stood on the right side (dakṣiṇe pārśve) of the Sarvatobhadravyūha (9. 7. 19) of Kauravas 9. 7. 24;

(12) On the nineteenth day, in the morning (pūrvāhṇasamaye 9. 1. 14), Saṁjaya returned from the camp and while reporting to Dhṛtarāṣṭra about the war mentioned that all Yavanas were killed 9. 1. 26; hearing that, Dhṛtarāṣṭra remembered that Yavanas were ready to fight for him unmindful of their death (madartham udyatāḥ sarve prāṇāṁs tyaktvā raṇe…) 9. 2. 18. 21.


E. Past event: King Māndhātṛ once asked Indra the dharma of people like Yavanas and how they should be controlled by kings like him (kathaṁ dharmaṁ careyus te…madvidhaiś ca kathaṁ sthāpyāḥ) 12. 65. 13, 15; Indra thereupon told him the duties of all Dasyus (the term included Yavanas) 12. 65. 17-22.


F. Future event: Yavanas listed among the Mleccha kings who in the Kali age would rule the earth the wrong way, would be sinful, and given to telling lies (kalau yuge…bahavo mleccharājānaḥ prithivyāṁ…mithyānuśāsinaḥ pāpā mṛṣāvādaparāyaṇāḥ//…yavanāś ca narādhipāḥ) 3. 186. 27, 29-30.


G. Some kings characterized simply as Yavana or as king of Yavanas:

(1) yavana: Kaśerumant 3. 13. 29;

(2) yavanādhipa: Naraka and Mura 2. 13. 13;

(3) yavanādhipati: Not named 2. 4. 22. [See Mleccha ]


_______________________________
*1st word in left half of page p848_mci (+offset) in original book.

previous page p847_mci .......... next page p850_mci

Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Yavana : m. (pl.): Name of a people.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the northern Mleccha tribes of Bhāratavarṣa (uttarāś cāpare mlecchā janā…/yavanāś ca sakāmbojā…mlecchajātayaḥ//) 6. 10. 64, 5; lived in different parts:

(1) the north-west (5. 19. 21), (2) the east (2. 47. 12), (3) outside India in Greece (2. 28. 49).


B. Different origins:

(1) Yavanas were sons of Turvasu, the son of Yayāti (turvasor yavanāḥ sutāḥ) 1. 80. 26;

(2) Angered Nandinī, cow of Vasiṣṭha, created Yavanas from her urine (mūtrataś cāsṛjac cāpi yavanān krodhamūrchitā) 1. 165. 35;

(3) Originally Kṣatriyas, they became degraded to the status of vṛṣala due to their disregard of Brāhmaṇas (yavanakāmbojās tās tāḥ kṣatriyajātayaḥ/vṛṣalatvaṁ parigatā brāhmaṇānām adarśanāt//) 13. 33. 19; 13. 35. 18.


C. Description and characteristics: Rough (dāruṇa) 6. 10. 64; fierce and doing cruel deeds (ugra, krūrakarman) 8. 51. 18; very terrible and having fearful eyes (sughora, ghoracakṣus) 7. 68. 41; especially brave (śūrāś caiva viśeṣataḥ) 8. 30. 80; expert in fighting with fists (niyuddhakuśala) 12. 102. 5 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 12. 101. 5: niyuddhaṁ bāhuyuddham; they knew everything correctly (though not expressed in words) (sarvajña) 8. 30. 80; they knew the māyās of Asuras (vidanty asuramāyāṁ ye) 7. 68. 41; they are occasionally characterized as mlecchas 2. 47. 12; 3. 186. 29-30; 6. 10. 63-64; 7. 95. 12-13; although they lived in countries they led the life of Dasyus (sarve viṣayavāsinaḥ/…sarve te dasyujīvinaḥ) 12. 65. 15.


D. Epic events:

(1) Mighty king Kampana all alone always terrified Yavanas (satataṁ kampayām āsa yavanān eka eva saḥ) 2. 4. 20;

(2) Sahadeva, in his expedition to the south (2. 28. 1; 2. 23. 9) subjugated the town of Yavanas (possibly Alexandria) by just sending messengers and made them pay tribute (yavanānāṁ puraṁ tathā/dūtair eva vaśe cakre karaṁ cainān adāpayat) 2. 28. 49 (cf. Edgerton's note on the stanza, Cr. Edn. Vol. II, p. 502); Yavanas, led by Bhagadatta, attended the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 47. 12; kings of Yavanas acted as servants at the Rājasūya sacrifice (yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 20, 22;

(3) Sudakṣiṇa, a Kāmboja, with an army of Yavanas and Śakas, akṣauhiṇī strong, joined the side of Duryodhana 5. 19. 21; at the instance of Duryodhana, Yavanas and others marched out of Hāstinapura towards Kurukṣetra in the second division (dvitīye niryayur bale) 5. 196. 7-8;

(4) Before the start of the war Yavanas and others led by Kṛpa stood guard in the north for the Vyūha of the Kauravas (6. 20. 3) (camūm uttarato 'bhipāti) 6. 20. 13;

(5) On the second day of the war, Yavanas and others, led by Duḥśāsana, were to protect Bhīṣma (bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu) 6. 47. 7, 9;

(6) On the sixth day, Yavanas were among those who were posted at the right wing of the Krauñcavyūha (6. 71. 14) of the Kauravas (dakṣiṇaṁ pakṣam āśritya sthitā vyūhasya) 6. 71. 20;

(7) On the eighth day, Trigarta, accompanied by thousands of Yavanas, followed Bṛhadbala in the Mahāvyūha (6. 83. 9) of Kauravas 6. 83. 10;

(8) On the eleventh day, Yavanas and Śakas riding swift horses guarded the extreme end (prapakṣa) of the left wing of the Śakaṭavyūha (7. 6. 15) of the Kauravas (savyaṁ pārśvam apālayan) 7. 6. 4-5; that day, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, while recounting Kṛṣṇa's past exploits, mentioned his victory over Yavanas and their followers (yavanāṁś ca sahānugān) 7. 10. 18;

(9) On the twelfth day, Yavanas were posted at the neck (grīvāyām) of the Suparṇavyūha (7. 19. 4) of the Kauravas 7. 19. 7;

(10) On the fourteenth day, Arjuna killed hundreds of thousands of Yavanas (śatasahasraśaḥ) 7. 68. 41, 43; on that day, striking Yavanas holding bows and arrows in their hands and wearing armours, led by Duryodhana faced Sātyaki to fight with him; but Sātyaki was going to kill them all, foot-soldiers and those driving in chariots or riding elephants along with their horses and elephants, and break their chariots, (yatraite satanutrāṇāḥ suyodhanapurogamāḥ/… śarabāṇāsanadharā yavanāś ca prahāriṇaḥ) 7. 95. 11-14; when Sātyaki reached the Yavanas, many of them, quick in action (laghuhastāś ca) showered arrows on him; Sātyaki cut off their arrows and missiles; he also cut off their arms and heads; his arrows pierced through their steel armours (śaikyāyasāni varmāṇi) and went through their bodies; dead, they fell down on the ground by hundreds 7. 95. 31-36; Sātyaki killed five, six, seven or even eight (pañca ṣaṭ sapta cāṣṭau ca) of them at a time with his arrows 7. 95. 37; thus Sātyaki routed (vidrāvya) the large army of Yavanas and proceeded towards Arjuna 7. 95. 45; 7. 96. 1; at the instance of Duryodhana and led by him Yavanas returned to fight once again with Sātyaki and attacked him (te punaḥ saṁnyavartanta…/parāṁ yuddhe matiṁ kṛtvā putrasya tava śāsanāt//) 7. 97. 12-14;

(10) On the seventeenth day Yavanas, in chariots and on horse-backs and their footsoldiers, stood at the extreme end of left side of the Bārhaspatyavyūha (8. 31. 26) of Kauravas and, as directed by Karṇa, challenged Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa (vāmaṁ pārśvam apālayan/…teṣāṁ prapakṣaḥ…śakāś ca yavanaiḥ saha//nideśāt sūtaputrasya sarathāḥ sāśvapattayaḥ/āhvayanto 'rjunaṁ tasthuḥ keśavaṁ ca…//) 8. 31. 14-16; at the instance of Śakuni, three thousand Yavanas, honoured by the brave, holding śaktis, ṛṣṭis, and prāsas in their hands attacked Bhīma; when beaten and slashed by Bhīma with sword, they raised a loud roar (tāḍitānāṁ ca sarvaśaḥ/ asibhiś chidyamānānām) 8. 35. 37; Arjuna attacked the extreme end (of the left side of) the vyūha (8. 40. 99-100, 110) and fought with Kāmbojas, Yavanas and Śakas who rode horses; they were all smeared with blood (yavanaiḥ…/śonitāktais tadā raktaṁ sarvam āsīd…) 8. 40. 108; Kṛṣṇa told Arjuna that no one else but he (Arjuna) could conquer Yavanas and others who had joined hands with Kauravas for the sake of Duryodhana (ete duryodhanasyārthe saṁrabdhāḥ kurubhiḥ saha/na śakyā yudhi nirjetuṁ tvadanyena paraṁtapa//) 8. 51. 18, 20; Yavanas riding horses attacked Arjuna to kill him; Arjuna cut off their arms, holding excellent weapons, and their heads with kṣura arrows (yavanāś ca sādinaḥ/…kṣurair nyakṛntaṁs tvaritāḥ śirāṁsi ca) 8. 64. 16-17;

(11) On the eighteenth day, Kṛpa accompanied by Śakas and Yavanas stood on the right side (dakṣiṇe pārśve) of the Sarvatobhadravyūha (9. 7. 19) of Kauravas 9. 7. 24;

(12) On the nineteenth day, in the morning (pūrvāhṇasamaye 9. 1. 14), Saṁjaya returned from the camp and while reporting to Dhṛtarāṣṭra about the war mentioned that all Yavanas were killed 9. 1. 26; hearing that, Dhṛtarāṣṭra remembered that Yavanas were ready to fight for him unmindful of their death (madartham udyatāḥ sarve prāṇāṁs tyaktvā raṇe…) 9. 2. 18. 21.


E. Past event: King Māndhātṛ once asked Indra the dharma of people like Yavanas and how they should be controlled by kings like him (kathaṁ dharmaṁ careyus te…madvidhaiś ca kathaṁ sthāpyāḥ) 12. 65. 13, 15; Indra thereupon told him the duties of all Dasyus (the term included Yavanas) 12. 65. 17-22.


F. Future event: Yavanas listed among the Mleccha kings who in the Kali age would rule the earth the wrong way, would be sinful, and given to telling lies (kalau yuge…bahavo mleccharājānaḥ prithivyāṁ…mithyānuśāsinaḥ pāpā mṛṣāvādaparāyaṇāḥ//…yavanāś ca narādhipāḥ) 3. 186. 27, 29-30.


G. Some kings characterized simply as Yavana or as king of Yavanas:

(1) yavana: Kaśerumant 3. 13. 29;

(2) yavanādhipa: Naraka and Mura 2. 13. 13;

(3) yavanādhipati: Not named 2. 4. 22. [See Mleccha ]


_______________________________
*1st word in left half of page p848_mci (+offset) in original book.

previous page p847_mci .......... next page p850_mci

"https://sa.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=यवन&oldid=503653" इत्यस्माद् प्रतिप्राप्तम्