सुग्रीव

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
नेविगेशन पर जाएँ खोज पर जाएँ

यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सुग्रीवः, पुं, (शोभना ग्रीवा यस्य । विष्णोरश्वः । (यथा, महाभारते । २ । २ । १४ । “प्रययौ पुण्डरीकाक्षः शैव्यसुग्रीववाहनः ॥”) शाखामृगेश्वरः । इति मेदिनी ॥ स तु सूर्य्य- पुत्त्रः किष्किन्धाधिपतिः श्रीरामचन्द्रस्य सखा यथा, वल्मीकीये रामायणे बालकाण्डे १७ सर्गे । “वानरेन्द्रं महेन्द्राभमिन्द्रो बालिनमात्मजम् । सुग्रीवं जनयामास तपनस्तपतां वरः ॥” किञ्च तत्रैव किष्किन्धाकाण्डे ५ सर्गे । “दीप्यमानं ततो वह्निं पुष्पैरभ्यर्च्च्य सत्कृतम् । तयोर्मध्ये तु सुप्रीतो निदधौ सुसमाहितः ॥ ततोऽग्निं दीप्यमानं तौ चक्रतुश्च प्रदक्षिणम् । सुग्रीवो राघवश्चैव वयस्यत्वमुपागतौ ॥” * ॥ अर्हत्पिता । स च वर्त्तमानयुगीयनवमजिन- पिता । इति हेमचन्द्रः ॥ शिवः । इन्द्रः । राजहंसः । असुरः । पर्व्वतविशेषः । अस्त्र- विशेषः । नागभेदः । इति केचित् ॥ शोभन- ग्रीवायुक्ते, त्रि । इति विश्वः ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सुग्रीव पुं।

विष्णोः_अश्वः

समानार्थक:शैव्य,सुग्रीव,मेघपुष्प,बलाहक

1।1।28।4।2

शङ्खो लक्ष्मीपतेः पाञ्चजन्यश्चक्रं सुदर्शनम्. कौमोदकी गदा खड्गो नन्दकः कौस्तुभो मणिः। चापः शार्ङ्गंमुरारेस्तु श्रीवत्सो लाञ्छनं स्मृतम्. अश्वाश्च शैव्यसुग्रीवमेघपुष्पबलाहकाः। सारथिर्दारुको मन्त्री ह्युद्धवश्चानुजो गदः॥

स्वामी : विष्णुः

सम्बन्धि1 : विष्णुः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्येतरः, अलौकिकप्राणी

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सुग्रीव¦ पु॰ सुष्ठु ग्रीवाऽस्य।

१ श्रीकृष्णस्याश्वे

२ सूर्य्यपुत्रेवानरेश्वरे च मेदि॰।

३ सुन्दरग्रीवायुते त्रि॰ स्त्रियांङीष्

२ कश्यपस्य पत्नीभेदे गरुडपु॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सुग्रीव¦ mfn. (-वः-वा-वं) Handsome-necked. m. (-वः)
1. One of the horses of of KRISHN4A'S car.
2. A monkey-king, the son of the sun, and sovereign of Kishkindhya4, and friend and confederate of RA4MA CHANDRA.
3. The father of the ninth Jina of the present age.
4. S4IVA.
5. INDRA.
6. A goose.
7. A hero.
8. A piece of water.
9. The name of a mountain.
10. A sort of weapon.
11. The countenance of a friend.
12. A serpent of Pa4ta4la. E. सु handsome, and ग्रीवा a neck.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव mfn. handsome-necked , having a beautiful neck

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. ( ifc. f( आ). )N. of a monkey-king (who , with his army of monkeys headed by हनुमत्, assisted रामचन्द्रin conquering रावण; he was believed to be the son of the Sun , and was re-established by रामin the throne of किष्किन्ध[See. ] , usurped by his brother वालिन्) MBh. R. etc.

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. of one of the four horses of कृष्णor विष्णु(the other three being बलाहक, मेघ-पुष्प, and शैव्य) MBh. Hariv. BhP.

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. of a divine being VarBr2S.

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. of the father of the ninth अर्हत्of the present अवसर्पिणीL.

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. a kind of pavilion Va1stuv.

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. (only L. )a conch

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. N. of शिवor इन्द्र

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. a goose

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. a hero

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. a piece of water

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. N. of a mountain

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. a sort of weapon

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. the countenance of a friend

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव m. a serpent of पातालW.

सुग्रीव/ सु--ग्रीव f( आor ई). N. of an अप्सरस्Hariv.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--a friend of राम. Dvivida was one of his ministers. Helped राम in his expedition to लन्का. Held the chauri when Bharata carried the पादुका. Attained salvation by satsanga; फलकम्:F1:  भा. IX. १०. १६, १९ & ४३; X. ६७. 2; XI. १२. 6.फलकम्:/F the son of Viraja and सूर्य: रुमा was his queen: younger brother of वालि; फलकम्:F2:  Br. III. 7. २१५, २२० & ७०.फलकम्:/F present at राम's अभिषेक; फलकम्:F3:  Vi. IV. 4. १००.फलकम्:/F to be worshipped before commencing the construc- tion of a palace. फलकम्:F4:  M. २६८. १५फलकम्:/F
(II)--the name of a horse of the chariot of कृष्ण. भा. X. ५३. 5; ७०. १४; ८९. ४९.
(III)--a son of श्रुतदेवी and कृत. M. ४६. 5. [page३-614+ २६]
(IV)--the name of a son of गरुड on the Vaikanka hill. वा. ३९. ४०.
(V)--a king of Kinnaras; a गण, all of them horse-faced, and going after his name वा. ४१. ३०; ६९. ३२.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Sugrīva^1 : m.: Name of one of the four horses yoked to the chariot of Kṛṣṇa driven by Dāruka 5. 81. 19; 5. 129. 22; 5. 135. 29; 7. 56. 35; 7. 122. 45; 12. 53. 21.


A. Description: Excellent (varāśva) 12. 46. 35; (vājivara) 7. 56. 35; (hayodagra) 7. 122. 45; of excellent Kamboja breed (paramakāmboja) 10. 13. 1; decorated with gold strings (hemamālin) 10. 13. 1, having harness of gold (hemabhāṇḍavibhūṣita) 7. 122 45; body decorated with gold (kāñcanavibhūṣitāṅga) 12. 46. 35; very strong (mahābala) 12. 53. 23; endowed with all excellences (saṁpannaiḥ sarvasaṁpadā) 5. 81. 19; moving at will (kāmaga) 7. 122. 45; very swift (mahāvega) 7. 122. 45; (vegavant) 12. 53. 23; (javopeta) 10. 13. 7; (śīghragāmin) 10. 13. 9; swift like mind (manojava) 12. 46. 35, or like mind and wind (manomārutaraṁhas) 5. 135. 29; for their speed, compared with falcons (śyenā ivāśugāḥ) 5. 135. 30; when they sped along they touched the ground so lightly that they appeared to swallow the sky (gāṁ khurāgrais tathā rājal likhantaḥ prayayus tadā te grasanta ivākāśam) 12. 53. 22-23; (te pibanta ivākāśam) 5. 135. 29; or they appeared to drink the path and swallow the sky (panthānam ācemur iva grasamānā ivāmbaram) 5. 81. 59; Sugrīva ran so fast that it was not possible to notice when his feet touched the ground (yasya yāte na paśyanti bhūmau prāptaṁ padaṁ padam) 4. 40. 18; due to speed they produced big sound as was done by the flying birds 10. 13. 9;


B. Function: He carried the yoke of Kṛṣṇa's chariot on the left side (while Sainya carried it on the right) 10. 13. 2; (however Uttara compared the horse yoked on the right side of his chariot with Sugrīva 4. 40. 18); often only the two (Sainya and Sugrīva), and not all the four horses, mentioned as yoked to Kṛṣṇa's chariot, especially when the chariot did not figure in the war-context; hence Kṛṣṇa's epithet sainya-sugrīvavāhanaḥ 2. 2. 13; 5. 81. 58; 9. 61. 39.


C. Mention on various occasions: 1. Only the two yoked to the chariot:

(1) When the chariot was used by Arjuna (for abducting Subhadrā) to go out for hunting 1. 212. 3;

(2) When Kṛṣṇa's chariot was made ready for his departure to Dvārakā from Khāṇḍavaprastha 2. 2. 13;

(3) When Kṛṣṇa started for Dvārakā after meeting the Pāṇḍavas in the forest 3. 23. 45;

(4) When Kṛṣṇa came again to meet the Pāṇḍavas in the Kāmyaka forest 3. 180. 6;

(5) When Kṛṣṇa left the Kauravas and went to meet Kuntī 5. 129. 22 (but all the four horses yoked when he left for Hāstinapura 5. 135. 28-30);

(6) When Kṛṣṇa went to pacify Gāndhārī after the death of Duryodhana 9. 61. 39;

(7) When Kṛṣṇa (and Sātyakī) accompanied Yudhiṣṭhira when he entered Hāstinapura after the war 12. 38. 39;

(8) When Kṛṣṇa marched out of Dvārakā to attack Śālva in his town Saubha 3. 21. 12; 2. All the four, i. e. Sainya, Sugrīva, Meghapuṣpa and Balāhaka, yoked to the chariot, mostly when the chariot figured in the war-context:

(1) When the chariot was to be kept ready for Kṛṣṇa's likely intervention in the war to kill the Kaurava heroes in order to enable Arjuna to fulfil his vow to kill Jayadratha before sunset 7. 56. 35;

(2) When the chariot was brought to Sātyaki when he lost his chariot while fighting with Karṇa 7. 122. 45;

(3) When Kṛṣṇa followed Bhīma who had left in pursuit of Aśvatthāman 10. 13. 2;

(4) When Kṛṣṇa left for Hāstinapura on his peace mission 5. 81. 19; 5. 81. 58-59 (here although only Sainya and Sugrīva are named all the four are intended, cf. te hayāḥ), and on his return journey 5. 135. 28-30;

(5) When Kṛṣṇa went to meet Bhīṣma lying on his bed of arrows 12. 53. 21; 12. 46. 35 (here although only Sainya and Sugrīva are named, all the four are intended); 3. Only Sugrīva, without Sainya, named as yoked to the chariot 5. 22. 27; 5. 47. 62. [In 12. 102. 17 warriors are described as udvṛttāś caiva sugrīvāḥ where sugrīvāḥ apparently means ‘those having good necks’. But Nī. who reads uddhatā īva sugrīvāḥ takes sugrīvāḥ to stand for all the horses of Kṛṣṇa, Sugrīva and the others (vāsudevāśvā iva uddhatāḥ, on Bom. Edn. 12. 101. 17]


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Sugrīva^2 : m.: A monkey-chief.


A. Birth: Son of Sūrya (sūryaputra) 3. 147. 25, brother of Vālin (who was son of Indra) 3. 12. 47; 3. 147. 27; 3. 154. 49; 3. 263. 41; due to enmity between the two, Vālin considered Sugrīva ‘brother only in name’ (bhrātṛgandhika) 3. 264. 19.


B. Description: Very swift (mahāvega) 3. 271. 8; intelligent (medhāvin) 3. 266. 29, (dhīmant) 3. 266. 20; highsouled (mahātman) 3. 271. 8.


C. Status: Waited upon by all monkey-chiefs and bears 3. 147. 25-26; 3. 266. 6; king of monkeys, best among monkeys, sarvavānararājan 3. 147. 25; vānararāja 3. 263. 42; 3. 264. 57; rājan 3. 266. 13, 27; vānarādhipa 3. 266. 15; plavagādhipa 3. 264, 13; 3. 266. 12, 13; kapīśvara 3. 266. 5; 3. 271. 13; vānarendra 3. 266. 20; harīndra 3. 266. 30; 7. 153, 27; sarvaśākhāmṛgendra 3. 266. 61; kapiśreṣṭha 3. 275. 66; plavagaśreṣṭha 3. 266. 26; kapisiṁha 3. 154. 49; kapikuñjara 3. 271. 7; vānarapuṁgava 3. 266. 11; haripuṁgava 3. 264. 6; vānararṣabha 3. 147. 31; plavagarṣabha 3. 266. 29.


D. Residence: Insulted (? deceived ? nikṛtaḥ) by Valin for some reason, he lived with his four counsellors (saciva 3. 263. 41; 3. 264. 10, 23; 3. 266. 65) on the mountain Ṛśyamūka, near Pampā; Hanūmant specially became friendly with Sugrīva 3. 147. 26-27; 3. 263. 40-41; 3. 264. 6, 9, 23.


E. Meeting with Rāma: Gandharva Viśvāvasu advised Rāma to approach Sugrīva for help in his search for Sītā and gave him Sugrīva's address who lived with his four counsellors on the mountain Ṛśyamūka, near Pampā; according to Viśvāvasu Sugrīva knew Rāvaṇa's whereabouts 3. 263. 39-42; Lakṣmaṇa while comforting Rāma who was grieving over Sītā's loss suggested to meet Sugrīva; they saw Sugrīva and four other monkeys (vānarān pañca 3. 264. 9) on the Ṛśyamūka mountain (also 3. 147. 31); Sugrīva sent Hanūmant to them; having talked with him, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa approached Sugrīva and became friends (also 3. 147. 32; 3. 264. 57, 60; 3. 266 62); the monkeys showed to Rāma Sītā's upper garment (vāsaḥ 3. 264. 12) which inspired confidence in him; Rāma consecrated Sugrīva as the chief of the monkeys (sugrīvaṁ plavagādhipam/pṛthivyāṁ vānaraiśvarye svayaṁ rāmo 'bhyaṣecayat 3. 264. 13; 3. 266. 6); Rāma promised to kill Vālin in battle and Sugrīva promised help in getting back Sītā (also 3. 258. 3); Sugrīva then went to Kiṣkindhā and roared near Vālin's residence to challenge him for a fight; when asked by Vālin whose help Sugrīva had secured his wife Tārā told him that Rāma had become friend of Sugrīva since both had comparable enemies (tulyārimitratāṁ prāptaḥ 3. 264. 21); when told further by Tārā that Sugrīva and others were quite capable of destroying Vālin, he suspected that Tārā loved Sugrīva; Vālin went out of his residence and reminded Sugrīva that formerly on many occasions he had defeated Sugrīva but not killed him since Sugrīva was his kinsman (mukto jñātir iti jñātvā 3. 264. 27); Sugrīva, while alerting Rāma, retorted that although Vālin had deprived Sugrīva of his kingdom and his wife he wanted to show him how much of his lifeforce still remained with him (hṛtadārasya me rājan hṛtarājyasya ca tvayā/kiṁ nu jīvitasāmarthyam iti viddhi samāgatam 3. 264. 29); the two brothers were then engaged in a duel; during the fight, the one could not be distinguished from the other; hence Hanūmant put a garland around the neck of Sugrīva; Sugrīva with garland around his neck compared with the great mountain Malaya circled by a garland of clouds (3. 264. 34); Rāma then could correctly aim arrow at Vālin; when Vālin died Sugrīva got Kiṣkindhā and Tārā (also 3. 147. 32); when Rāma lived on the mountain Mālyavant, Sugrīva waited on him (3. 264. 1-40; 3. 266. 1); Rāma suspected Sugrīva to have become ungrateful (kṛtaghna 3. 266. 8) and hence not active in making efforts to find Sītā (anudyukta 3. 266. 10); he abused him as the very low in his family (kulādhama), foolish (mūḍha) and an outcaste among the monkeys (vānarāpasada) 3. 266. 6, 8; Rāma wanted Lakṣmaṇa to remind Sugrīva that he had killed Vālin for Sugrīva's sake and if he did not want to fulfil the agreement (na jānīte samayapratipādanam 3. 266. 9), Rāma would send him also along the path of Vālin; if, on the other hand, Sugrīva wanted to exert himself for Rāma's cause, he should present himself before Rāma; Lakṣmaṇa was received by Sugrīva and his wife with all humility; with folded hands Sugrīva informed Lakṣmaṇa that he was neither ungrateful nor dull-witted; he had not remained idle and had sent monkeys in all directions in search of Sītā (also 3. 147. 3233); they have been asked to report back within a month, and Rāma would get the good news within five days; Lakṣmaṇa was happy to learn this and he honoured Sugrīva; the two then met Rāma on the Mālyavant; the monkeys informed Sugrīva that Hanūmant, Aṅgada and other monkey-chiefs who were sent to the south had returned and were enjoying the Madhuvana; from their behaviour Sugrīva inferred that they must have been successful in their mission and informed Rāma accordingly; Hanūmant and others met Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa, and Sugrīva and bowed to them 3. 266. 5-32; being friend of Rāma Sugrīva had enquired through Hanūmant about the welfare of Sītā; Sītā had heard of Sugrīva from the Rākṣasa Avindhya 3. 266. 62, 65.


F. Part in the war with Rāvaṇa: At the instance of Sugrīva many monkey-chiefs came with their troops to help Rāma in war; they encamped near Kiṣkindhā with the consent of Sugrīva; on an auspicious day, under a favourable constellation, and at an approved hour (tithau praśaste nakṣatre muhūrte cābhipūjīte 3. 267. 14), Rāma and Sugrīva marched towards the south; when they reached the ocean Rāma held consultations with Sugrīva about the means to cross the ocean 3. 267. 1, 13-15, 23-24; when Vibhīṣaṇa came to Rāma, Sugrīva suspected him of being a spy 3. 267. 47; during the war Sugrīva fought a duel with Virūpākṣa 3. 269. 8; when Kumbhakarṇa struck terror in the hearts of Tāra and the other monkey-chiefs, Sugrīva attacked Kumbhakarṇa and struck him on his head with a Śāla tree; but this had no effect on the demon; Kumbhakarṇa overpowered Sugrīva and tried to forcibly take him away; seeing that, Lakṣmaṇa attacked Kumbhakarṇa 3. 271. 6-10; after Kumbhakarṇa's death Rāvaṇa sent Indrajit to kill Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa, and Sugrīva 3. 272. 2, 5; Sugrīva with other monkey-chiefs surrounded Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa when they fell on the ground struck by the arrows of Indrajit; Sugrīva rid them of arrows with the powerful viśalyā herb and by using a divine spell (viśalyayā mahauṣadhyā divyamantraprayuktayā 3. 273. 6); Sugrīva with others, applied water sent by Kubera to the eyes so that they could see invisible beings 3. 273. 3, 6, 7.


G. After the war: Rāma crossed the ocean back to Kiṣkindhā with Sugrīva and his other ministers (yathāmukhyair amātyaiḥ 3. 275. 52) in the Puṣpaka vimāna; they all then went to Ayodhyā; when Rāma was consecrated on the throne he consented to the departure of Sugrīva and others to their homes 3. 275. 50-59, 66.


H. Comparisons: Fight between Bhīma and Kirmīra, between Bhīma and Jaṭāsura, and between Ghaṭotkaca and Alāyudha compared to the one between Vālin and Sugrīva 3. 12. 47; 3. 154. 49; 7. 153. 27.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Sugrīva^1 : m.: Name of one of the four horses yoked to the chariot of Kṛṣṇa driven by Dāruka 5. 81. 19; 5. 129. 22; 5. 135. 29; 7. 56. 35; 7. 122. 45; 12. 53. 21.


A. Description: Excellent (varāśva) 12. 46. 35; (vājivara) 7. 56. 35; (hayodagra) 7. 122. 45; of excellent Kamboja breed (paramakāmboja) 10. 13. 1; decorated with gold strings (hemamālin) 10. 13. 1, having harness of gold (hemabhāṇḍavibhūṣita) 7. 122 45; body decorated with gold (kāñcanavibhūṣitāṅga) 12. 46. 35; very strong (mahābala) 12. 53. 23; endowed with all excellences (saṁpannaiḥ sarvasaṁpadā) 5. 81. 19; moving at will (kāmaga) 7. 122. 45; very swift (mahāvega) 7. 122. 45; (vegavant) 12. 53. 23; (javopeta) 10. 13. 7; (śīghragāmin) 10. 13. 9; swift like mind (manojava) 12. 46. 35, or like mind and wind (manomārutaraṁhas) 5. 135. 29; for their speed, compared with falcons (śyenā ivāśugāḥ) 5. 135. 30; when they sped along they touched the ground so lightly that they appeared to swallow the sky (gāṁ khurāgrais tathā rājal likhantaḥ prayayus tadā te grasanta ivākāśam) 12. 53. 22-23; (te pibanta ivākāśam) 5. 135. 29; or they appeared to drink the path and swallow the sky (panthānam ācemur iva grasamānā ivāmbaram) 5. 81. 59; Sugrīva ran so fast that it was not possible to notice when his feet touched the ground (yasya yāte na paśyanti bhūmau prāptaṁ padaṁ padam) 4. 40. 18; due to speed they produced big sound as was done by the flying birds 10. 13. 9;


B. Function: He carried the yoke of Kṛṣṇa's chariot on the left side (while Sainya carried it on the right) 10. 13. 2; (however Uttara compared the horse yoked on the right side of his chariot with Sugrīva 4. 40. 18); often only the two (Sainya and Sugrīva), and not all the four horses, mentioned as yoked to Kṛṣṇa's chariot, especially when the chariot did not figure in the war-context; hence Kṛṣṇa's epithet sainya-sugrīvavāhanaḥ 2. 2. 13; 5. 81. 58; 9. 61. 39.


C. Mention on various occasions: 1. Only the two yoked to the chariot:

(1) When the chariot was used by Arjuna (for abducting Subhadrā) to go out for hunting 1. 212. 3;

(2) When Kṛṣṇa's chariot was made ready for his departure to Dvārakā from Khāṇḍavaprastha 2. 2. 13;

(3) When Kṛṣṇa started for Dvārakā after meeting the Pāṇḍavas in the forest 3. 23. 45;

(4) When Kṛṣṇa came again to meet the Pāṇḍavas in the Kāmyaka forest 3. 180. 6;

(5) When Kṛṣṇa left the Kauravas and went to meet Kuntī 5. 129. 22 (but all the four horses yoked when he left for Hāstinapura 5. 135. 28-30);

(6) When Kṛṣṇa went to pacify Gāndhārī after the death of Duryodhana 9. 61. 39;

(7) When Kṛṣṇa (and Sātyakī) accompanied Yudhiṣṭhira when he entered Hāstinapura after the war 12. 38. 39;

(8) When Kṛṣṇa marched out of Dvārakā to attack Śālva in his town Saubha 3. 21. 12; 2. All the four, i. e. Sainya, Sugrīva, Meghapuṣpa and Balāhaka, yoked to the chariot, mostly when the chariot figured in the war-context:

(1) When the chariot was to be kept ready for Kṛṣṇa's likely intervention in the war to kill the Kaurava heroes in order to enable Arjuna to fulfil his vow to kill Jayadratha before sunset 7. 56. 35;

(2) When the chariot was brought to Sātyaki when he lost his chariot while fighting with Karṇa 7. 122. 45;

(3) When Kṛṣṇa followed Bhīma who had left in pursuit of Aśvatthāman 10. 13. 2;

(4) When Kṛṣṇa left for Hāstinapura on his peace mission 5. 81. 19; 5. 81. 58-59 (here although only Sainya and Sugrīva are named all the four are intended, cf. te hayāḥ), and on his return journey 5. 135. 28-30;

(5) When Kṛṣṇa went to meet Bhīṣma lying on his bed of arrows 12. 53. 21; 12. 46. 35 (here although only Sainya and Sugrīva are named, all the four are intended); 3. Only Sugrīva, without Sainya, named as yoked to the chariot 5. 22. 27; 5. 47. 62. [In 12. 102. 17 warriors are described as udvṛttāś caiva sugrīvāḥ where sugrīvāḥ apparently means ‘those having good necks’. But Nī. who reads uddhatā īva sugrīvāḥ takes sugrīvāḥ to stand for all the horses of Kṛṣṇa, Sugrīva and the others (vāsudevāśvā iva uddhatāḥ, on Bom. Edn. 12. 101. 17]


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Sugrīva^2 : m.: A monkey-chief.


A. Birth: Son of Sūrya (sūryaputra) 3. 147. 25, brother of Vālin (who was son of Indra) 3. 12. 47; 3. 147. 27; 3. 154. 49; 3. 263. 41; due to enmity between the two, Vālin considered Sugrīva ‘brother only in name’ (bhrātṛgandhika) 3. 264. 19.


B. Description: Very swift (mahāvega) 3. 271. 8; intelligent (medhāvin) 3. 266. 29, (dhīmant) 3. 266. 20; highsouled (mahātman) 3. 271. 8.


C. Status: Waited upon by all monkey-chiefs and bears 3. 147. 25-26; 3. 266. 6; king of monkeys, best among monkeys, sarvavānararājan 3. 147. 25; vānararāja 3. 263. 42; 3. 264. 57; rājan 3. 266. 13, 27; vānarādhipa 3. 266. 15; plavagādhipa 3. 264, 13; 3. 266. 12, 13; kapīśvara 3. 266. 5; 3. 271. 13; vānarendra 3. 266. 20; harīndra 3. 266. 30; 7. 153, 27; sarvaśākhāmṛgendra 3. 266. 61; kapiśreṣṭha 3. 275. 66; plavagaśreṣṭha 3. 266. 26; kapisiṁha 3. 154. 49; kapikuñjara 3. 271. 7; vānarapuṁgava 3. 266. 11; haripuṁgava 3. 264. 6; vānararṣabha 3. 147. 31; plavagarṣabha 3. 266. 29.


D. Residence: Insulted (? deceived ? nikṛtaḥ) by Valin for some reason, he lived with his four counsellors (saciva 3. 263. 41; 3. 264. 10, 23; 3. 266. 65) on the mountain Ṛśyamūka, near Pampā; Hanūmant specially became friendly with Sugrīva 3. 147. 26-27; 3. 263. 40-41; 3. 264. 6, 9, 23.


E. Meeting with Rāma: Gandharva Viśvāvasu advised Rāma to approach Sugrīva for help in his search for Sītā and gave him Sugrīva's address who lived with his four counsellors on the mountain Ṛśyamūka, near Pampā; according to Viśvāvasu Sugrīva knew Rāvaṇa's whereabouts 3. 263. 39-42; Lakṣmaṇa while comforting Rāma who was grieving over Sītā's loss suggested to meet Sugrīva; they saw Sugrīva and four other monkeys (vānarān pañca 3. 264. 9) on the Ṛśyamūka mountain (also 3. 147. 31); Sugrīva sent Hanūmant to them; having talked with him, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa approached Sugrīva and became friends (also 3. 147. 32; 3. 264. 57, 60; 3. 266 62); the monkeys showed to Rāma Sītā's upper garment (vāsaḥ 3. 264. 12) which inspired confidence in him; Rāma consecrated Sugrīva as the chief of the monkeys (sugrīvaṁ plavagādhipam/pṛthivyāṁ vānaraiśvarye svayaṁ rāmo 'bhyaṣecayat 3. 264. 13; 3. 266. 6); Rāma promised to kill Vālin in battle and Sugrīva promised help in getting back Sītā (also 3. 258. 3); Sugrīva then went to Kiṣkindhā and roared near Vālin's residence to challenge him for a fight; when asked by Vālin whose help Sugrīva had secured his wife Tārā told him that Rāma had become friend of Sugrīva since both had comparable enemies (tulyārimitratāṁ prāptaḥ 3. 264. 21); when told further by Tārā that Sugrīva and others were quite capable of destroying Vālin, he suspected that Tārā loved Sugrīva; Vālin went out of his residence and reminded Sugrīva that formerly on many occasions he had defeated Sugrīva but not killed him since Sugrīva was his kinsman (mukto jñātir iti jñātvā 3. 264. 27); Sugrīva, while alerting Rāma, retorted that although Vālin had deprived Sugrīva of his kingdom and his wife he wanted to show him how much of his lifeforce still remained with him (hṛtadārasya me rājan hṛtarājyasya ca tvayā/kiṁ nu jīvitasāmarthyam iti viddhi samāgatam 3. 264. 29); the two brothers were then engaged in a duel; during the fight, the one could not be distinguished from the other; hence Hanūmant put a garland around the neck of Sugrīva; Sugrīva with garland around his neck compared with the great mountain Malaya circled by a garland of clouds (3. 264. 34); Rāma then could correctly aim arrow at Vālin; when Vālin died Sugrīva got Kiṣkindhā and Tārā (also 3. 147. 32); when Rāma lived on the mountain Mālyavant, Sugrīva waited on him (3. 264. 1-40; 3. 266. 1); Rāma suspected Sugrīva to have become ungrateful (kṛtaghna 3. 266. 8) and hence not active in making efforts to find Sītā (anudyukta 3. 266. 10); he abused him as the very low in his family (kulādhama), foolish (mūḍha) and an outcaste among the monkeys (vānarāpasada) 3. 266. 6, 8; Rāma wanted Lakṣmaṇa to remind Sugrīva that he had killed Vālin for Sugrīva's sake and if he did not want to fulfil the agreement (na jānīte samayapratipādanam 3. 266. 9), Rāma would send him also along the path of Vālin; if, on the other hand, Sugrīva wanted to exert himself for Rāma's cause, he should present himself before Rāma; Lakṣmaṇa was received by Sugrīva and his wife with all humility; with folded hands Sugrīva informed Lakṣmaṇa that he was neither ungrateful nor dull-witted; he had not remained idle and had sent monkeys in all directions in search of Sītā (also 3. 147. 3233); they have been asked to report back within a month, and Rāma would get the good news within five days; Lakṣmaṇa was happy to learn this and he honoured Sugrīva; the two then met Rāma on the Mālyavant; the monkeys informed Sugrīva that Hanūmant, Aṅgada and other monkey-chiefs who were sent to the south had returned and were enjoying the Madhuvana; from their behaviour Sugrīva inferred that they must have been successful in their mission and informed Rāma accordingly; Hanūmant and others met Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa, and Sugrīva and bowed to them 3. 266. 5-32; being friend of Rāma Sugrīva had enquired through Hanūmant about the welfare of Sītā; Sītā had heard of Sugrīva from the Rākṣasa Avindhya 3. 266. 62, 65.


F. Part in the war with Rāvaṇa: At the instance of Sugrīva many monkey-chiefs came with their troops to help Rāma in war; they encamped near Kiṣkindhā with the consent of Sugrīva; on an auspicious day, under a favourable constellation, and at an approved hour (tithau praśaste nakṣatre muhūrte cābhipūjīte 3. 267. 14), Rāma and Sugrīva marched towards the south; when they reached the ocean Rāma held consultations with Sugrīva about the means to cross the ocean 3. 267. 1, 13-15, 23-24; when Vibhīṣaṇa came to Rāma, Sugrīva suspected him of being a spy 3. 267. 47; during the war Sugrīva fought a duel with Virūpākṣa 3. 269. 8; when Kumbhakarṇa struck terror in the hearts of Tāra and the other monkey-chiefs, Sugrīva attacked Kumbhakarṇa and struck him on his head with a Śāla tree; but this had no effect on the demon; Kumbhakarṇa overpowered Sugrīva and tried to forcibly take him away; seeing that, Lakṣmaṇa attacked Kumbhakarṇa 3. 271. 6-10; after Kumbhakarṇa's death Rāvaṇa sent Indrajit to kill Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa, and Sugrīva 3. 272. 2, 5; Sugrīva with other monkey-chiefs surrounded Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa when they fell on the ground struck by the arrows of Indrajit; Sugrīva rid them of arrows with the powerful viśalyā herb and by using a divine spell (viśalyayā mahauṣadhyā divyamantraprayuktayā 3. 273. 6); Sugrīva with others, applied water sent by Kubera to the eyes so that they could see invisible beings 3. 273. 3, 6, 7.


G. After the war: Rāma crossed the ocean back to Kiṣkindhā with Sugrīva and his other ministers (yathāmukhyair amātyaiḥ 3. 275. 52) in the Puṣpaka vimāna; they all then went to Ayodhyā; when Rāma was consecrated on the throne he consented to the departure of Sugrīva and others to their homes 3. 275. 50-59, 66.


H. Comparisons: Fight between Bhīma and Kirmīra, between Bhīma and Jaṭāsura, and between Ghaṭotkaca and Alāyudha compared to the one between Vālin and Sugrīva 3. 12. 47; 3. 154. 49; 7. 153. 27.


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