पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
विष्णुः, पुं, अग्निः । इति शब्दमाला ॥ शुद्धः । वसुदेवता । इति धरणिः ॥ (द्वादशादित्या- नामन्यतमः । यथा, महाभारते । १ । ६५ । १६ । “एकादशस्तथा त्वष्टा द्वादशो विष्णुरुच्यते । जघन्यजस्तु सर्व्वेषामादित्यानां गुणाधिकः ॥”) धर्म्मशास्त्रकर्त्तृमुनिविशेषः । यथा, -- “मन्वत्रिविष्णुहारीतयाज्ञवल्क्योशनोऽङ्गिराः । यमापस्तम्बसंवर्त्ताः कात्यायनबृहस्पती ॥ पराशरव्यासशङ्खलिखिता दक्षगोतमौ । सातातपो वशिष्ठश्च धर्म्मशास्त्रप्रयोजकाः ॥” इति याज्ञवल्क्यसंहिता ॥ ब्रह्मणो रूपविशेषः । तस्य व्युत्पत्तिर्यथा । वेवेष्टि व्याप्नोति विश्वं यः । वेषति सिञ्चति आप्यायते विश्वमिति वा । विष्णाति वियुनक्ति भक्तान् मायापसारणेन संसारादिति वा । विशति सर्व्वभूतानि विशन्ति सर्व्वभूतानि अत्रेति वा । “यस्माद्विश्वमिदं सर्व्वं तस्य शक्त्या महात्मनः । तस्मादेवोच्यते विष्णुर्विशधातोः प्रवेशनात् ॥” इति विष्णुपुराणम् । इत्यमरटीकायां भरतः ॥ (“बृहत्वात् विष्णुरुच्यते ।” इति महाभारते । ५ । ७० । ३ ॥) तत्पर्य्यायः । नारायणः २ कृष्णः ३ वैकुण्ठः ४ विष्टरश्रवाः ५ दामोदरः ६ हृषीकेशः ७ केशवः ८ माधवः ९ स्वभूः १० दैत्यारिः ११ पुण्डरीकाक्षः १२ गोविन्दः १३ गरुडध्वजः १४ पीताम्बरः १५ अच्युतः १६ शार्ङ्गी १७ विष्वक्- सेनः १८ जनार्द्दनः १९ उपेन्द्रः २० इन्द्रावरजः २१ चक्रपाणिः २२ चतुर्भुजः २३ पद्मनाभः ३४ मधुरिपुः २५ वासुदेवः २६ त्रिविक्रमः २७ दैवकीनन्दनः २८ शौरिः २९ श्रीपतिः ३० पुरुषोत्तमः ३१ वनमाली ३२ वलिध्वंसी ३३ कंसारातिः ३४ अधोक्षजः ३५ विश्वम्भरः ३६ विष्णुलोकगमनकारणं यथा, -- “कर्म्मभोगी सकामः स्यान्निष्कामो निरुपद्रवः । स याति देहं त्यक्त्वा च पदं विष्णोर्निरामयम् । पुनरागमनं नास्ति तेषां निष्कामिणां सति ॥ ये सेवन्ते च द्विभुजं कृष्णमात्मानमेव च । गोलोकं ते नरा यान्ति दिव्यरूपविधारिणः ॥ ये च नारायणं भक्त्या सेवन्ते च चतुर्भुजम् । वकुण्ठं यान्ति ते सर्व्वे दिव्यरूपविधारिणः ॥ सकामिनो वैष्णवाश्च गत्वा वैकुण्ठमेव च । भारतं पुनरायान्ति तेषां जन्म द्विजातिषु ॥ कालेन ते च निष्कामा भवन्त्येव क्रमेण च । भक्तिञ्च निर्म्मलां बुद्धिं तेभ्यो दास्यति निश्चितम् ॥ हरिभक्ताश्च निष्कामाः स्वधर्म्मरहिता द्विजाः । तेऽपि यान्ति हरेर्लोकं क्रमाद्भक्तिबलादहो ॥” इति ब्रह्मवैवर्त्ते प्रकृतिखण्डे २४ अध्यायः ॥
विष्णु शृङ्खलः, पुं, योगविशेषः । यथा, मात्स्ये । “द्वादशी श्रवणस्पृष्टा स्पृशेदेकादशीं यदा । स एष वैष्णवो योगो विष्णु शृङ्खलसंज्ञितः ॥ तस्मिन्नुपोष्य विधिवन्नरः सङ्क्षीणकल्मषः । प्राप्नोत्यनुत्तमां सिद्धिं पुनरावृत्तिदुर्ल्लभाम् ॥” इति ॥ विष्णु धर्म्मोत्तरे द्वितीयविष्णु शृङ्खलयोगमाह । “एकादशी द्वादशी च वैष्णव्यमपि भं भवेत् । तद्विष्णुशृङ्खलं नाम विष्णुसायुज्यकृद्भवेत् । तस्मिन्नुपोषणाद्गच्छेच्छ्वेतद्वीपपुरं ध्रुवम् ॥” इति श्रीहरिभक्तिविलासे १५ विलासः ॥
पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
विष्णुर्नारायणः कृष्णो वैकुण्ठो विष्टरश्रवाः। दामोदरो हृषीकेशः केशवो माधवः स्वभूः॥
पत्नी : लक्ष्मी
जनक : वसुदेवः
सम्बन्धि2 : विष्णुशङ्खः,विष्णुचक्रम्,विष्णुगदा,विष्णुखड्गः,विष्णोः_मणिः,विष्णुचापः,विष्णोः_अश्वः,विष्णोः_सारथिः,विष्णोः_मन्त्रिः,गरुडः
वैशिष्ट्यवत् : विष्णुलाञ्छनम्
जन्य : कामदेवः
सेवक : विष्णुशङ्खः,विष्णुचक्रम्,विष्णुगदा,विष्णुखड्गः,विष्णोः_मणिः,विष्णुचापः,विष्णोः_अश्वः,विष्णोः_सारथिः,विष्णोः_मन्त्रिः,गरुडः
पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, आत्मा, ईश्वरः
पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
विष्णु¦ स्त्री विष--व्यापने नुक्।
१ व्यापके परमेश्वरे अमरः[Page4935-a+ 38]
“यस्मात् विश्वमिदं सर्वं तस्य शक्त्या महात्मनः। तस्मा-देवोच्यते विष्णुर्विशधातोः प्रवेशनात्” इत्युक्तेः विश--प्रवेशेनु पृषो॰ इत्यपि बोध्यम्।
५ धर्मशास्त्रकारके मुनिभेदे च
“मन्वत्रिवि-ष्णुहारीते” ति याज्ञ॰
६ तद्दैवते श्रवणनक्षत्रे ज्यो॰ त॰।
विष्णु¦ m. (-ष्णुः) VISHN4U, one of the three principal Hindu deities, and the preserver of the world: during the periods of temporary anni- hilation, he is supposed to sleep on the waters floating on the serpent S4e4sha: BRAHMA4 is fabled to have sprung from a lotus, which originally grew from the navel of VISHN4U, and the holy river Ganges is said to spring from his foot: the different Avata4rs are considered as emanations of this deity, and in KRISHN4A, he is supposed to have been really and wholly incarnate: LAKSHMI4 is his wife, and he is usually represented as a mild and benevolent deity.
2. AGNI or fire.
3. One of the demigods called Vasus.
4. A pure or pious man.
5. The name of an ancient law-giver. E. विश् to enter or pervade, (the universe,) नुक् Una4di aff.
विष्णुः [viṣṇuḥ], [विष् व्यापने नुक् Uṇ.3.39]
The second deity of the sacred Triad, entrusted with the preservation of the world, which duty he is represented to have duly discharged by his various incarnations; (for their descriptions see the several avatāras s. v. and also under अवतार); the word is thus popularly derived: यस्माद्विश्व- मिदं सर्वं तस्य शक्त्या महात्मनः । तस्मादेवोच्यते विष्णुर्विशधातोः प्रवेशनात् ॥.
N. of Agni; विष्णुर्नामेह यो$ग्निः Mb.3.221.12.
A pious man.
N. of a law-giver, author of a Smṛiti called विष्णुस्मृति.
N. of one of the Vasus.
The lunar mansion called Śravaṇa (presided over by Viṣṇu).
N. of the month चैत्र. -Comp. -काञ्ची N. of a town.-क्रमः the step or stride of Viṣṇu. -क्रान्ता N. of various plants. -गुप्तः N. of Chāṇakya. -ग्रन्थिः a particular joint of the body. -जनः a devotee, saint; अध्यगान्मह- दाख्यानं नित्यं विष्णुजनप्रियः Bhāg.1.7.11. -तिथिः N. of the 11th and 12th lunar days of each fortnight. -तैलम् a kind of medicinal oil. -दत्तः N. of परीक्षित. -दैवत्या N. of the eleventh and twelfth days of each fortnight (of a lunar month).
धर्मः Dharma enjoining the proper worship of Viṣṇu.
a kind of श्राद्ध. -धर्मोत्तरपुराणम् N. of an उपपुराण.
पदम् the sky, atmosphere.
the sea of milk.
the foot of Viṣṇu (worshipped at Gayā).
पदी an epithet of the Ganges; निर्गता विष्णुपादाब्जात् तेन विष्णुपदी स्मृता Brav. P.; Bhāg.1.19. 7.
the sun's passage (into the zodiacal signs वृषभ, सिंह, वृश्चिक and कुम्भ). -पुराणम् N. of one of the most celebrated of the eighteen Purāṇas.
Lakṣmī. -प्रीतिः f. land granted rent-free to Brāhmaṇas to maintain Viṣṇu's worship. -माया N. of Durgā. -मित्रः a common name (like अमुक); तस्मादपि विष्णुमित्र इत्यनवस्थितिः Bhāg.5.14.24. -रथः an epithet of Garuḍa. -रातः N. of king Parīkṣita; स विष्णुरातो$तिथय आगताय तस्मै सपर्यां शिरसा जहार Bhāg.1.19.29. -विङ्गी a quail. -लोकः Viṣṇu's world; मुच्यते सर्वपापेभ्यो विष्णुलोकं स गच्छति Stotra.
वल्लभा an epithet of Lakṣmī.
the holy basil. -वाहनः, -वाह्यः epithets of Garuḍa. -शक्तिः Lakṣmī -हिता basil.
विष्णु m. (prob. fr. विष्, " All-pervader " or " Worker ") N. of one of the principal Hindu deities (in the later mythology regarded as " the preserver " , and with ब्रह्मा" the creator " and शिव" the destroyer " , constituting the well-known त्रि-मूर्तिor triad ; although विष्णुcomes second in the triad he is identified with the supreme deity by his worshippers ; in the Vedic period , however , he is not placed in the foremost rank , although he is frequently invoked with other gods [ esp. with इन्द्रwhom he assists in killing वृत्रand with whom he drinks the सोमjuice ; See. his later names इन्द्रानुजand उपेन्द्र] ; as distinguished from the other Vedic deities , he is a personification of the light and of the sun , esp. in his striding over the heavens , which he is said to do in three paces [See. त्रि-विक्रमand See. बलि, वामन] , explained as denoting the threefold manifestations of light in the form of fire , lightning , and the sun , or as designating the three daily stations of the sun in his rising , culminating , and setting Page999,2 ; विष्णुdoes not appear to have been included at first among the आदित्यs [See. ] , although in later times he is accorded the foremost place among them ; in the ब्राह्मणs he is identified with sacrifice , and in one described as a dwarf ; in the महा-भारतand रामायणhe rises to the supremacy which in some places he now enjoys as the most popular deity of modern Hindu worship ; the great rivalry between him and शिव[See. वैष्णवand शैव] is not fully developed till the period of the पुराणs: the distinguishing feature in the character of the Post-vedic विष्णुis his condescending to become incarnate in a portion of his essence on ten principal occasions , to deliver mankind from certain great dangers [See. अवतारand IW. 327 ] ; some of the पुराणs make 22 incarnations , or even 24 , instead of 10 ; the वैष्णवs regard विष्णुas the supreme being , and often identify him with नारायण, the personified पुरुषor primeval living spirit [described as moving on the waters , reclining on शेष, the serpent of infinity , while the god ब्रह्माemerges from a lotus growing from his navel ; See. Manu i , 10 ] ; the wives of विष्णुare अदितिand सिनीवाली, later लक्ष्मीor श्रीand even सरस्वती; his son is काम-देव, god of love , and his paradise is called वैकुण्ठ; he is usually represented with a peculiar mark on his breast called श्री-वत्स, and as holding a शङ्ख, or conch-shell called पाञ्चजन्य, a चक्रor quoit-like missile-weapon called सु-दर्शन, a गदाor club called कौमोदकीand a पद्मor lotus ; he has also a bow called शार्ङ्ग, and a sword called नन्दक; his वाहनor vehicle is गरुडSee. ; he has a jewel on his wrist called स्यमन्तक, another on his breast called कौस्तुभ, and the river Ganges is said to issue from his foot ; the demons slain by him in his character of " preserver from evil " , or by कृष्णas identified with him , are मधु, धेनुक, चाणूर, यमल, and अर्जुन[see यमला-र्जुन] , काल-नेमि, हय-ग्रीव, शकट, अरिष्ट, कैटभ, कंस, केशिन्, मुर, शाल्व, मैन्द, द्वि-विद, राहु, हिरण्य-कशिपु, बाण, कालिय, नरक, बलि; he is worshipped under a thousand names , which are all enumerated in MBh. xiii , 6950-7056 ; he is sometimes regarded as the divinity of the lunar mansion called श्रवण) RV. etc. (See. RTL. 44 IW. 324 )
विष्णु m. N. of the month चैत्रVarBr2S.
विष्णु m. (with प्राजापत्य)of the author of RV. x , 84
विष्णु m. of a son of मनुसावर्णand भौत्यMa1rkP.
विष्णु m. of the writer of a law-book Ya1jn5.
विष्णु m. of the father of the 11th अर्हत्of the present अवसर्पिणीL.
विष्णु m. (also with गणक, कवि, दैवज्ञ, पण्डित, भट्ट, मिश्र, यती-न्द्र, वाजपेयिन्, शास्त्रिन्etc. ) of various authors and others Inscr. Cat.
विष्णु m. = अग्निL.
विष्णु m. = वसु-देवताL.
विष्णु m. = शुद्धL.
विष्णु f. N. of the mother of the 11th अर्हत्of the present अवसर्पिणीL.
विष्णु n. pl. (in a formula) A1pS3r.
विष्णु n. ( विष्णोर्with अपमर्णम्, आज्य-दोहम्, व्रतम्; [ ओः] साम, स्वरीयःN. of सामन्s ; with षोडश-नाम-स्तोत्रम्, अनुस्मृतिः, अष्टाविंशति-नाम-स्तोत्रम्, and महा-स्तुतिःN. of works.)
(I)--the name of the sun in the month of ऊर्ज (कार्तिक); फलकम्:F1: भा. XII. ११. ४४; Br. II. २३. २०; वा. ६६. ६१, ६६.फलकम्:/F an आदित्य and Lord of आदित्यस्; फलकम्:F2: Br. II. २४. ३४; III. 3. ६८; M. 6. 4; १७१. ५६. Vi. I. १५. १३०.फलकम्:/F in the sun's chariot in फाल्गुन. फलकम्:F3: Ib. I. २२. 3; II. १०. १८.फलकम्:/F
(II)--a god of आभूतरय group. Br. II. ३६. ५६.
(III)--(उत्तमश्लोक) worshipped for dharma. His abode above the position of seven sages, where is found the great Dhruva with others; फलकम्:F1: भा. II. 3. २२; III. ch. १३ (whole); V. २२. १७; २३. 1.फलकम्:/F different forms of; as Trivik- rama broke अण्डकटाह and let the Ganges in; as Sankar- [page३-285+ ५०] षण, worshipped by शिव in इलावृत; as हयग्रीव in Bha- द्राश्व country; as नृसिम्ह in हरिवर्ष; as कामदेव in केतुमाला; as Matsya in Ramyaka; as कूर्म in हिरण्मय; also सान्ख्यनिदर्शन; as वराह in Uttara Kuru country; also in the form of both यज्ञ and Kratu; as सीताराम in Kim- पुरुष; as नरनारायण in भारतवर्ष; as सूर्य in Plak- षद्वीप; as Soma in शाल्मलि; as Agni in कुशद्वीप; as a form of water in क्रौञ्चद्वीप; as वायु in शाकद्वीप; as ब्रह्मा in पुष्करद्वीप. फलकम्:F2: Ib. V. १७. 1 and १६; chh. १८-20 (whole);फलकम्:/F Propitiated by दक्ष after his reconciliation with शिव, विष्णु came to receive offerings in person in the form of यज्ञ and was praised by all present including ब्रह्मा and शिव. He told दक्ष that he was not different from शिव or ब्रह्मा. फलकम्:F3: Ib. IV. 7. १८-54; १४. २६.फलकम्:/F presented पृथु with सुदर्शन and addressed him to befriend Indra, to be devoted to Him and to conduct himself righteously. फलकम्:F4: Ib. IV. १५. १६; २०. 2-१६, ३१ [1-2].फलकम्:/F His residence near क्षीरोद where he sleeps in yoga: vanquisher of Bali; saw a लिन्ग of efful- gence and with ब्रह्मा went down and up to know its origin and end, but could not get at that. शिव's remark that his right and left arms were ब्रह्मा and विष्णु. This is महा- यागम् and माहेश्वरम् balam; फलकम्:F5: Br. II. २६. 2; २७. २२.फलकम्:/F cursed by भृगु to take १० (7 म्। प्।) incarnations on the earth; called पुरुष and यज्ञ. फलकम्:F6: Ib. III. 3. ८५-106; ७२. 3-१७; M. ४७. ९९-103.फलकम्:/F In स्वायम्भुव epoch was born of आकूती, in स्वारोचिष, born of तुषिता as Ajita, in Uttama epoch, born of सत्या as Satya, in तामस born of हरिणी as Hari, in Vaivasvata, born of कश्यप and अदिती with the name वैकुण्ठ. फलकम्:F7: Br. III. १०७-122.फलकम्:/F Overlord of आदित्यस्; gave peacock and fowl to कुमार. फलकम्:F8: Ib. III. १०. ४६; २४. 6; ३३. १५; ४२. ४८; ७१. १७६ and २६२. M. 6. 4; १७१. ५६.फलकम्:/F Killed Daityas in तारकामय and especially कालनेमि. Aided Indra against Asuras. Introduced यज्ञ and other rites, divisions of time, three castes, three Vedas, three गुणस् and so on. फलकम्:F9: Br. III. ७२. १८-64, १३३. १४२; M. ch. १७२.फलकम्:/F Got Indra redeemed of the sin of hitting his Purohita विश्- वरूप, by distributing it among the women, trees and earth. When दुर्वास cursed Indra for refusing to accept देवी's garland, the Asuras destroyed the Devas and entered heaven. Then Hari suggested churning of the ocean and distributed as मोहिनी nectar to Devas making them invincible. फलकम्:F१०: Br. IV. 9. २३-81; १०. 4-5; १४. 2.फलकम्:/F Gave his sister देवी in marriage to शिव with wedding presents. फलकम्:F११: Ib. IV. १५. १५-23; २८. ८९; ३०. 8; ३१. 6; ३४. ७१-2;फलकम्:/F [page३-286+ ५५] Fond of soma drink. Got विष्णुत्वम् by meditating upon ललितामन्त्र। फलकम्:F१२: Ib. IV. ३८. ३९.फलकम्:/F Reflections of कालनेमि on his eternal enmity to Asuras. Killed कालनेमि after a fierce fight, described; re-establishes order and goes back to his abode. फलकम्:F१३: M. १७८. 5-८०; ८७. 1.फलकम्:/F Lord of Ravis; as Kapila destroyed the Sagaras. फलकम्:F१४: Ib. 8. 4; १२. ४१-3; १७. 1.फलकम्:/F Born in the family of क्रोष्ठु, helped the वृष्णिस्; फलकम्:F१५: Ib. ४४. १५; ४७. २९, ३३.फलकम्:/F helped Indra by killing काव्य's mother; फलकम्:F१६: Ib. ४७. ९९.फलकम्:/F worship of, in the विभूति dva1das4i- vratam; फलकम्:F१७: Ib. १७४. ५१; २२५. १४; २४६. ४१, ६९. २४८. ४०.फलकम्:/F Icon of, with different postures described; फलकम्:F१८: Ib. २५८. 4-१५; २६६. ४२.फलकम्:/F विष्णु (जनार्दन); फलकम्:F१९: Ib. 7. २०; १५४. ३५१.फलकम्:/F blessed वैभ्राज of पाञ्चाल with a son, Brahmadatta; फलकम्:F२०: Ib. 9. 1; २१. ११-6.फलकम्:/F in नारसिम्ह form; फलकम्:F२१: Ib. २२. १७.फलकम्:/F in मेघकर तीर्थम्; फलकम्:F२२: Ib. २२. ४०.फलकम्:/F blessed Soma with fulfilment of all his desires; फलकम्:F२३: Ib. २३. १७-19.फलकम्:/F regained the jewel Syamantaka from the bear and gave it to सत्राजित्; फलकम्:F२४: Ib. ४५. १६-17.फलकम्:/F spoke of आदिसर्ग and Pratisarga; फलकम्:F२५: Ib. ५२. 2.फलकम्:/F worshipped by पुरूरवस् when he was a Brahman in previous birth; फलकम्:F२६: Ib. ६५. 7; ११५. १२.फलकम्:/F came out of the arrow of त्रिपुरारि and drank of the medi- cinal tank of Tripuram; फलकम्:F२७: Ib. १३६. ५८.फलकम्:/F overwhelmed by Asuras on all sides broke the chariot of कालनेमि who escaped; फलकम्:F२८: Ib. १३६. ६५; १५०. २२२.फलकम्:/F cut off Grasana's neck by the cakra; फलकम्:F२९: Ib. १५०. २४३; १५१. ३४.फलकम्:/F disabled in fight with other राक्षसस् especially Jambha and Nimi, fled with गरुड; फलकम्:F३०: Ib. ch. १५२.फलकम्:/F Indra met him and praised his past exploits and promised to help himself with ११ Rudras; with Indra's army जनार्- dana went to war once more; फलकम्:F३१: Ib. १५३. 1-4.फलकम्:/F vanquished the Asuras at भार्गवेश; फलकम्:F३२: Ib. १९२. 1-2.फलकम्:/F residence of, in the Mandara hill; फलकम्:F३३: Ib. २०६. १८; २४५. 9; २४६. २४, ३०f; २४९. ३२.फलकम्:/F meditation of; फलकम्:F३४: Ib. २६६. ३५.फलकम्:/F spoke of the १६ gifts to Manu; फलकम्:F३५: Ib. २७४. १६.फलकम्:/F fish form of. फलकम्:F३६: Ib. २९०. २३.फलकम्:/F [page३-287+ ३३]
(IV)--a भार्गव gotraka1ra. M. १९५. २०.
(V)--one of the nine sons of सावर्णि. वा. १००. २२.
1) General information. Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara are the Lords of creation, sustenance and extermination of this perishable universe. These trimūrtis (three figures) also are perishable. It is said, that one day of Brahmā will constitute thousand four-fold (catur) yugas and that during the life of Brahmā, fourteen Indras will fall down from heaven and die. This is a Brahmā age. The ages of two Brahmās constitute the age of one Viṣṇu. At the end of the age Viṣṇu also will perish. The age of Śiva is double the age of Viṣṇu. Śiva also will perish at the end of his age. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 5).
When everything perishes there comes the deluge (the great flood). After that, for one hundred and twenty Brahmā years the universe will be desolate and void. In that deep eternal silence, Viṣṇu will be seen sleeping on a banyan leaf on the surface of water. That is the beginning of the next great age. In this stage, Bāla- mukunda is the name of Mahāviṣṇu. As he remains on Nāra or water he will be called Nārāyaṇa also.
The name Viṣṇu means he who possesses the habit of Vyāpana (To pervade). While Viṣṇu, who has the power to spread his control over everything in whatever condition, lies on the banyan-leaf. From his navel, a lotus-stalk grows up, and on the top of the stalk, in the lotus flower, Brahmā comes into being. Brahmā does penance before Viṣṇu and extols him. Mahāviṣṇu confers on Brahmā the power of creation of the subjects. That Brahmā perishes along with the deluge and in his place another Brahmā is born. Thus in the life-time of Viṣṇu two Brahmās come into being and perish.
2) Beginning. In days of yore, when Viṣṇu was lying on the banyan leaf as Bāla Mukunda, he began to think “Who am I? Who created me? Why? What have I to perform?” -and soon an ethereal voice was heard, “I am everything. Except me, there is nothing eternal.” From behind the voice Mahādevī appeared, and said “Look Viṣṇu. What is there to wonder at? Whenever the universe is subject to creation, sustenance and extermination, you have taken origin by the glory of the Almighty. The Almighty or the omnipotence is beyond attributes. But we are all subjected to attributes. Your foremost attribute is Sattva (goodness-purity) Brahmā whose main attribute is the attribute of rajas (activity-passions), will originate from your navel. From the middle of the brows of that Brahmā, Śiva will be born, whose main attribute is Tamas (inertia darkness). Brahmā, by the power of Tapas (penance) will acquire the power of creation and build the world. You will be the sustainer of that world. Śiva will dest- roy the same world. I am Devī Māyā (Illusion- personified as the wife of Brahman), the great power depending on you for the purpose of creation.” After hearing these words of Devī, Viṣṇu went into medita- tion and deep sleep of contemplation.
3) Avatāras (Incarnations). When injustice and law- lessness abound in the universe, Viṣṇu will incarnate in the world in various forms and shapes, and will drive away injustice and will reinstate righteousness. The basis and the indeclinable semen virile of all the incarnations, is this spirit of the universe. All Devas, all human beings and all animals are created from a portion of this soul of the universe, which in itself is a portion. Brahmā, first incarnated as Sanatkumāra and lived the life of a Brahmin student of chaste abstinence. The second incarnation was connected with the creation of the earth. It was the incarnation as a hog to redeem the earth which was immersed in the world of Rasātala. The third incarnation was taken to create the sages and hermits. The Supreme God incarnated as the deva- hermit, Nārada and taught Pañcarātra, the Vaiṣṇava- śāstra explaining the ways of observing Karmans. Fourthly, Viṣṇu took the incarnation of Nara-Nārāy- aṇas (two hermits) and performed tapas (penance), difficult to do. The fifth incarnation was that of Kapila who taught his disciple Āsuri, a Brahmin, Sāṅkhya (one of the six systems of Indian philosophy dealing with evolution). The next incarnation was taken, according to the request of Atri, as his son under the name Dattātreya. Seventhly he took incarnation as Yajña, the son born to Prajāpati Ruci, by his wife Ākūti with the groups of devas (gods) such as Yāmas and others to sustain the Manvantara (age of Manu) of Svāyam- bhuva. The eighth incarnation was as the son of Bhaga- vān Nābhi by his wife Meru, and the ninth was, as the inner soul of Pṛthu, according to the request of the sages and hermits, with a view to change the earth to such a state that medicinal herbs may grow in plenty everywhere. The tenth was, as Matsya (Fish) in Cākṣuṣa Manvantara deluge; the eleventh, as turtle, to lift up the mountain Mandara; the twelfth as Dhan- vantari, and the thirteenth was as Mohinī (Charming woman). The fourteenth was that of Man-lion, the fifteenth was that of Vāmana, the sixteenth that of Paraśurāma, the seventeenth, that of Vyāsa, the eight- eenth, that of Śrī Rāma and the nineteenth was that of Rāma and the twentieth that of Kṛṣṇa in the dynasty of Vṛṣṇi. The twentyfirst was as Buddha in the beginning of the age of Kali. The twenty second incarnation was in the name of Kalki as the son of the Brahmin Viṣṇu- yaśas. Each incarnation is explained in places where that word occurs. See under Avatāra.
The avatāras of Mahāviṣṇu are numerous. Thousands and thousands of incarnations originate from Mahā- viṣṇu as streams flow from a lake which overflows at all times. Hermits, Manus, Devas, Sons of Manus, Prajā- patis, all these are marks and portions of Mahāviṣṇu.
(Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Saṛga 15; Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 5; Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa, Sarga 40; Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83; Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 1; M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 121; Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 12; Bhāgavata, Skandha 10; Bhāgavata, Skandha 5; Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 272; Vana Parva, Chapter 149; Śānti Parva, Chapter 339).
4) Family life. Vaikuṇṭha is the dwelling place of Mahā- viṣṇu. Mahālakṣmī is the prominent wife. It is seen in Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 9, that besides Laksmīdevī, Gaṅgā Devī and Sarasvatī also were the wives of Viṣṇu. Lakṣmīdevī has taken several incarnations. Once she took birth from Khyāti, the wife of hermit Bhrgu. At this birth Dhātā and Vidhātā were her brothers. On another occasion, she arose from a lotus-flower which grew up from the sea of Milk. (To know more about the wives Lakṣmī, Gaṅgā and Sarasvatī, see under Gaṅgā).
There is none to be mentioned as the legitimate son of Mahāviṣṇu. But Brahmā is the first that could be imagined as the son of Viṣṇu. Besides, Mahāviṣṇu once created a bright son, by his mind. That son was named Virajas. Śāstā is another son of Mahāviṣṇu. Śiva be- came amorous with Mohinī (fascinating woman)--the form which Mahāviṣṇu took at the time of the churning of the Sea of Milk. They led a short family life as a result of which the son Śāstā was born. (See under Śāstā).
5) Curses. Mahāviṣṇu had cursed and had been cursed on many an occasion. The most important of them are given below:
(i) The curse of Mahālakṣmī Once Mahāviṣṇu looked into the face of Mahālakṣmī and laughed for no reason. Thinking that Mahāviṣṇu had been making fun of her, she cursed him saying “Let your head be severed from the body.”
At this period an Asura named Hayagrīva had done penance for a thousand years and obtained several boons. One boon was that he should be killed only by a man with the head of a horse. Hayagrīva attacked the devas (gods). Though the gods fought with Hayagrīva for many thou- sands of years they could not kill him. Even Viṣṇu, admitted defeat. Using the bow as a prop to his chin he stood thinking, for years. In the meanwhile white ants began to eat the string of the bow. When the string was broken, the bow straightened with a sudden jerk and the head of Mahāviṣṇu was severed from the trunk and was thrown away. Viśvakarmā cut off the head of a horse and joined it to the trunk of Viṣṇu, who instant- ly rose up and killed Hayagrīva. Thus satisfying the need of the gods and making the curse of Lakṣmī come true, Viṣṇu regained his original form and returned to Vaikuṇṭha. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 1).
(ii) The curse of Bhṛgu. The Asuras who were defeated in the war with Devas, approached Pulomā, the mother of their teacher-priest Śukra, and sought protection. Pulomā, was the wife of hermit Bhṛgu. She began to do penance for the destruction of devas. Knowing this Viṣṇu aimed his weapon, the Discus, at her and killed her. Bhṛgu got angry and cursed Viṣṇu to take birth as a man and suffer the grief of separation from his wife for many years. This curse was the first cause of the incarnation of Śrī Rāma. (For details see under Bhṛgu, Para 4).
(iii) The curse of Viṣṇu. Once the handsome King Revan- ta, mounted on the horse Uccaiśśravas and came to Vaikuṇṭha. Looking at the handsome youth, Lakṣmī stood for a while enchanted by Revanta and his horse.
Mahāviṣṇu was displeased at this, and cursed her to take birth on the earth as a mare. Accordingly she was born as a mare and when the duration of the curse was over returned to Vaikuṇṭha. (For details see under Ekavīra).
(iv) The curse of Vṛndā. See under Māyāśiva.
6) Contests and wars. Wars are very few in the Purāṇas in which Viṣṇu had not participated directly or indirect- ly. As almost all of them have been dealt with in various places in this book, they are not given here. Only a few of the prominent among them are mentioned here.
(i) Madhukaiṭabhas. Madhu and Kaiṭabha are two asuras born from the ear-wax of Mahāviṣṇu. They tried to attack Brahmā and Viṣṇu killed them. (See under Kaiṭabha).
(ii) Killing of Andhaka. Andhaka was a notorious asura. He was the minister of Mahiṣāsura. When war broke out between asuras and Devas, Andhaka caused havoc among the devas. At last in the fight with Viṣṇu Andhaka was killed. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 5).
(iii) Killing of Vṛtrāsura. See under Vṛtra.
(iv) Rāhu. For the story of how Viṣṇu cut into two the asura Rāhu, see under Amṛtam.
(v) Contest with Brahmā. The story of Viṣṇu and Brahmā making a competitive journey to find out the crest and foot of Śiva, is given with slight variations in most of the Purāṇas. (For detailed story see under Brahmā, Para 5).
(vi) For the story of how Viṣṇu confronted the asuras Nemi, Sumālī and Mālyavān see under each of those words.
7) The weapons and ornaments of Viṣṇu. The following are the prominent ornaments and weapons of Viṣṇu.
(i) Śrīvatsa. This is a mark on the chest. It is said that this is the mark imprinted by the angry Bhṛgu who kicked on the chest of Mahāviṣṇu. (See under Bhṛgu).
(ii) Pāñcajanya. This is a white conch. Even by the touch of this conch man becomes wise. (For further details see under Pañcaja I).
(iii) The Discus Sudarśana. Vajranābha is another name of this weapon. Viṣṇu uses this weapon to deal with fierce enemies. This is a wheel with a hole in the centre and thousand arms going out from the centre. The outer edge is sharp. This Sudarśana Cakra is operated by putting it on the first finger and turning it round, and releasing it at the enemy. Though it is terrible for the wicked and unjust, it forebodes good to good people and so it is Sudarśana (good to look at).
(iv) Kaumodakī. This is the club. The syllable “Ku” means the earth. Kumodaka means he who delights the earth. He who makes the earth delightful is Viṣṇu. As the club is the property of Kumodaka (Viṣṇu) it is called Kaumodakī.
(v) Kaustubha. This is the jewel of Mahāviṣṇu. (Ku = the Earth. Stubhnāti = Pervades (spreads). Kustubha = ocean. Kaustubha-obtained from the sea. This jewel obtained from the sea of milk at the time of its churn- ing, is worn by Mahāviṣṇu on his neck. This is a red Jacinth.
(vi) Nandaka. This is the sword of Viṣṇu. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 166, that this sword was obtained from Indra.
(vii) Śāraṅg. This is the name of the bow of Viṣṇu. This is called Vaiṣṇavacāpa (the bow of Viṣṇu) also. A description is given in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla- kāṇḍa, Sarga 25, as to how this bow was obtained. It is as follows:
Once the Devas made Viṣṇu and Śiva quarrel with each other, to test their might. The fight between the two began. Viśvakarmā gave each of them a bow. The bow of Viṣṇu was called Vaiṣṇavacāpa; the bow of Śiva was called Śaivacāpa. This Vaiṣṇavacāpa is Śārṅga. Due to the power of Śārṅga, Śiva was defeated in the fight. Getting angry Śiva gave his bow to the King Devarāta of Videha. It was this bow that Śrī Rāma broke at the time of the Svayaṁvara marriage of Sītā.
After the fight, Viṣṇu gave his bow to Ṛcīka. That bow changed hands from Ṛcīka to Jamadagni and from him to Paraśurāma, who presented this bow to Śrī Rāma on his return after the marriage with Sītā.
(viii) Vaijayantī. This is the necklace of Viṣṇu. This necklace, made of five jewels stuck together, is known by the name Vanamālā, also. Viṣṇu has a charioteer named Dāruka and four horses named Śaibya, Sugrīva, Meghapuṣpa and Valāhaka. Garuḍa is the conveyance of Viṣṇu. He holds conch, discus, club and lotus in each of his four hands. It is said that the discus was made by Viśvakarmā with the dust of the Sun. In Viṣṇu Purāṇa particular mention is made about the ornaments of Viṣṇu.
9) The names of Viṣṇu. The names of Viṣṇu given in Amarakośa and their meanings are given below.
1) Viṣṇu. He who is spread everywhere.
2) Nārāyaṇa. (i) He who lies on water. (nāram = water). (ii) He who had adopted Nāra (human body) in incarnations. (iii) He who enters the human society (Nāra) as Jīvātmā (individual soul).
3) Kṛṣṇa. (1) of dark complexion. (2) He who does Karṣaṇa (pulling or dragging) on the agha (sin) of jagat (world).
4) Vaikuṇṭha. (1) The son of Vikuṇṭhā. There is an incarnation as such. (2) At the time of creation twenty- three Tattvas (essences-elements) did not join with one another. So Viṣṇu joined earth to water, ether to air and air to fire; Thus their individual existence was made Vikuṇtha-prevented. By achieving this he became Vaikuṇṭha. (3) Vikuṇṭha means wisdom (knowledge). So Vaikuṇṭha is he who has acquired knowledge. (4) Vaikuṇṭha means holy basil (a herb). So Vaikuṇṭha is he who wears rosary of holy basil. (5) Kuṇṭha means Māyā--Illusion. So Vaikuṇṭha is Māyā Maya or he who is blended with Illusion. (the female creative energy).
5) Viṣṭaraśravas. (1) Viṣṭara--tree--banyan tree. He who is universally known as banyan tree. (2) Viṣṭara-- a bundle of darbha grass. (Poa grass). He whose ear- lobe is like this. (3) Viṣṭara = is spread--He whose fame is spread everywhere.
6) Dāmodara. (1) Stomach is tied by a rope. (2) Dāma--names of the worlds. He who bears all the worlds in his stomach. (3) He whose habit is dama or self-restraint, is Dāmodara.
7) Hṛṣīkeśa--(1) The Īśa-lord, of hṛṣīkas--organs of senses. (2) He who makes the world hṛṣta--delighted-- bristling with his Keśas--hairs.
8) Keśava (Ka-Brahmā. Īśa-Śiva). (1) The Lord of Brahmā and Śiva. (2) He who has killed Keśī. (3) He who has three Keśas (heads) i.e. Brahmā-Viṣṇu- Īśa.
9) Mādhava. (1) Dhava-husband of Mā-Lakṣmī. (2) He who is born of the dynasty of Madhu. (3) He who has killed Madhu.
10) Svabhū. He who comes into existence by himself.
11) Daityāri the enemy of Daityas (the asuras, demons).
12) Puṇḍarīkākṣa. (1) With akṣis-(eyes) like puṇḍa- rīka-(lotus). (2) He who dwells in the lotus, that is the heart of devotees.
13) Govinda. (1) He who lifted up the earth assuming the form of a hog. (2) He who protects the heaven. (3) He who redeemed the Vedas.
14) Garuḍadhvaja. He whose ensign is Garuḍa (Eagle).
15) Pītāmbara. He who wears yellow silk.
16) Acyuta. He whose position has no displacement.
17) Śārṅgī. He who has the bow called Śārṅga.
18) Viṣvaksena. He whose army spreads.
19) Janārdana. (1) He who destroys janana-birth (birth and death) (2) He who had destroyed the asuras called Janas.
20) Upendra. He who had become the younger brother of Indra by taking birth as Vāmana.
21) Indrāvaraja. Younger brother of Indra.
22) Cakrapāṇi. He who has cakra--the weapon Discus -in his hand.
23) Caturbhuja. He who has four hands.
24) Padmanābha. He who has lotus in his navel.
25) Madhuripu. The enemy of the asura named Madhu.
26) Vāsudeva. (1) The son of Vasudeva. (2) He who dwells in all living beings as individual soul.
27) Trivikrama. He who has measured the three worlds in three steps. (In his avatāra as Vāmana).
28) Devakīnandana. The son of Devakī.
29) Śauri. Born in the dynasty of Śūrasena.
30) Śrīpati. The husband of Lakṣmī.
31) Puruṣottama. The noblest of men.
32) Vanamālī. He who wears the necklace which reach- es up to the leg and is called Vanamālā.
33) Balidhvaṁsī. He who had killed the asura called Bali.
34) Kaṁsārāti. The arāti-(enemy) of Kaṁsa.
35) Adhokṣaja. He who is not discernible to the organs of senses.
36) Viśvambhara. He who rules over the Viśva (world).
37) Kaiṭabhajit. He who became victorious over Kaiṭabha.
38) Vidhu. Expert in all things.
39) Śrīvatsalāñcchana. He who has the mark or scar of Śrīvatsa on his chest.
40) Purāṇapuruṣa. The earliest man.
41) Yajñapuruṣa. He who is remembered in yāgas-- sacrifices.
42) Narakāntaka. He who had killed Naraka.
43) Jalaśāyī. He who lies in water.
44) Viśvarūpa. One who has the cosmic form.
45) Mukunda. He who gives salvation.
46) Muramardana. He who had suppressed Mura.
10) Sahasra Nāmans. (Thousand names of Viṣṇu). The list of thousand names of Viṣṇu, is present in Padma Purāṇa, Uttarakhaṇḍa, Chapter 72. In Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, also all the thousand names are given. Variations are seen in these two lists.
11) Other details (i) Mention about Mahāviṣṇu occurs in several places in Ṛgveda. But more prominence is given to Indra. Though Viṣṇu is exalted in five Ṛgveda mantras (incantations), when compared with other gods, Viṣṇu is only a lesser god. The story of Trivikrama is hinted in Ṛgveda. But there is no mention about the incarnation of Vāmana or Mahābali. Ṛgveda gives Mahāviṣṇu only the position of a younger brother of Indra. That is why the author of Amarakośa has given Viṣṇu synonyms such as Upendra, Indrāvaraja etc.
(ii) Mahāviṣṇu was one of those who came to see Śivaliṅga (Phallus) when it was detached and fell down at the curse of hermit Bhṛgu. (For details see under Śiva).
(iii) Mahāviṣṇu gave Subrahmaṇya as attendants two Vidyādharas named Vardhana and Nandana. (M.B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 37).
(iv) Mahāviṣṇu gave Subrahmaṇya the necklace Vaija- yantī. (M.B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 49).
(v) It is stated in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 25, that Mahāviṣṇu stays in the assembly of Brahmā.
(vi) Mahāviṣṇu showed grace to Uparicara vasu. (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 337, Stanza 33).
(vii) Mahāviṣṇu once took birth as the son of Aditi. From that day onwards he got the name Āditya also. (For details see under Aditi). For further details regarding Mahāviṣṇu, see under Virāṭpuruṣa, Prakṛti, Puruṣa, Brahmasṛṣṭi, Avatāra, Amṛta, Garuḍa, Lakṣmī, Gaṅgā etc.
*1st word in left half of page 864 (+offset) in original book.