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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Vaṅga : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people; the country is also referred to as Viṣaya (2. 41. 9); sometimes Vaṅga is mentioned along with Aṅga and Kaliṅga.


A. Location:

(1) Listed by Saṁjaya among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37. 5; (aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāś ca) 6. 10. 44;

(2) In the east 1. 207. 5 (see Epic events No. 2 below);

(3) Vaṅga people said to be born on the bays of ocean and along the rivers (samudraniṣkuṭe jātāḥ parisindhu ca mānavāḥ) 2. 47. 9 (Nī. however, on Bom. Ed. 2. 51. 11: samudrasamīpasthaniṣkuṭe gṛhodyāne); the Aśvamedha horse of Yudhiṣṭhira went from Magadha, along the (eastern) sea coast, to Vaṅga, Puṇḍra and Kerala countries.


B. Description and characteristics: Difficult to be conquered (durjaya) 8. 5. 18; their warriors fought while riding elephants (gajayodhin 6. 87. 14; 8. 17. 2; gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ 8. 17. 3; also see Epic events No. 4, 9, and 10 below); they lived on crops produced in forest without ploughing by rain water or produced by river water (indrakṛṣṭair vartayanti dhānyair nadīmukhaiś ca ye) 2. 47. 9 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 2. 51. 11; indrakṛṣṭaiḥ indreṇaivākṛṣṭaiḥ na tu karṣaṇādikṣetriyakayatnāpekṣaiḥ vanadhānyaiḥ vṛṣṭyabhāve tu nadīmukhaiḥ nadīprabhavaiḥ).


C. Epic events;

(1) Caturyu (?) Bhoja, king of Vaṅgas, Puṇḍras and Kirātas was known to the worlds as Pauṇḍraka Vāsudeva 2. 13. 19-20;

(2) Arjuna during the period of his exile, visited all the tīrthas in Aṅga, Vaṅga and Kaliṅga countries in the east (prācīm diśam abhiprepsuḥ) 1. 207. 5, 9;

(3) Vaṅgas brought tribute in the form of various jewels, goats, sheep, cows, gold, donkeys, camels, various kinds of blankets and wine produced from fruits (phalajaṁ madhu) for the Rājasūya; but they were stopped at the gate 2. 47. 10-11 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 2. 51. 13: phalajaṁ madhūkādijātīyam); their Kṣatriyas brought wealth in hundreds for Yudhiṣṭhira (āhārṣuḥ kṣatriyā vittaṁ śataśo 'jātaśatrave) 2. 48. 15; they brought fine cloth, silk, silk (or cotton ?) garments, patrorṇa and covers (dukūlaṁ kauśikaṁ caiva patrorṇaṁ prāvarān api) 2. 48. 17 (Nī. on 2. 51. 3: aurṇān meṣaromajān); when asked to give more to get entrance, each one gave one thousand elephants 2. 48. 18, 20 (description of elephants 19-20); the king of Vaṅgas was among those who, subdued by the fear of the lustre of Pāṇḍavas' weapons, acted as servants in the sacrifice (yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 22;

(4) On the eighth day of war, when Duryodhana attacked Ghaṭotkaca he was followed by the king of Vaṅgas with ten thousand elephant-fighters (gajayodhinaḥ); the war between the Rākṣasas of Ghaṭotkaca and the elephantfighters from Vaṅgas described in 6. 87. 10, 13-14;

(5) During Saṁjaya's report after the death of Droṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, at one stage, while recounting Kṛṣṇa's past exploits, mentioned his victory over Vaṅgas 7. 10. 15;

(6) On the twelfth day, Dhṛtarāṣṭra mentioned Vaṅgas among those who had joined the army of Kauravas 7. 23. 7;

(7) In the night war (between the 14th and the 15th day), Yudhiṣṭhira killed many Vaṅgas 7. 136. 3;

(8) When Karṇa's death was reported to Dhṛṭarāṣṭra, he remembered that Karṇa had once defeated Vaṅgas in battle and made them pay tribute (yo jitvā samare vīraś cakre balibhṛtaḥ purā) 8. 5. 19-20 (reference to Karṇa's Digvijaya before the Vaiṣṇavayajña of Duryodhana 3. 241. 29-32; 3. App. I. 24. 42);

(9) On the sixteenth day, Vaṅgas and others riding elephants, who were like the elephants of Indra, rushed at Arjuna to kill him; Arjuna cut off the armours, the vitals and trunks of the elephants and also their controllers (atha dvipair devapatidvipābhair…kaliṅgavaṅgaº…/teṣāṁ dvipānāṁ vicakarta pārtho varmāṇi marmāṇi karān niyantṝn) 8. 12. 59-60; on the same day, incited by Duryodhana, Vaṅgas and others, riding elephants, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna to kill him; they showered arrows, tomaras, nārāca arrows on him 8. 17. 2-3; other Pāṇḍava heroes joined the battle; the battle described in 8. 17. 5 ff.; Sātyaki killed the king of Vaṅgas and his elephant 8. 17. 11;

(10) On the seventeenth day, Arjuna told Yudhiṣṭhira that Bhīma alone who had killed Kaliṅgas, Vaṅgas and Aṅgas as also their elephants had the right to blame him 8. 49. 79;

(11) The sacrificial horse of the Aśvamedha went from Magadha, along the seacoast, to Vaṅga, Puṇḍra and Kerala countries; Arjuna conquered there many Mlecchas 14. 83. 29-30.


D. Some persons referred to as the chief or the king of Vaṅgas:

(1) Karṇa called vaṅgāṅgaviṣayādhyakṣa 2. 41. 9;

(2) A king, not named, referred to as king of Vaṅgas: (i) vaṅgarāja 2. 27. 21; (ii) rājñā vaṅgena 6. 88. 8; (iii) vaṅgānām adhipaḥ 6. 88. 6; (iv) vaṅgānām īśvaraḥ 6. 88. 10.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Vaṅga : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people; the country is also referred to as Viṣaya (2. 41. 9); sometimes Vaṅga is mentioned along with Aṅga and Kaliṅga.


A. Location:

(1) Listed by Saṁjaya among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37. 5; (aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāś ca) 6. 10. 44;

(2) In the east 1. 207. 5 (see Epic events No. 2 below);

(3) Vaṅga people said to be born on the bays of ocean and along the rivers (samudraniṣkuṭe jātāḥ parisindhu ca mānavāḥ) 2. 47. 9 (Nī. however, on Bom. Ed. 2. 51. 11: samudrasamīpasthaniṣkuṭe gṛhodyāne); the Aśvamedha horse of Yudhiṣṭhira went from Magadha, along the (eastern) sea coast, to Vaṅga, Puṇḍra and Kerala countries.


B. Description and characteristics: Difficult to be conquered (durjaya) 8. 5. 18; their warriors fought while riding elephants (gajayodhin 6. 87. 14; 8. 17. 2; gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ 8. 17. 3; also see Epic events No. 4, 9, and 10 below); they lived on crops produced in forest without ploughing by rain water or produced by river water (indrakṛṣṭair vartayanti dhānyair nadīmukhaiś ca ye) 2. 47. 9 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 2. 51. 11; indrakṛṣṭaiḥ indreṇaivākṛṣṭaiḥ na tu karṣaṇādikṣetriyakayatnāpekṣaiḥ vanadhānyaiḥ vṛṣṭyabhāve tu nadīmukhaiḥ nadīprabhavaiḥ).


C. Epic events;

(1) Caturyu (?) Bhoja, king of Vaṅgas, Puṇḍras and Kirātas was known to the worlds as Pauṇḍraka Vāsudeva 2. 13. 19-20;

(2) Arjuna during the period of his exile, visited all the tīrthas in Aṅga, Vaṅga and Kaliṅga countries in the east (prācīm diśam abhiprepsuḥ) 1. 207. 5, 9;

(3) Vaṅgas brought tribute in the form of various jewels, goats, sheep, cows, gold, donkeys, camels, various kinds of blankets and wine produced from fruits (phalajaṁ madhu) for the Rājasūya; but they were stopped at the gate 2. 47. 10-11 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 2. 51. 13: phalajaṁ madhūkādijātīyam); their Kṣatriyas brought wealth in hundreds for Yudhiṣṭhira (āhārṣuḥ kṣatriyā vittaṁ śataśo 'jātaśatrave) 2. 48. 15; they brought fine cloth, silk, silk (or cotton ?) garments, patrorṇa and covers (dukūlaṁ kauśikaṁ caiva patrorṇaṁ prāvarān api) 2. 48. 17 (Nī. on 2. 51. 3: aurṇān meṣaromajān); when asked to give more to get entrance, each one gave one thousand elephants 2. 48. 18, 20 (description of elephants 19-20); the king of Vaṅgas was among those who, subdued by the fear of the lustre of Pāṇḍavas' weapons, acted as servants in the sacrifice (yajñe te pariveṣakān) 3. 48. 18, 22;

(4) On the eighth day of war, when Duryodhana attacked Ghaṭotkaca he was followed by the king of Vaṅgas with ten thousand elephant-fighters (gajayodhinaḥ); the war between the Rākṣasas of Ghaṭotkaca and the elephantfighters from Vaṅgas described in 6. 87. 10, 13-14;

(5) During Saṁjaya's report after the death of Droṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, at one stage, while recounting Kṛṣṇa's past exploits, mentioned his victory over Vaṅgas 7. 10. 15;

(6) On the twelfth day, Dhṛtarāṣṭra mentioned Vaṅgas among those who had joined the army of Kauravas 7. 23. 7;

(7) In the night war (between the 14th and the 15th day), Yudhiṣṭhira killed many Vaṅgas 7. 136. 3;

(8) When Karṇa's death was reported to Dhṛṭarāṣṭra, he remembered that Karṇa had once defeated Vaṅgas in battle and made them pay tribute (yo jitvā samare vīraś cakre balibhṛtaḥ purā) 8. 5. 19-20 (reference to Karṇa's Digvijaya before the Vaiṣṇavayajña of Duryodhana 3. 241. 29-32; 3. App. I. 24. 42);

(9) On the sixteenth day, Vaṅgas and others riding elephants, who were like the elephants of Indra, rushed at Arjuna to kill him; Arjuna cut off the armours, the vitals and trunks of the elephants and also their controllers (atha dvipair devapatidvipābhair…kaliṅgavaṅgaº…/teṣāṁ dvipānāṁ vicakarta pārtho varmāṇi marmāṇi karān niyantṝn) 8. 12. 59-60; on the same day, incited by Duryodhana, Vaṅgas and others, riding elephants, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna to kill him; they showered arrows, tomaras, nārāca arrows on him 8. 17. 2-3; other Pāṇḍava heroes joined the battle; the battle described in 8. 17. 5 ff.; Sātyaki killed the king of Vaṅgas and his elephant 8. 17. 11;

(10) On the seventeenth day, Arjuna told Yudhiṣṭhira that Bhīma alone who had killed Kaliṅgas, Vaṅgas and Aṅgas as also their elephants had the right to blame him 8. 49. 79;

(11) The sacrificial horse of the Aśvamedha went from Magadha, along the seacoast, to Vaṅga, Puṇḍra and Kerala countries; Arjuna conquered there many Mlecchas 14. 83. 29-30.


D. Some persons referred to as the chief or the king of Vaṅgas:

(1) Karṇa called vaṅgāṅgaviṣayādhyakṣa 2. 41. 9;

(2) A king, not named, referred to as king of Vaṅgas: (i) vaṅgarāja 2. 27. 21; (ii) rājñā vaṅgena 6. 88. 8; (iii) vaṅgānām adhipaḥ 6. 88. 6; (iv) vaṅgānām īśvaraḥ 6. 88. 10.


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*3rd word in right half of page p855_mci (+offset) in original book.

previous page p854_mci .......... next page p857_mci

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