पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
कंसम्, क्ली पुं, (कामयति काम्यते वा अनेन पातुमितिशेषः । “वृतॄवदिहनिकमीति” सः । उणां । ३ । ६२ ।) मद्यादिपानपात्रम् । तत्पर्य्यायः । पानभाजनम् २ । इत्यमरः ॥ २ । ९ । ३२ । कंशम् ३ । कांस्यम् ४ । इति तट्टीका । तैजसद्रव्यम् । स्वर्णरजतादिनिर्म्मितपात्रमात्रम् । मानविशेषः तत्तु आढकपरिमाणम् । इति मेदिनी ॥ (चतुः षष्टिपलात्मकाढकरूपम् ॥ यथा भावप्रकाशे । “शरावोऽष्टपलं तद्वज्ज्ञेयमत्र विचक्षणैः । शरावाभ्यां भवेत् प्रस्थश्चतुः प्रस्थैस्तथाढकः । भाजनं कांसपात्रञ्च चतुःषष्टिपलश्चसः” ॥ ताम्रवङ्गमिश्रितधातुविशेषः । का~सा इति भाषा । तत्पर्य्यायः । कांस्यम् २ । कंसास्थि ३ । ताम्रार्द्धम् ४ । इति त्रिकाण्डशेषः ॥ (वर्तुलाकारयज्ञिय- पात्रभेदः । यथा शतपथब्राह्मणे । १४ । ९ । ३ । १ । “औडुम्बरे कंसे चमसे वा” ।)
कंसः, पुं, (कामयति पित्रादिबन्धुवर्गान् अभिभूय पापात्मकं राज्यविषयादिभोगं यः । कम् + सः । यद्वा कंस्ते शास्ति शत्रून् कंस शासने इत्यस्मात् सः ।) विष्णुद्वेष्ट्रसुरविशेषः । इति हेमचन्द्रः ॥ स तु मथुरादेशराजा । यदुवंशीयोग्रसेनराज- पुत्त्रः । श्रीकृष्णमातुलः । तेन बधः प्राप्तः । (एतद्विवरणं भागवते । १० । ४४ अध्याये विशे- षेण दृष्टव्यम् ॥ कंसनामकारणं हरिवंशे यथा, “कस्य त्वमिति यच्चाहं त्वयोक्तो मत्तकाशिनि । कंसस्तस्माद्रिपुध्वंसी तव पुत्त्रो भविष्यति” ॥ अतएव कंसधातुनिष्पन्नत्वमेव प्रशस्यते ॥)
पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
घटः कुटनिपावस्त्री शरावो वर्धमानकः। ऋजीषं पिष्टपचनं कंसोऽस्त्री पानभाजनम्.।
पदार्थ-विभागः : उपकरणम्,गार्हिकोपकरणम्
कंस¦ पु॰ कम--स। तैजसद्रव्ये, कांस्ये,
१ ताम्ररङ्गमिश्रणज-नितधातुद्रव्ये। (कांसा)
२ स्वर्णरजतादिनिर्म्मितपानपात्रेआढक इति प्रसिद्धे
३ परिमाणे च अस्त्री। वर्त्तुलाकारेयज्ञिये
“औदुम्बरे कसे चमसे वा सर्व्वौ-षधं समानीय सम्भृत्य” शत॰
“कंसेकंसाकारे वर्त्तलाकरे” भाष्यम्। पृषो॰ तालव्यान्त इतिकेचित्। कंसपरिमाणञ्च
“शरावोऽष्टपलं तद्वज्ज्ञेय-मत्र विचक्षणैः। शरावाभ्यां भवेत् प्रस्थश्चतुःप्रस्थैस्त-थाढकः। भाजनं कांस्यपात्रञ्च चतुःषष्टिपलश्च सः” भावप्र॰ उक्तेः चतुषष्टिपलात्मकाढकरूपम्। उग्रसेनसुत-भेदे कृष्णाद्वेष्ये
५ नृपभेदे पु॰। कंसोत्पत्तिकथा तन्ना-मनिर्वचनञ्च हरिवं॰
८५ अ॰ उक्तं यथा कंसं प्रतिनारद उवाच
“हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि शृण राजन्!यथार्थतः। द्रुमिलस्य च मात्रा ते संवादञ्च समागमम्। सुयामुनं नाम गिरिं तव माता रजस्वला। प्रेक्षितुं सहितार्वाभिर्गता वनकुतूहलात्” इत्युपक्रम्य यदृच्छयात्रागतस्यतौभपतेद्रु मिलस्य तां दृष्ट्वा कामयमानस्य तां प्रति उग्न-[Page1603-a+ 38] सेनमूर्त्त्या गत्वा तस्याःसङ्गमे कंसोत्पत्तिर्रित तत्रोक्तम्।
“एवमुक्ता दानवेन्द्रो गमनाय मनो दघे। हृच्छयाविष्ट-हृदयो दृष्ट्वा तामसितेक्षणाम्। वार्य्युपस्पृश्य बलवान्ध्यानमेवान्वचिन्तयत्। मुहूर्त्तं ध्यातमात्रे तु दृष्टंज्ञानबलात्ततः। उग्रसेनस्य पत्नीति ज्ञात्वा हर्षमवापसः। उग्रसेनस्य वै रूपं कृत्वा स्वं परिवर्त्त्य च। उपासर्पन्महाबाहुः प्रसभं दानवेश्वरः। स्मयमानश्चशनकैर्ज्जग्राहामितवीर्य्यवान्। उग्रसेनस्य रूपेण मात-रं ते व्यधर्षयत्। सा पतिस्निग्धहृदया भावेनोप-ससर्प तम्। शङ्किता चाभवत् पश्चात्तस्य गौरवदर्श-नात्। सा तमाहोत्थिता मीता न त्वं मम पतिर्ध्रुवम्। कस्य त्वं विकृताचारो येनास्मि मलिनीकृता। एकपत्नी-व्रतमिदं मम संदूषितं त्वया। पत्युर्म्मे रूपमास्थायनीचनीचेन कर्म्मणा। किं मां वक्ष्यन्ति रुषिता बान्ध-वाः कुलपांसुलाम्। जुगुप्सिता च वर्त्स्यामि पतिपक्षैर्निरा-कृता। धिक् त्वामीदृशमक्षान्तं दुष्कुलं व्युत्थितेन्द्रियम्। अविश्वास्यमनार्य्यञ्च परदाराभिमर्षणम्। स तामाहप्रसज्जन्तीं क्षिप्तः क्रोधेन दानवः। अहं वै द्रुमिलोनाम सौभस्य पतिरूर्ज्जितः। किं मां क्षिपसि रोषेणमुढे! पण्डितमानिनि!। मानुषं पतिमाश्रित्य नीचंमृत्युवशे स्थितम्। व्यभिचारान्न दुष्यन्ति स्त्रियः स्त्रीमा-नगर्व्विते॥ न ह्यासां नियता बुद्धिर्म्मानुषीणां विशे-षतः। श्रूयन्ते हि स्त्रियो बह्व्यो व्यभिचारव्यतिक्रमैः। प्रसूता देवसदृशान् पुत्त्रानमितविक्रमान्। अतीव हि त्वंस्त्रीलोके पतिधर्म्मवती सती। शुद्धा केशान् विधुन्वन्तीभाषसे यद्यदिच्छसि। कस्य त्वमिति यच्चाहं त्वयोक्तोमत्तकाशिनि!। कंसस्तस्माद्रिपुध्वं सी तव पुत्त्रो भवि-ष्यति। सा सरोषा पुनर्भूत्वां निन्दन्ती तस्य तं वरम्। उवाच व्यथिता देवी दानवं धृष्टवादिनम्। धिक् तेवृत्तं सुदुर्वृत्त! यः सर्व्वा निन्दसि स्त्रियः। सन्ति स्त्रि-यो नीचवृत्ताः सन्ति चैव पतिव्रताः। यास्त्वेकपत्न्यःश्रूयन्तेऽरुन्धतीप्रमुखाः स्त्रियः। याभिर्धृताः प्रजाःसर्व्वा लोकाश्चैव कुलाधभ!। यस्त्वया मम पुत्त्रोवै दत्तोवृत्तविनाशनः। न मे बहुमतस्त्वेष शृणु चापि यदु-च्यसे। उत्पत्स्यति पुमान्नीच! पतिवंशेममाव्ययः। भवि-ष्यति स ते मृत्युर्यश्च दत्तस्त्रया सुतः। द्रुनिलस्त्वे-वमुक्तस्तु जगामाकाशमेव तु”। कांस्यसाधनद्रव्यं कंसकशब्देवक्ष्यते कांस्यशोधनमारणविधानगुणाः भावप्र॰ उक्ता यथा[Page1603-b+ 38]
“अथ कांस्यस्य रीतेश्च शोधनन्त्वभिधीयते। पत्तलीकृत-पत्राणिकांस्यस्याग्नौ प्रतापयेत्। निषिञ्चेत्तप्ततप्तानि तैलेतक्रेच काञ्जिके। गोमूत्रे च कुलत्यानां कषायेऽत्र त्रिधात्रिधा। एवं कांस्यस्य रीतेश्च विशुद्धिः संप्रजायते”। अथ मारणविधिः
“अर्कक्षीरेण संपिष्टो गन्धकस्तेनलेपयेत्। समेन कांस्यपत्राणि शुद्धान्यम्लद्रवैर्मुहुः। ततोमूषापुटेधृत्वा पचेत् गजपुटेन च। एवं पुटद्वयात् कांस्यं रीतिश्चम्रियते ध्रुवम्” एवं मारितयोः कांस्यस्य रीतेश्च गुणाः
“कांस्यं कषायं तीक्ष्णोष्णं लेखनं विशदं सरम्। गुरुनेत्रहितं रूक्षं कफपित्तहरं परम्”।
“कंसभन्थशूर्पपाय्यकाण्डान्तं द्विगौ” पा॰ द्विगुसमासेआद्युदात्तता। द्विकंसः। द्वौ कंसौ परिमाणमस्येति तद्धि-तार्थद्विगुः। कंसशब्दोऽर्द्धर्चादि।
“का काली का मधुराका शीतलवाहिनी गङ्गा। कं सं जघान कृष्णः कम्बलवन्तंन बाधते शीतम्” विदग्धमुखमण्डने समानप्रश्नोत्तरदर्श-नात् दन्त्यमध्य एव।
६ उग्रसेनकन्याभेदे स्त्री सा च देव-भागभार्य्या
“कंसा कंसवती कङ्का सुतनूराष्ट्रपालिका। उग्रसेनदुहितरी वसुदेवानुजस्त्रियः”।
“देवभागस्यकंसायां चित्रकेतुवृहद्बलौ” भाग॰
कंस¦ m. (-सः) A proper name; KANSA king of Mathura the uncle and enemy of KRISHNA, by whom he was slain; as the foe of the deity, he is considered an Asura or demon. mn. (-सः-सं)
1. A goblet, a drinking vessel; also कंश and कांस्य।
2. A metal, tutanag or white copper; also bell metal.
3. A measure. E. कमु to desire, स Unadi aff.
कंसः [kaṃsḥ] सम् [sam], सम् 1 A drinking vessel, cup, can, goblet; उदुम्बरे कंसे चमसे वा सर्वौषधं फलानीति संभृत्य Bṛi. Up.6.3.1.
Bell-metal, white copper. किं यत्तद्देवदत्तः कंसपात्र्यां पाणि- नौदनं भुङ्क्ते Mbh. on P.I.3.1.
A particular measure known as आढक, q. v.
सः N. of a king of Mathurā, son of Ugrasena and enemy of Kriṣṇa. [He is identified with the Asura Kālanemi, and acted inimically towards Kṛiṣṇa and became his implacable foe. The circumstance which made him so was the following. While, after the marriage of Devakī with Vasudeva, he was driving the happy pair home, a heavenly voice warned Kaṁsa that the eighth child of Devakī would kill him. Thereupon he threw both of them into prison, loaded them with strong fetters, and kept the strictest watch over them. He took from Devakī every child as soon as it was born and slew it, and in this way he disposed of her first six children. But the 7th and 8th, Balarāma and Kṛiṣṇa, were safely conveyed to Nanda's house in spite of his vigilance, and Kṛiṣṇa grew up to be his slayer according to the prophecy. When Kaṁsa heard this, he was very much enraged and sent several demons to kill Kṛiṣṇa, who killed them all with ease. At last he sent Akrūra to bring the boys to Mathurā. A severe duel was fought between Kaṁsa and Kṛiṣṇa, in which the former was slain by the latter.] cf. कंसं जघान कृष्णः which is an answer to the query कं संज- घान कृष्णः ।
Fire. -सा N. of a daughter of Ugrasena and sister of Kaṁsa. -Comp. -अरिः, अरातिः, जित्, कृष्, द्विष्, हन् m. 'slayer of Kaṁsa, i. e Kṛiṣṇa; स्वयं सन्धिकारिणा कंसारिणा दूतेन Ve.1;-अस्थि n. Bell mental. -उद्भवा A fragrant earth.-कारः (-री f.)
a mixed tribe; कंसकारशङ्खकारौ ब्राह्मणात्सं- बभूवतुः Śabdak.
a worker in pewter or whitebrass, a bell-founder, -कृषः Vāsudeva Śrikṛṣṇa; निषेदिवान् कंसकृषः स विष्टरे Śi.1.16. -माक्षिकम् a metallic substance in large grains; a sort of pyrites. -वणिक् m. a brazier or seller of brass vessels. -वधः, -हननम् the slaying of Kaṁsa. कंसवधमाचष्टे कंसं घातयति Mbh. on P.III.1.26. -वधम् N. of a drama by Śeṣakriṣṇa
कंस mn. ( कम्Un2. iii , 62 ), a vessel made of metal , drinking vessel , cup , goblet AV. x , 10 , 5 AitBr. S3Br. etc.
कंस mn. (a noun ending in अस्followed by कंसin a compound does not change its final See. अयस्-कंस, etc. Pa1n2. 8- , 3 , 46 )
कंस mn. a particular measure (= two आढकs Car. ; = one आढकL. )
कंस mn. a metal , tutanag or white copper , brass , bell-metal
कंस m. N. of a king of मथुरा(son of उग्र-सेनand cousin of the देवकीwho was mother of कृष्ण[ उग्र-सेनbeing brother of देवक, who was father of देवकी] ; he is usually called the uncle , but was really a cousin of कृष्ण, and became his implacable enemy because it had been prophesied to कंसthat he would be killed by a child of देवकी; as the foe of the deity he is identified with the असुरकालनेमि; and , as he was ultimately slain by कृष्ण, the latter receives epithets like कंस-जित्, conqueror of कंस, etc. ) MBh. VP. BhP. etc.
कंस m. N. of a place g. तक्षशिला-दिPa1n2. 4-3 , 93
(I)--the eldest son of Ugrasena फलकम्:F1: भा. IX. २४. २४; Br. I. 1. १२५; III. ७१. १३२; वा. 1. १४८; ९६. १३१, १७३, २१६; Vi. IV. १४. २०; M. ४४. ७४; ४६. १३.फलकम्:/F and brother (cousin-वा। प्।) of देवकी. Took part in the festivities con- nected with the marriage of देवकी and Vasudeva, when he heard a voice from air that her eighth son would kill him. He at once drew his sword to slay देवकी when Vasudeva entreated him to spare her life promising to give him all her sons. To this he agreed. He did not take notice even of the first boy. Subsequently नारद confirmed what he heard from the welkin. So he killed all her sons and put her and Vasudeva in jail. He waited for the seventh and was particularly afraid of the eighth. Being informed of the birth of a girl, and without listening to his sister's appeal to spare the baby, he dashed it against a stone. It flew heavenwards and said that the baby born to vanquish him [page१-293+ ४३] was safe. Disheartened, कंस let Vasudeva and देवकी free. Consulted his ministers who advised him to kill all infants in the kingdom, and to hurt all ब्राह्मणस् and cows, the root cause of Hari's धर्म। Messengers were sent out on this mission. फलकम्:F2: भा. X. chap. 1-4; Br. III. ७१. १७५-235; ७३. ९९; वा. ९८. १००; Vi. IV. १५. २६-7; V. 1. 6-११, ६७-69; 3. 2; chap. 4.फलकम्:/F An incarnation of कालनेमि. Threw his father Ugra- sena in prison and assumed regal administration. फलकम्:F3: भा. X. 1. ६८-69.फलकम्:/F Encouraged by his Asura friends such as Pralamba and Baka, as also by the मागधन् king, he tyrannized the Yadus who left the land for other countries like Kuru, पाञ्- चाल and others. The ब्राह्मणस् were afraid of him. फलकम्:F4: Ib. X. 2. 1-4; २३. ५२.फलकम्:/F Heard from नारद that कृष्ण and बलराम were Vasudeva's sons; when he went to slay Vasudeva, नारद prevented him from it. He then threw Vasudeva and his wife in prison. He summoned his councillors and asked the Mallas, चाणूर and मुष्टिक to get ready for a wrestling match with कृष्ण and राम; ordered his mahout to station the State Elephant at the gate of the enclosure (रङ्ग) and get कृष्ण and राम trampled under its feet; when he was asked why he was out to kill those two boys, he narrated the story of his mother once going in the garden thinking of her husband Ugrasena. Then a Gandharva Drumila per- sonated Ugrasena. Discovering that he was not her hus- band, she asked him in wrath who he was. He tried to console her saying that she would give birth to a heroic son. The chaste lady retorted that he would be cruel and un- righteous. Such being his birth, he hated his kith and kin. Then he commanded to commence the धनुर्याग। अक्रूर was sent for and ordered to take his chariot and bring कृष्ण and राम to the धनुर्याग with all gopas. He proposed to kill all of them and rule the kingdoms with the help of friends like जरासन्ध. Thanked by अक्रूर for an opportunity to visit कृष्ण and राम; अक्रूर reached the Vraja and was welcomed by the brothers and Nanda. Informed of their arrival by अक्रूर. Much concerned to know of the breaking of his bow by कृष्ण and further the killing of his guards. He had no sleep all night and had bad dreams, all in fear of कृष्ण. Next morning he drove [page१-294+ ३६] to the wrestling ground and occupied the royal seat with his ministers; was perturbed to learn of the death of Kuva- लयापीड and its guards. Became furious at the death of his five mallas and the running away of others. Ordered the banishment of the two brothers, robbing the gopas of their belongings, and imprisonment of Nanda, killing of Ugrasena and Vasudeva. कृष्ण attacked him direct, pull- ed him down from his throne and killed him. His eight brothers who offered fight were slain by राम. फलकम्:F5: Ib. X. chap. ३६-44; M. ४७. 4, 6; ६९. 8; Vi. V. १२. २१; १५. 2-4; २०. २६, ८२-90.फलकम्:/F Death welcomed by Gopis and अक्रूर. फलकम्:F6: भा. X. ४७. ३९; ४८. १७.फलकम्:/F Prevented Vasudeva go- ing to करवीरपुर. His oppression. फलकम्:F7: Ib. X. ५७. २३; ६६. 9; ८२. २२; ८५. २८, ३३.फलकम्:/F His queens were Asti and प्राप्ति, daughters of जरा- sandha. फलकम्:F8: Ib. X. ५०. 1;फलकम्:/F His death recalled by कृष्ण to Mucukunda; by कृतवर्मन् to युधिष्ठिर; by कुन्ती. फलकम्:F9: Ib. X. ५१. ४२; ५२. [५६ (V) 6]; ५७. १३; I. 8. २३; II. 7. ३४; Vi. V. २९. 5.फलकम्:/F Attained Hari through fear. फलकम्:F१०: भा. VII. 1. ३०.फलकम्:/F Of the Bhoja family. Funeral rites done by Ugrasena. फलकम्:F११: Vi. V. २१. 7-१०; २९. 5.फलकम्:/F
(II)--a दानव king; with the sun for two months--मधु and माधव। Br. II. २३. 3; IV. २९. १२३.
KAṀSA I : Son of Ugrasena, King of Mathurā, and an incarnation of an Asura called Kālanemi.
1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu: Brahmā- Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti- Yadu-Sahasrajit-Śatajit-Hehaya-Dharma-Kunti (Kuni)- Bhadrasena-Dhanaka-Kṛtavīra-Kārtavīryārjuna-Madhu- Vṛṣṇi-Yudhājit-Śini-Sātyaka-Sātyaki (Yuyudhāna)- Yaya-Kuni-Anamitra-Pṛśni-Citraratha-Kukura-Vahni- Viloma-Kapotaroman (Kapotaloman)-Tumburu-Dun- dubhi-Daridra-Vasu-Nāhuka-Āhuka-Ugrasena-Kaṁsa.
2) Kaṁsa, an incarnation of Kālanemi. In the svāyam- bhuvamanvantara Marīci had a wife named Ūrṇā and they had six mighty and powerful sons. One day they ridiculed Brahmā saying ‘A father who has married his won daughter’ (Brahmā married Sarasvatī, his own daughter). Brahmā became angry and cursed them to be born as demons on earth. All the six sons were, therefore, born as sons of a demon called Kālanemi on earth. In their next birth they were born as sons of Hiraṇyakaśipu. They led a pious life and pleased at this Brahmā asked them what boon they wanted and they demanded that they should not be killed by any- body. Their father, Hiraṇyakaśipu, did not like his sons getting a boon behind his back and so he cursed his sons “May you all six go to Pātāla (nether-world) and sleep there for a long time under the name of Ṣaḍarbhakas. The sons begged for relief and Hiraṇya- kaśipu said that they would after sleeping for a long time be born to Devakī, wife of Vasudeva, as their children and that Kālanemi, their father in their pre- vious birth would then be born as Kaṁsa and kill the children of Devakī by striking their heads on the ground.
Accordingly Kālanemi was born as Kaṁsa and he killed the six children of Devakī by striking them on the ground. (Skandha 4, Devī Bhāgavata).
The 10th Skandha of Bhāgavata states “killing Kāla- nemi born as Kaṁsa” when it refers to the killing of Kaṁsa.
3) Another story regarding the birth of Kaṁsa. Kaṁsa was not actually the son of Ugrasena. It was Nārada who revealed to Kaṁsa the story of his birth. It is as follows.
Once when the wife of Ugrasena was in her menses she went to the garden with her companions. Then a Gandharva named Dramila disguised as Ugrasena went to her but she knew the trick and cursed him that he would go to hell. But Dramila committed rape on her and then left the place making her pregnant. When the child was born Ugrasena's wife greatly hated the child got of an evil deed and cursed it saying that the child would be killed by a member of the family of Ugrasena. Thus Kaṁsa was the son born to the wife of Ugrasena by the Gandharva, Dramila. It was because Kaṁsa was aware of it that he behaved very badly to Ugrasena and Kṛṣṇa. (10th Skandha, Bhāgavata).
4) How Kaṁsa got Mathurāpurī. In olden times there was a famous place called Madhuvana in the river-base of Kālindī. The place got the name of Madhu- vana because the demon Madhu was residing there. Madhu had a son named Lavaṇa. Lavaṇa was a very wicked demon always ill-treating the devas. Śatrughna, son of Daśaratha, killed him and lived there establishing a beautiful kingdom there. He named that place Mathurā. After the death of Śatrughna two of his sons ruled that country. Then when the Sūrya dynasty be- came extinct the city of Mathurā came into the possess- ion of the Yadu dynasty. It was ruled then by a very brave and valiant ruler named Śūrasena. Vasudeva father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa was the son of Śūrasena. After the death of Śūrasena another King of the Yādava dynasty, Ugrasena, became the ruler of the place, Vasudeva accepting cow-rearing as his profession. Kaṁsa became King keeping Ugrasena as a prisoner. (Skandha 4, Devī Bhāgavata).
5) Vasudeva and Devakī are imprisoned. Vasudeva married Devakī daughter of Ugrasena and sister, of Kaṁsa. Kaṁsa pleased with his sister presented her with a chariot. Kaṁsa, Vasudeva and Devakī ascended the chariot and Kaṁsa himself drove the chariot. Then from an unknown source above came a voice which said “Oh King, know thou this and from this moment chalk out thy plans for the future. The eighth son of your sister will kill you for certain. You will be no match against him.” (Chapter 1, Bhāgavata 10th Skandha).
Hearing this voice from heaven Kaṁsa got furious and dragging his sister by the hair raised his sword to kill her. Vasudeva then pleaded weeping not to kill Devakī. Only the eighth child of Devakī was going to kill him. Vasudeva would hand over all the children to him as soon as they were born. Such arguments pacified Kaṁsa and he left off Devakī without hurting her.
Devakī delivered a son. He grew up under the name of Kīrtimān and one day Nārada visited Kaṁsa and told him that he was the incarnation of an Asura named Kālanemi and the son who would be born to Devakī to kill him was Nārāyaṇa. Kaṁsa, blind with fury, killed Kīrtimān by striking him on the earth and im- prisoned both Devakī and Vasudeva.
6) Man-hunt of Kaṁsa. Pralamba, Cāṇūra, Tṛṇāvarta, Muṣṭika, Ariṣṭaka, Keśī, Dhenuka, Agha, Vivida and Pūtanā were born in the Asura family as servants of Kaṁsa. He sent them to different sides of the country to torment the Yādavas. Many Yādavas left the place. Even Kaṁsa's father Ugrasena, a great devotee of Viṣṇu was teased.
In the meantime Devakī delivered six sons including Kīrtimān and all of them were killed by Kaṁsa by smashing their heads against the ground below. The seventh foetus of Devakī was aborted. (Instructed by Mahāviṣṇu, Māyādevī invoked the seventh foetus of Devakī and transferred it to the womb of Rohiṇī another wife of Vasudeva. The child thus born to Rohinī was Saṅkarṣaṇa or Balabhadrarāmā. Mahāviṣṇu then entered the womb of Devakī instructing Māyādevī to enter that of Yaśodā, wife of Nandagopa of Ambāḍi at the same time. Śrī Kṛṣṇa was then born in the figure of Viṣṇu. The watchmen were sleeping. Following directions from the new-born child Vasudeva took the child to Gokula and leaving the child there brought back the child of Yaśodā and placed it near Devakī. When the watchmen awoke and knew about the deli- very of Devakī they immediately ran to Kaṁsa to tell him. Boiling with rage Kaṁsa rushed to the side of Devakī and taking the child by the legs raised it for smashing it against the ground. The child to the fright- ened dis may of Kaṁsa slipped from his hand and rising up in the air said “Hi, ill-mannered wicked Kaṁsa, do not waste your valour on women. Your killer has already been born on earth. Do search for him quickly.”
Kaṁsa went pale with fright on hearing this and went away to his palace.
7) Conspiracy of Kaṁsa. The thought that his killer was born somewhere made him restless. He let off Vasudeva and Devakī finding them innocent. Then he sat sadly pondering over the future. The courtiers then advised him to kill all the children who had been born within the past ten days and that would include the killer also. Kaṁsa accordingly sent to different parts of the country his secret agents to kill all children, ten days old.
During this campaign Pūtanā, Śakaṭa, Tṛṇāvarta, Ariṣṭaka and Keśī tried to kill Śrī Kṛṣṇa also but Kṛṣṇa killed them all easily. For details see under each head separately. (10th Skandha, Bhāgavata).
8) Kaṁsa is slain. Ariṣṭaka was one of the prominent Asuras sent to kill Kṛṣṇa. He attacked Kṛṣṇa in the form of an ox. Śrī Kṛṣṇa killed it without any diffi- culty. Nārada who saw this incident informed Kaṁsa about it adding that Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma were the sons of Vasudeva only and the child who slipped out of his hands was the child of Yasodā. Kaṁsa got furious and he again imprisoned Vasudeva and Devakī and brought to Mathurā Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balabhadrarāma and started thinking of ways and means to kill them. Kaṁsa arranged to conduct a grand celebration of Āyudhapūjā (worship of the weapons) and invited Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma for the same among many other gopas from Ambāḍi. He sent his chariot with Akrūra to fetch Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma from Ambāḍi. Akrūra privately informed Kṛṣṇa of the bad intentions of Kaṁsa. Nandagopa and many others from Ambāḍi started for Mathurā. When Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balabhadra- rāma started their journey in the chariot the gopas and gopikās assembled there cried loudly. Some blamed Akrūra.
Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma reached Mathurā. There they slew a huge wild elephant and the five Asuras, Cāṇūra, Muṣṭika, Kūṭa, Śala and Kosala whom Kaṁsa had kept ready to kill Kṛṣṇa and Rāma. Sitting on a platform watching this, Kaṁsa became frightened and restless and roared with rage thus “The sons of Nandagopa should be instantly sent away from this palace. All their wealth and all that of the gopas should be con- fiscated. Bind with ropes the rogue Nandagopa, and kill the wicked Vasudeva. Throw my father, Ugrasena, into the river Kālindī bound hand and foot. Even a father should be killed if he was a relative of one's enemy.”
Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma boiled with rage when they heard the orders of Kaṁsa and Kṛṣṇa, jumping on to the platform pushed Kaṁsa down and jumping down along with him killed him. (10th Skandha, Bhāgavata).
9) Other details.
(i) Kaṁsa had married the two daughters of Jarā- sandha named Asti and Prāpti. (10th Skandha, Bhā- gavata).
(ii) Kaṁsa was a fierce bow-man. All the kings hated him. Kaṁsa kept under him a crore of fighting men. He had eight lakhs of charioteers and an equal number of elephants. His army contained thirtytwo lakhs of horses. (Dākṣinātyapāṭha; M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chap- ter 38).
*1st word in left half of page 382 (+offset) in original book.
KAṀSA II : Mahābhārata mentions another Kaṁsa who was also killed by Kṛṣṇa. But he was not the son of Ugrasena. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātyapāṭha, Page 825).
*1st word in right half of page 383 (+offset) in original book.
Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]
Kaṃsa, a word denoting a ‘pot or vessel of metal,’ occurs in the Atharvaveda and elsewhere.