पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
अग्निः, पुं, (अङ्गयन्ति अग्य्रं जन्म प्रापयन्ति इति व्युत्पत्त्या हविः प्रक्षेपाधिकरणेषु गार्हपत्याहवनी- यदक्षिणाग्निसभ्यावसथ्यौपासनाख्येषु षड्ग्निषु । यद्वा अङ्गति ऊर्द्ध्वं गच्छति इति । अगि गतौ । अङ्गेर्नलोपश्चेति निः नलोपश्च ।) तेजःपदार्थ- विशेषः । आगुन इति भाषा । धर्म्मस्य वसु- भार्य्यायां जातः प्रथमोऽग्निः । तस्य पत्नी स्वाहा । पुत्त्रास्त्रयः पावकः १ पवमानः २ शुचिः ३ । षष्ठ- मन्वन्तरे अग्नेर्वसोर्धारायां द्रविणकादयः पुत्त्राः । एतेभ्यः पञ्चचत्वारिंशदग्नयो जाताः । सर्व्वेमिलित्वा एकोनपञ्चाशदग्नयः । इति पुराणं ॥ अस्य पर्य्यायः । वैश्वानरः १ वह्निः २ वीतिहोत्रः ३ धनञ्जयः ४ कृपीटयोनिः ५ ज्वलनः ६ जातवेदाः ७ तनूनपात् ८ तनूनपाः ९ वर्हिःशुष्मा १० वर्हिः ११ शुष्मा १२ कृष्णवर्त्मा १३ शोचिष्केशः १४ उष- र्ब्बुधः १५ आश्रयाशः १६ आशयाशः १७ वृहद्भानुः १८ कृशानुः १९ पावकः २० अनलः २१ रोहिताश्वः २२ वायुसखा २३ वायुसखः २४ शिखावान् २५ शिखी २६ आशुशुक्षणिः २७ हिरण्यरेताः २८ हुतभुक् २९ हव्यभुक् द्वितीय उदकेन्धनः पर्य्यग्ज्वलनशीलो वाडवः । तृतीय उभयेन्धनः पर्य्यग्ज्वलनशीलः भुक्तस्या- हारस्य रसादिपरिणामनिमित्तञ्च विद्युदादिश्च । इति विजयरक्षितोपरि सन्देहभञ्जिका ॥ * ॥ अपिच, -- “मन्दस्तीक्ष्णोऽथ विषमः समश्चेति चतुर्विधः । कफपित्तानिलाधिक्यात्तत्साम्याज्जाठरोऽनलः” ॥ तषां कार्य्यं यथा, -- “विषमोवातजान्रोगान् तीक्ष्णः पित्तनिमित्तजान् । करोत्यग्निस्तथा मन्दो विकारान् कफसम्भवान् ॥ समासमाग्नेरशिता मात्रा सम्यग्विपच्यते । स्वल्पापि नैव मन्दाग्नेर्विषमाग्नेस्तु देहिनः ॥ कदाचित् पच्यते सम्यक् कदाचिच्च न पच्यते । तीक्ष्णाग्निरिति तं विद्यात् समाग्निः श्रेष्ठ उच्यते” ॥ इति माधवकरः ॥ अत्यन्ततीक्ष्णाग्निरेव हि भस्म- क उच्यते । स तु आहाराभावे शोणितादीन् धा- तून् पाचयित्वा आशु मारयति । इति रक्षितः ॥ * ॥ (देहजन्याग्नेः नादोत्पादकत्वं यथा सङ्गीतदर्पणे, -- “आत्मना प्रेरितं चित्तं वह्निमाहन्ति देहजम् । ब्रह्मग्रन्थिस्थितं प्राणं स प्रेरयति पावकः ॥ पावकप्रेरितः सोऽथ क्रमादूर्द्ध्वपथे चरन् । अतिसूक्ष्मध्वनिं नाभौ हृदि सूक्ष्मं गले पुनः ॥ पुष्टं शीर्षे त्वपुष्टञ्च कृत्रिमं वदने तथा । आविर्भावयतीत्येवं पञ्चधा कीर्त्त्यते बुधैः ॥ नकारं प्राणनामानं दकारमनलं विदुः । जातः प्राणाग्निसंयोगात्तेन नादोऽभिधीयते” अग्नेः सर्व्वसाक्षित्वादि यथा रामायणे, -- “त्वमग्ने सर्व्वदेवानां शरीरान्तरगोचरः । त्वं साक्षी मम देहस्थस्त्राहि मां देवमत्तम” । यथा च भारते, -- “आदित्यचन्द्रावनिलोऽनलश्च । दौर्भूमिरापो हृदयं यमश्च ॥ अहश्च रात्रिश्च उभे च सन्ध्ये । धर्म्मश्च जानाति नरस्य वृत्तम्” ॥ अस्य सर्व्वप्रथमाराध्यत्वं ऋग्वेदस्य सर्व्वप्रथमसूक्ते ऊक्तं यथा, -- “अग्निमीले पुरोहितम्” । इत्यादि । विष्णुः । सूर्य्यः ।) अग्निकोणाधिपतिः । इत्यमरः । चित्रकवृक्षः । रक्तचित्रकः । मल्लातकः । निम्बुकः ॥ पित्तं । स्वर्णं । इति राजनिर्घण्टः ।
पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
अग्निर्वैश्वानरो वह्निर्वीतिहोत्रो धनञ्जयः। कृपीटयोनिर्ज्वलनो जातवेदास्तनूनपात्.।
अवयव : अग्निज्वाला,अग्निकणः,अग्नितापः,अग्नेः_निर्गतज्वाला
पत्नी : अग्नेः_प्रिया
सम्बन्धि2 : अरणिः
: बडवाग्निः, वनवह्निः, वज्राग्निः, आकाशादिष्वग्निविकारः, यागवेदिकायाम्_दक्षिणभागे_स्थिताग्निः, गार्हपत्याग्निः, आहवनीयाग्निः, दक्षिणगार्हपत्याहवनीयाग्नयः, संस्कृताग्निः, अग्निनाम, दक्षिणाग्नित्वेन_संस्कृत_गार्हपत्याग्निः, करीषाग्निः
पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, आत्मा, देवता
पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।
अग्नि¦ पु॰ अङ्गति ऊर्द्ध्वं गच्छति अगि--नि नलोपः। अग्नौस्वनामप्रसिद्धे तेजोभेदे, तेजसि आकाशाद्वायुर्वायो-रग्निरग्नेरापोद्भ्यः पृथिवी, इति” श्रुतिः। तत्रतेजःपदार्थस्तावद्द्विविधः सूक्ष्मः स्थूलश्च। सूक्ष्म-वायुसंभूतः सूक्ष्मवायुसंभूतः सूक्ष्मः पञ्चीकृतस्तुस्थूलः
“तासां त्रिवृतं त्रिवृतमेकैकां करोतीति” श्रुतौ त्रिवृत्करणस्य पञ्चीकरणस्याप्युलक्षणत्वम्। पञ्चीकरणप्रकारश्च पञ्चीकरणशब्दे वक्ष्यते। तथाच भूतान्तराष्टमभागमिश्रितेन स्वस्वार्द्धभागेन उत्पन्नःपञ्चीकृतः। तस्य च पञ्चात्मकत्वेऽपि
“वैशेष्यात्तद्वादइति” शारीरकोक्तेः भूयस्त्वात् तैजसत्वव्यवहारः। सोऽयं स्थूलो वह्निः प्रकारान्तरेण त्रिविधः भौमः[Page0049-a+ 38] दिव्यः जाठरश्चेति भेदात्। तत्र पार्थिवकाष्ठादिप्रभवः भौमः महानसाद्यग्निः, जलवाय्वादिभवः दिव्यःविद्युदुल्कावज्रादिः। उभावपि ऊर्द्ध्वज्वलनस्वभावः। उदरेभवस्तृतीयः। त्रयोऽप्यमी स्वसंयुक्तपाकदाहप्रकाशनसमर्थाः। सर्व्वेऽप्यमी लोके शास्त्रे च वह्न्यादिशब्देनव्यवह्नियन्ते तेषां विशेषगुणाः शब्दस्पर्शरूपाणि
“योयो-यावतिथश्चैषां स स तावद्गुणः स्मृतः” इति मनुनाभूतमध्ये तृतीयस्य तेजसः त्रिगुणत्वमुक्तं व्यक्तमुक्तंमहाभारते शब्दः स्पर्शश्च रूपञ्च तेजसोऽथ गुणास्त्रय-इति
“वह्नौ भृगभुगध्वनिरिति” पञ्चदश्यामुक्तम्वह्नेश्च तेजोजलभूम्यात्मकत्वेन लोहितशुक्लरूपत्वम् अतएव छान्दोग्ये त्रिवृत्करणानन्तरम् वह्नेस्त्रिरूपत्वमुक्तंयथा
“यदग्नेः रोहितं रूपं तेजसस्तद्रूपं, यच्छुक्लंतदपां, यत् कृष्ण तदन्नस्येति” विवृतञ्चैतद्भाष्यकृता
“यत्त-द्देवतानां त्रिवृत्करणमुक्तं तस्यैवोदाहरणमुच्यते। उदा-हरणं नामैकदेशप्रसिद्ध्याशेषप्रसिद्ध्यर्थमुदाह्रियत इति। तदेतदाह यदग्नेः त्रिवृत्कृतस्य रोहितं रूपं प्रसिद्धं लोकेतदत्रिवृत्कृतस्य तेजसो रूपमिति विद्धि। तथा यच्छुक्लंरूपमग्नेः तदपामत्रिवृत्कृतानामेव यत् कृष्णं तस्यैवाग्नेःरूपं तदन्नस्य पृथिव्या अत्रिवृत्कृताया इति विद्धीति”। अत एव तत्तच्छास्त्रकाव्यादिषु वह्नेररुणरूपतया वर्णनंदृश्यते। अग्निमूर्त्तिध्याने च अरुणरूपत्वमनुपदं दर्शयि-ष्यते। लोके चारुणत्वेनैव प्रत्यक्षेणासावुपलभ्यते एवञ्चनैयायिकोक्तं तेजसः शुक्लभास्वररूपत्वं प्रत्यक्षवेदविरुद्धत्वा-दुपेक्ष्यमेव। तत्र भौमदिव्ययोः प्रायशोलोकसिद्धत्वेन दिव्य-स्याग्रे दिव्यशब्दे वक्ष्यमाणत्वाच्च जाठरे वह्नौ विशेषो-ऽभिधीयते।
“नाभेरुर्द्धं हृदयादधस्तादामाशयमाचक्षतेतद्गतं सौरं तेजः पित्तमित्याचक्षते” इति भाष्यविवरणेआनन्दगिरिः वैद्यकवचनत्वेनोवाच। अत एव तस्य कौक्षेयइति संज्ञा। छान्दोग्ये च
“य हृदयस्य नाड्यस्ताःपिङ्गलाश्चाणिम्नस्तिष्ठन्ति शुक्लस्य नीलस्य पीतस्य लोहितस्येत्यसौ वा आदित्यः पिङ्गलः एष शुक्ल एष नील एष पीतएष लोहित इति”। व्याख्यातञ्चैतत् भाष्यकृता।
“अथ या एता वक्ष्यमाणा हृदयस्य पुण्डरीकाकारस्य ब्रह्मो-पासनस्थानस्य सम्बन्धिन्यो नाड्यो हृदयमांसपिण्डात्सर्वतोविनिःसृता आदित्यमण्डलादिरश्मयस्ताश्चैताः पिङ्गलस्यवर्णविशेषविशिष्टस्याणिम्नः सूक्ष्मरसस्य रसेन पूर्णास्तदाकाराएव तिष्ठन्ति वर्त्तन्त इत्यर्थः। तथा शुक्लस्य नीलस्य पीतस्य[Page0049-b+ 38] लोहितस्य च रसस्य पूर्णा इति सर्वत्राध्याहार्य्यम्। सैरेण तेजसा पित्ताख्येन पाकाभिनिर्वृत्तेन कफेनाल्पेनसम्पर्कापिङ्गलं भवति, सौरं तेजः पित्ताख्यम्। तदेववातभूयस्त्वान्नीलं भवति। तदेव च कफभूयस्त्वाच्छुक्लं,कफेन समतायां पित्तम्, शोणितबाहुल्येन लोहितम्। वैद्यकाद्वा वर्णविशेषा अन्वेष्टव्याः। कथं भवतीति? श्रुति-स्त्वाहादित्यसम्बन्धादेव, तत्तेजसो नाडीष्वनुगतस्यैते वर्णविशेषा” इति। कथमसौ वाऽदित्यः पिङ्गलो” ? वर्णत एषआदित्यः शुक्लोऽप्येष नील एष पीत एष लोहित आदित्यएव, तस्य चान्नरसस्य धात्वन्तरसम्पर्कवशात् वर्णविशेष” इत्यानन्दगिरिः। अस्यैवजाठरस्य पिपासाहेतुत्वं छान्दोग्येउक्तं यथा
“अथ यत्रैतत् पुरुषः पिपासति नाम तेज एवै-तत् पीतं नयते इति”। व्याख्यातञ्च भाष्यकृता द्रवकृतस्या-शितस्यान्नस्य नेत्र्यः आपोऽन्नशुङ्गं देहं क्लेदयन्त्यः शिथि-लीकुर्य्युः अब्बाहुल्यात्, यदि तेजसा न शोष्येत। नित-राञ्च तेजसा शोष्यमाणास्वप्सु देहभावेन परिणममानासु-पातुमिच्छा पिपासा पुरुषस्य जायते तदा
“पुरुषः पिपा-सति नाम, तदेतदाह
“तेज एव तत्तदा पीतमबादि शोष-यत् देहलोहितादिभावेन नयते परिणमयतीति”। तस्यरसपाकप्रकारमाह योगार्ण्णवे।
“आयुष्यं भुक्तमाहारंस वायुः कुरुते द्विधा संप्रविश्यान्नमध्यन्तु, पृथक् किट्टंपृथग् जलम् (किट्टम् अन्नमलभेदम्)। अग्नेरूर्द्ध्वंच संस्थाप्य तदन्नं च जलोपरि। जलस्याधः स्वयं प्राणःस्थित्वाग्निं धमते शनैः (धमते संधुक्षयति) वायुनाध्मायमानोऽग्निरत्युष्णं कुरुते जलम्। अन्नं तदुष्णतोयेनसमन्तात् पच्यते पुनः। द्विधा भवति तत् पक्वं पृथक् किट्टंपृथग् रसम्। रसेन तेन ता नाडीः प्राणः पूरयते पुनः। प्रत्यर्पयन्ति सम्पूर्ण्णारसानि ताः समन्तत इति”। एवं रस-पाकोत्तरं धातुपाकोऽभिहितः पदार्थादर्शे। यथा
“त्वग-सृग्मासमेदोऽस्थिमज्जशुक्राणि धातवः। सप्त स्युस्तत्रचोक्ता त्वक् रक्तजोदरवह्निना। पक्काद्भवेदन्नरसादेवं रक्ता-दिभिस्तथा। स्वस्वकोशाग्निना पाकात् प्रजायन्ते त्वगा-दय इति”। एतम्मूलमेव
“तस्य षोढा शरीराणि षट् त्वचोधारयन्ति चेति” याज्ञवल्क्यवचनव्याख्यायां मिताक्षराकृतास्पष्टमुक्तम् यथा तस्यात्मनोयानि जरायुजाण्डजादीनिशरीराणि तानि प्रत्येकं षट्प्रकाराणि रक्तादिषड्धातुपरि-पाकहेतुभूतषडग्निस्थानयोगित्वेन। तथाहि अन्नरसो-जाठरवह्निना पच्यमानी रक्ततां प्रतिपद्यते, रक्तः स्वकोश-[Page0050-a+ 38] स्थाग्निना पच्यमानं मांसत्वम्, मांसञ्च स्वकोशस्थानलपरि-पक्कं मेदस्त्वम्, मेदोऽपि स्वकोशवह्निना पक्कमस्थिताम्,अस्थ्यापि स्वकोशशिखिपरिपक्कं मज्जत्वम्, मज्जापिस्वकोशपावकपरिपच्यमानं चरमधातुतया परिणमते इति” जाठरस्य प्रकारान्तरेण पाचनादिदशविधकर्म्मकारित्वात्दशविधत्वमुक्तं पदार्थादर्शे यथा
“भ्राजकोरञ्जकश्चैव क्लेदकःस्नेहकस्तथा धारको बन्धकस्यैव द्रावकाख्यश्च सप्तमः। व्यापकः पाचकश्चैव श्लेष्मको दशधा मत इति”। वैद्यकेचास्य चतुर्विधकार्य्यविशेषकारित्वाच्चातुर्विध्यमुक्तम्। विषमश्च समस्तीक्ष्णो मन्दश्चेति चतुर्विधः। कफपित्तानलाधिक्यात् तत्साम्याज्जाठरोऽनलः। विषमो वातजान्रोगान्, तीक्ष्णः पित्तसमुद्भवान्, करोत्यग्निस्तथामग्दोविकारान् कफसम्भवान्। समाः समोऽग्निरशितमात्राःसम्यक् पचत्यसौ” इति॥ अग्नेरतितीक्ष्णत्वे भस्मकसंज्ञास हि सम्यगाहाराभावे शोणितादिधातूनपि पाचयित्वाआशु देहं नाशयतीति रक्षितः आहस्म। अघिकं कायशब्देवक्ष्यते। वाह्यस्य भौमस्याग्नेः कर्म्मविशेषे नामान्युक्तानिविधानपारिजाते। यथा
“लौकिके पावकोह्यग्निः प्रथमः परिकीर्त्तितः। अग्निस्तु-मारुतो नाम गर्भाधाने प्रकीर्त्तितः॥ पुंसवे चमसो नामशोभनः शुभकर्म्मसु। (शुङ्गकर्म्मणीति रघु॰)। तच्च सीमन्ता-न्तर्गतकर्म्मभेदः। सीमन्ते ह्यनलो नाम प्रगल्मो जात-कर्म्मणि॥ पार्थिवो नामकरणे प्राशनेऽन्नस्य वै शुचिः। सभ्यनामा तु चूडायां ब्रतादेशे समुद्भवः॥ गोदाने सूर्य्य-नामा स्यात् केशान्ते याजकः स्मृतः। वैश्वानरो विसर्गेस्याद्विवाहे वलदः स्मृतः॥ चतुर्थीकर्म्मणि शिखीधृतिरग्निस्तथाऽपरे। (अपरे कर्म्मणि) आवसथ्यस्तथा-धाने वैश्वदेवे तु पावकः। ब्रह्माग्निर्गाहपत्ये स्याद्दक्षिणा-ग्निरथेश्वरः। विष्णुराहवनीये स्यादग्निहोत्रे त्रयोमताःलक्षहोमेऽभीष्टदः स्यात् कोटिहोमे महाशनः। एके घृता-र्चिषां प्राहुरग्निध्यानपरायणाः॥ रुद्रादौ तु मृडो नामशान्तिके शुभकृत्तथा। आदिशब्दात् लघुरुद्रशतरुद्रातिरुद्रा-लक्ष्यन्ते। (पूर्णाहुत्यां मृडो नामेति रघु॰)। पौष्टिके वरद-श्चैव क्रोधाग्निश्चाभिचारके। वश्यार्थे वशकृत् प्रोक्तो वन-दाहे तु पोषकः। उदरे जठरी नाम क्रव्यादः शवभक्षणे। समुद्रे वाडवो ह्यग्निर्लये संवर्त्तकस्तथा॥ सप्तविंशति-सख्याता अग्नयः कर्मसु स्मृताः। तं तमाहूय होतव्यंयो यत्र विहितोऽनलः॥ अन्यथा विफलं कर्म सर्व्वं तद्राक्ष-[Page0050-b+ 38] सम्भवेत्। आदित्यादिग्रहाणां च साम्प्रतं ह्यग्निरुच्यते॥ आदित्ये कपिलो नाम पिङ्गलः सोम उच्यते। धूमकेतुस्तथा भौमे जठरोऽग्निर्बुधे स्मृतः॥ वृहम्पतौ शिखी नामशुक्रे भवति हाटकः। शनैश्चरे महातेजा राहौ केतौ हुता-शनः इति॥ ” यज्ञादौ तु पञ्च भेदाः
“आवसथ्याहवनीयौदक्षिणाग्निस्तथैव च। अन्वाहार्य्यो गार्हपत्य इत्येते पञ्चवह्नयः” इति शा॰ राघ॰।
“पञ्चाग्नयो ये च त्रिणाचि-केता” इति श्रुतिः। अग्नेर्ध्येयरूपं यथा
“रुद्रतेजःसमुद्भूतंद्विमूर्द्धानं द्विनासिकम्। षण्नेत्रं च चतुःश्रोत्रं त्रिपादं सप्त-हस्तकम्। याम्यभागे चतुर्ह्रस्तं सव्यभागे त्रिहस्तकम्। स्रुवं स्रुचञ्च शक्तिं च अक्षमालां च दक्षिणे। तोमरंव्यजनं चैव घृतपात्रन्तु वामके। बिभ्रतं सप्तभिर्हस्तैर्द्विमुखंसप्तजिह्वकम्। दक्षिणञ्च चतुर्जिह्वं त्रिजिह्वमुत्तरं मुखम्। द्वदशकोटिमूर्त्त्याख्यं द्विपञ्चाशत्कलायुतम्। स्वाहास्वधा-वषट्कारैरङ्कितं मेषवाहनम्। रक्तमाल्याम्बरधरं रक्तंपद्मासनस्थितम्॥ रौद्रं तु वह्निनामानं वह्निमावाह-याम्यहम्”। इति रुद्रकल्पः। अग्नेर्भौतिकत्वेऽपि कर्म्मा-ङ्गहोमसाधनतया एवं ध्यातव्यता। अग्न्यभिमानिनि चेतनाधिष्ठिते शरीरादावशि उपचारात्अग्निशब्दप्रयोगः। अग्न्यधिष्ठातरि देवभेदे
“अग्निं दूतंवृणीमहे होतारं विश्ववेदस” मित्यादौ वेदे तस्यैव आह्वान-पूर्वकोपास्यत्वमुक्तम्। तदधिष्ठितदेहभेदेऽपि, स एव विश्व-नराज्जन्मासाद्य अग्निलोकाधिपत्यं चकारेति काशीखण्डेउक्तं तत्कथा वैश्वानरशब्दे वक्ष्यते। अग्निदेवताके कृत्ति-कानक्षत्रे
“अश्वियमदहने” त्यादिना ज्योतिषे कृत्तिका-नक्षत्रस्य तत्स्वामिकत्वोक्तेः तद्देवताके प्रतिपत्तिथौ वह्ने-स्तदाधिपत्यं तिथिशब्दे वक्ष्यते। तस्य बहुत्वेऽपि वेद-त्रयभेदेन दक्षिणाग्निगार्हपत्याहवनीयनामतया प्राधान्येनत्रित्वात्
“प्रधानेन व्यपदेशा भवन्तीति” न्यायात् तत्-संख्यासदृशसंख्याके त्रित्वसंख्यान्विते, स्वोदयात् स्वाग्नि-लब्धं (
“यद्भुक्तं भोग्यं रवेस्त्यजेदिति” नीलकण्ठः। चित्रकवृक्षे (चिते) स्वर्ण्णे तस्य तत्तेजोजातत्वात्तथा तत्कथा अग्निरेतःशब्दे वक्ष्यते भल्लातकवृक्षे (भेला) निम्बुकवृक्षे (नेवु) पित्ते धातौ तस्य तदुत्पन्नत्वात्तथा यथा चतस्य तदुत्पन्नत्वं तथोक्तं प्राक्। तत्स्वामिके अग्निकोणेच। एवमग्निवाचकाः सर्वेऽपि शब्दाः कृत्तिकानक्षत्रादौवर्त्तन्ते। वित्तं ब्रह्मणि कार्य्यसिद्धिरतुला शक्रे हुताशेभयमिति तिथित॰।
“हुताशे अग्निकोणे” अनलविधुशता-[Page0051-a+ 38] ख्येति” ज्योतिषम्। (अनलः कृत्तिका) एवं यथायथमुदा-हार्य्यम्। अग्न्यभिमानिनश्च देवाः कुत उत्पन्नाः? कस्मिन् कस्मिन्। कर्म्मणि? वा तेषामधिष्ठातृत्वं तदुक्तं भारते।
अग्नि¦ m. (-ग्निः)
1. Fire, always associated with the idea of the deity presiding over it, and who is worshipped by the Hindus. AGNI is also regent of the south-east quarter.
2. A consecrated fire.
3. The fire of the stomach, the digestive faculty, appetite.
6. A plant of which the fruit has escharotic properties, (Semecarpus anacardium)
7. Another plant, (Plumbago zeylanica.) E. अङ्ग to mark, and नि Unadi aff. ङ being dropped.
अग्निः [agniḥ], [अङ्गति ऊर्ध्वं गच्छति अङ्ग्-नि,नलोपश्च Uṇ.4.5., or fr. अञ्च् 'to go.']
Fire कोप˚, चिन्ता˚, शोक˚, ज्ञान˚, राज˚, &c.
The God of fire.
Sacrificial fire of three kinds (गार्हपत्य, आहवनीय and दक्षिण); पिता बै गार्हपत्यो$ ग्निर्माताग्निर्दक्षिणः स्मृतः । गुरुराहवनीयस्तु साग्नित्रेता गरीयसी ॥ Ms. 2.232.
The fire of the stomach, digestive faculty, gastric fluid.
Bile (नाभेरूर्ध्व हृदयादधस्तादामाशयमाचक्षते तद्गतं सौरं तेजः पित्तम् इत्याचक्षते).
Cauterization (अग्नि- कर्मन्).
The number three. शराग्निपरिमाणम् (पञ्चत्रिंशत्) Mb.13.17.26.
N. of various plants: (a) चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica; (b) रक्तचित्रक; (c) भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium; (d) निम्बक Citrus Acida.
A mystical substitute for the letter र्. In Dvandva comp. as first member with names of deities, and with particular words अग्नि is changed to अग्ना, as ˚विष्णू, ˚मरुतौ, or to अग्नी, ˚पर्जन्यौ, ˚ वरुणौ, ˚षोमौ
पिङगला नाडी; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः, (इडा) सहाग्निना (अग्निः पिङ्गला) Mb.14.2.1.
Sacrificial altar, अग्निकुण्ड cf. Rām. 1.14.28.
Sky. अग्निर्मूर्धा Muṇḍ 2.1.4. [cf. L. ignis.] [Agni is the God of Fire, the Ignis of the Latins and Ogni of the Slavonians. He is one of the most prominent deities of the Ṛigveda. He, as an immortal, has taken up his abode among mortals as their guest; he is the domestic priest, the successful accomplisher and protector of all ceremonies; he is also the religious leader and preceptor of the gods, a swift messenger employed to announce to the immortals the hymns and to convey to them the oblations of their worshippers, and to bring them down from the sky to the place of sacrifice. He is sometimes regarded as the mouth and the tongue through which both gods and men participate in the sacrifices. He is the lord, protector and leader of people, monarch of men, the lord of the house, friendly to mankind, and like a father, mother, brother &c. He is represented as being produced by the attrition of two pieces of fuel which are regarded as husband and wife. Sometimes he is considered to have been brought down from heaven or generated by Indra between two clouds or stones, created by Dyau, or fashioned by the gods collectively. In some passages he is represented as having a triple existence, which may mean his threefold manifestations as the sun in heaven, lightning in the atmosphere, and as ordinary fire on the earth, although the three appearances are also elsewhere otherwise explained. His epithets are numberless and for the most part descriptive of his physical characteristics: धूमकेतु, हुतभुज्, शुचि, रोहिताश्व, सप्तजिह्व, तोमरधर, घृतान्न, चित्रभानु, ऊर्ध्वशोचिस्, शोचिष्केश, हरिकेश, हिरण्यदन्त, अयोदंष्ट्र &c. In a celebrated passage he is said to have 4 horns, 3 feet, 2 heads, and 7 hands. The highest divine functions are ascribed to Agni. He is said to have spread out the two worlds and �+ produced them, to have supported heaven, formed the mundane regions and luminaries of heaven, to have begotten Mitra and caused the sun to ascend the sky. He is the head and summit of the sky, the centre of the earth. Earth, Heaven and all beings obey his commands. He knows and sees all worlds or creatures and witnesses all their actions. The worshippers of Agni prosper, they are wealthy and live long. He is the protector of that man who takes care to bring him fuel. He gives him riches and no one can overcome him who sacrifices to this god. He confers, and is the guardian of, immortality. He is like a water-trough in a desert and all blessing issue from him. He is therefore constantly supplicated for all kinds of boons, riches, food, deliverance from enemies and demons, poverty, reproach, childlessness, hunger &c. Agni is also associated with Indra in different hymns and the two gods are said to be twin brothers. Such is the Vedic conception of Agni; but in the course of mythological personifications he appears as the eldest son of Brahmā and is called Abhimānī [Viṣṇu Purāṇa]. His wife was Svāhā; by her, he had 3 sons - Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuchi; and these had forty-five sons; altogether 49 persons who are considered identical with the 49 fires. He is also represented as a son of Aṅgiras, as a king of the Pitṛs or Manes, as a Marut and as a grandson of Śāṇḍila, and also as a star. The Harivaṁśa describes him as clothed in black, having smoke for his standard and head-piece and carrying a flaming javelin. He is borne in a chariot drawn by red horses and the 7 winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied by a ram and sometimes he is represented as riding on that animal. Agni was appointed by Brahamā as the sovereign of the quarter between the south and east, whence the direction is still known as Āgneyī. The Mahābhārata represents Agni as having exhausted his vigour and become dull by devouring many oblations at the several sacrifices made by king Śvetaki, but he recruited his strength by devouring the whole Khāṇḍava forest; for the story see the word खाण्डव]. -Comp. -अ (आ) गारम् -रः, -आलयः, -गृहम् [अग्निकार्याय अगारम् शाक˚ त.] a firesanctuary, house or place for keeping the sacred fire; वसंश्चतुर्थो$ग्निरिवाग्न्यगारे R.5.25. रथाग्न्यगारं चापार्चीं शरशक्तिगदे- न्धनम् Mb.11.25.14. -अस्त्रम् fire-missile, a rocket,-आत्मक a. [अग्निरात्मा यस्य] of the nature of fire सोमा- त्मिका स्त्री, ˚कः पुमान्. -आधानम् consecrating the fire; so ˚आहिति. -आधेयः [अग्निराधेयो येन] a Brāhmana who maintains the sacred fire. (-यम्) = ˚आधानम्. -आहितः [अग्निराहितो येन, वा परनिपातः P.II.2.37.] one who maintains the sacred fire; See आहिताग्नि. -इध् m. (अग्नीध्रः) [अग्निम् इन्द्धे स अग्नीध्] the priest who kindles fire (mostly Ved). -इन्धनः [अग्निरिध्यते अनेन] N. of a Mantra. (नम्) kindling the fire; अग्नीन्धनं भैक्षचर्याम् Ms.2.18.-उत्पातः [अग्निना दिव्यानलेन कृतः उत्पातः] a fiery portent, meteor, comet &c. In Bṛ. S.33 it is said to be of five kinds: दिवि भुक्तशुभफलानां पततां रूपाणि यानि तान्युल्काः । धिष्ण्योल्का- शनिविद्युत्तारा इति पञ्चधा भिन्नाः ॥ उल्का पक्षेण फलं तद्वत् धिष्ण्याशनिस्त्रिभिः पक्षैः । विद्युदहोभिः ष़ड्भिस्तद्वत्तारा विपाचयति ॥ Different fruits are said to result from the appearances of these portents, according to the nature of their colour, position &c.
उद्धरणम्, उद्धारः producing fire by the friction of two araṇis.
taking out, before sun-rise, the sacred fire from its cover of ashes previous to a sacrifice. -उपस्थानम् worship of Agni; the Mantra or hymn with which Agni is worshipped (अग्निरुपस्थीयते$नेन) अग्निस्त्रिष्टुभ् उपस्थाने विनियोगः Sandhyā.-एधः [अग्निमेधयति] an incendiary. -कणः; -स्तोकः a spark. -कर्मन् n. [अग्नौ कर्म स. त.]
action of fire.
oblation to Agni, worship of Agni (अग्निहोत्र); so ˚कार्य offering oblations to fire, feeding fire with ghee &c.; निर्वर्तिताग्निकार्यः K.16.; ˚र्यार्धदग्ध 39, Ms.3.69, अग्निकार्यं ततः कुर्यात्सन्ध्ययोरुभयोरपि । Y.1.25. -कला a part (or appearance) of fire; ten varieties are mentioned धूम्रार्चिरुष्मा ज्वलिनी ज्वालिनी विस्फु- लिङ्गिनी । सुश्री: सुरूपा कपिला हव्यकव्यवहे अपि ॥ यादीनां दश- वर्णानां कला धर्मप्रदा अमूः ।). -कारिका [अग्निं करोति आधत्ते करणे कर्तृत्वोपचारात् कर्तरि ण्वुल्]
the means of consecrating the sacred fire, the Ṛik called अग्नीध्र which begins with अग्निं दूतं पुरो दधे. 2. = अग्निकार्यम्. -काष्ठम् अग्नेः उद्दीपनं काष्ठं शाक ˚त.] agallochum (अगुरु) -कुक्कुटः [अग्नेः कुक्कुट इव रक्तवर्णस्फुलिङ्गत्वात्] a firebrand, lighted wisp of straw. -कुण्डम [अग्नेराधानार्थं कुण्डम्] an enclosed space for keeping the fire, a fire-vessel.
कुमारः, तनयः; सुतः N. of Kārttikeya said to be born from fire; Rām.7. See कार्त्तिकेय.
a kind of preparation of medicinal drugs. -कृतः Cashew-nut; the plant Anacardium occidentale. [Mar.काजू] -केतुः [अग्नेः केतुरिव]
N. of two Rākṣasas on the side of Rāvaṇa and killed by Rāma. -कोणः -दिक् the south-east corner ruled over by Agni; इन्द्रो वह्निः पितृपतिर्नौर्ऋतो वरुणो मरुत् । कुबेर ईशः पतयः पूर्वादीनां दिशां क्रमात् ॥ -क्रिया [अग्निना निर्वर्तिता क्रिया, शाक. त.]
obsequies, funeral ceremonies.
branding; भेषजाग्निक्रियासु च Y.3.284. -क्रीडा [तृ. त.] fire-works, illuminations. -गर्भ a. [अग्निर्गर्भे यस्य] pregnant with or containing fire, having fire in the interior; ˚र्भां शमीमिव Ś 4.3. (र्भः) [अग्निरिव जारको गर्भो यस्य]
N. of the plant Agnijāra.
the sun stone, name of a crystal supposed to contain and give out fire when touched by the rays of the sun; cf Ś2.7.
the sacrificial stick अरणि which when churned, gives out fire.
(र्भा) N. of the Śamī plant as containing fire (the story of how Agni was discovered to exist in the interior of the Śamī plant is told in chap. 35 of अनु- शासनपर्व in Mb.)
N. of the earth (अग्नेः सकाशात् गर्भो यस्यां सा; when the Ganges threw the semen of Śiva out on the Meru mountain, whatever on earth &c. was irradiated by its lustre, became gold and the earth was thence called वसुमती)
N. of the plant महा- ज्योतिष्मती लता (अग्निरिव गर्भो मध्यभागो यस्याः सा) [Mar. माल- कांगोणी] -ग्रन्थः [अग्निप्रतिपादको ग्रन्थः शाक. त.] the work that treats of the worship of Agni &c. -घृतम् [अग्न्युद्दीपनं घृतं शाक. त.] a kind of medicinal preparation of ghee used to stimulate the digestive power. -चित् m. अग्निं चितवान्; चि-भूतार्थे क्विप् P.III.2.91] one who has kept the sacred fire; यतिभिः सार्धमनग्निमग्निचित् R.8.25; अध्वरे- ष्वग्निचित्वत्सु Bk.5.11. -चयः, -चयनम्, -चित्या. arranging or keeping the sacred fire (अग्न्याधान); चित्याग्निचित्ये च P.III.1.132.
(-यः, -यनः) the Mantra used in this operation.
a heap of fire-चित्वत् [अग्निचयनम् अस्त्यस्मिन् मतुप्; मस्य वः । तान्तत्वान्न पद- त्वम् Tv.] having अग्निचयन or अग्निचित्. -चूडः A bird having a red tuft. -चर्णम् gunpowder. कार्यासमर्थः कत्यस्ति शस्त्रगोलाग्निचूर्णयुक् Śukranīti 2.93. -ज, -जात a. produced by or from fire, born from fire.
(जः, जातः) N. of the plant अग्निजार (अग्नये अग्न्युद्दीपनाय जायते सेवनात् प्रभवति).
N. of Kārttikeya पराभिनत्क्रौञ्चमिवाद्रिमग्निजः Mb.8.9. 68.3. Viṣṇu. (-जम्, -जातम) gold; so ˚जन्मन्. -जित् m. God; Bhāg.8.14.4. -जिह्व a.
having a fiery tongue.
one having fire for the tongue, epithet of a God or of Visṇu in the boar incarnation. (-ह्वा)
a tongue or flame of fire.
one of the 7 tongues of Agni (कराली धूमिनी श्वेता लोहिता नीललोहिता । सुवर्णा पद्मरागा च जिह्वा: सप्त विभावसोः
N. of a plant लाङ्गली (अग्नेर्जिह्वेव शिखा यस्याः सा); of another plant (जलपिप्पली) or गजपिप्पली (विषलाङ्गला) (Mar. जल-गज पिंपळी)
ज्वाला the flame or glow of fire.
[अग्नेर्ज्वालेव शिखा यस्याः सा] N. of a plant with red blossoms, chiefly used by dyers, Grislea Tomentosa (Mar. धायफूल, धायटी). -तप् a. [अग्निना तप्यते; तप्-क्विप्] having the warmth of fire; practising austerities by means of fire. -तपस् a. [अग्निभिः तप्यते]
practising very austere penance, standing in the midst of the five fires.
glowing, shining or burning like fire (तपतीति तपाः अग्निरिव तपाः) hot as fire -तेजस् a. having the lustre or power of fire. (अग्नेरिव तेजो यस्य). (-स् n.) the lustre of fire. (-स् m.) N. of one of the 7 Ṛiṣis of the 11th Manvantara. -त्रयम् the three fires, See under अग्नि. -द a. [अग्निं दाहार्थं गृहादौ ददाति; दा. -क.]
giving or supplying with fire
tonic, stomachic, producing appetite, stimulating digestion.
incendiary; अग्निदान् भक्तदांश्चैव Ms.9.278; अग्निदानां च ये लोकाः Y.2.74; so ˚दायक, ˚दायिन्. यदग्निदायके पापं यत्पापं गुरुतल्पगे. Rām.2.75.45. -दग्ध a.
burnt on the funeral pile; अग्निदग्धाश्च ये जीवा ये$प्यदग्धाः कुले मम Vāyu. P.
burnt with fire.
burnt at once without having fire put into the mouth, being destitute of issue (?); (pl.) a class of Manes or Pitṛis who, when alive, kept up the household flame and presented oblations to fire. -दमनी [अग्निर्दम्यते$नया; दम्-णिच् करणे ल्युट] a narcotic plant, Solanum Jacquini. [Mar. रिंगणी] -दातृ [अग्निं विधानेन ददाति] one who performs the last (funeral) ceremonies of a man; यश्चाग्निदाता प्रेतस्य पिण्डं दद्यात्स एव हि. -दीपन a. [अग्निं दीपयति] stimulating digestion, stomachic, tonic. -दीप्त a. [तृ. त्त.] glowing, set on fire, blazing (-प्ता) [अग्निर्जठरानलो दीप्तः सेवनात् यस्याः सा] N. of a plant ज्योतिष्मती लता (Mar. मालकांगोणी), which is said to stimulate digestion.-दीप्तिः f. active state of digestion. -दूत a. अग्निर्दूत इव यस्मिन् यस्य वा] having Agni for a messenger, said of the sacrifice or the deity invoked; यमं ह यज्ञो गच्छत्यग्निदूतो अरंकृतः Rv.1.14.13. -दूषितः a. branded. -देवः [अग्नि- रेव देवः] Agni; a worshipper of Agni. -देवा [अग्निर्देवो यस्याः] the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades (कृत्तिका).-द्वारम् the door on the south-east of a building; पूर्व- द्वारमथैशाने चाग्निद्वारं तु दक्षिणे । Māna.9.294-95. -धानम् [अग्निर्धियते$स्मिन्] the place or receptacle for keeping the sacred fire, the house of अग्निहोतृ; पदं कृणुते अग्निधाने Rv. 1.165.3. -धारणम् maintaining the sacred fire; व्रतिनां ˚णम् K. 55. -नयनम् = ˚प्रणयनम्. -निर्यासः [अग्नेर्ज- ठरानलस्येव दीपको निर्यासो यस्य] N. of the plant अग्निजार.-नेत्र a. [अग्निर्नेता यस्य] having Agni for the leader or conveyer of oblations, an epithet of a god in general.
पदम् the word Agni.
N. of a plant.-परिक्रि-ष्क्रि-या care of the sacred fire, worship of fire, offering oblations; गृहार्थो$ग्निपरिष्क्रिया Ms.2.67. -परिच्छदः the whole sacrificial apparatus; गृह्यं चाग्निपरिच्छदम् Ms.6. 4. -परिधानम् enclosing the sacrificial fire with a kind of screen. -परीक्षा [तृ. त.] ordeal by fire. -पर्वतः [अग्निसाधनं पर्वतः] a volcano; महता ज्वलता नित्यमग्निमेवाग्नि- पर्वतः Rām.5.35.43. -पुच्छः [अग्नेः अग्न्याधानस्थानस्य पुच्छ इव]. tail or back part of the sacrificial place; the extinction of fire. -पुराणम् [अग्निना प्रोक्तं पुराणम्] one of the 18 Purāṇas ascribed to Vyāsa. It derives its name from its having been communicated originally by Agni to the sage Vasiṣṭha for the purpose of instructing him in the two-fold knowledge of Brahman. Its stanzas are said to be 145. Its contents are varied. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of Kings and the art of war, a chapter on law, some chapters on Medicine and some treatises on Rhetoric, Prosody, Grammar, Yoga, Brahmavidyā &c. &c. -प्रणयनम् bringing out the sacrificial fire and consecrating it according to the proper ritual. -प्रणिधिः Incendiary. Dk.2.8. -प्रतिष्ठा consecration of fire, especially the nuptial fire. -प्रवेशः; -शनम [स. त.] entering the fire, self-immolation of a widow on the funeral pile of her husband. -प्रस्कन्दनम् violation of the duties of a sacrificer (अग्निहोमाकरण); ˚परस्त्वं चाप्येवं भविष्यसि Mb.1.84.26. -प्रस्तरः [अग्निं प्रस्तृणाति अग्नेः प्रस्तरो वा] a flint, a stone producing fire. -बाहुः [अग्ने- र्बाहुरिव दीर्घशिखत्वात्]
N. of a son of the first Manu; Hariv. N. of a son of Priyavrata and Kāmyā. V. P.
बीजम् the seed of Agni; (fig.) gold (रुद्रतेजः समुद्भूतं हेमबीजं विभावसोः)
N. of the letter र्. -भम [अग्नि- रिव भाति; भा-क.]
'shining like fire,' gold.
N. of the constellation कृत्तिका. -भु n. [अग्नेर्भवति; भू-क्विप् ह्रस्वान्तः]
gold. -भू a. [अग्नेर्भवतिः भू-क्विप्] produced from fire.
(भूः) 'fire-born,' N. of Kārttikeya.
N. of a teacher (काश्यप) who was taught by Agni.
(arith.) six. -भूति a. produced from fire. (-तिः) [अग्निरिव भूतिरैश्वर्यं यस्य] N. of a pupil of the last Tīrthaṅkara. (-तिः) f. the lustre or might of fire. -भ्राजस् a. Ved. [अग्निरिव भ्राजते; भ्राज्-असुन्] shining like fire. अग्निभ्राजसो विद्युतः Ṛv.5.54.11. -मणिः [अग्नेरुत्थापको मणिः शाक. त.] the sunstone. -मथ् m. [अग्निं मथ्नाति निष्पादयति; मन्थ्-क्विप्- नलोपः]
the sacrificer who churns the fuel-stick.
the Mantra used in this operation, on the अरणि itself.-मन्थः, -न्थनम्, producing fire by friction; or the Mantra used in this operation. (-न्थः) [अग्निर्मथ्यते अनेन मन्थ्-करणे घञ्] N. of a tree गणिकारिका (Mar. नरवेल) Premna Spinosa (तत्काष्ठयोर्घर्षणे हि आशु वह्निरुत्पद्यते), -मान्द्यम् slowness of digestion, loss of appetite, dyspepsia. -मारुतिः अग्निश्च मरुच्च तयोरपत्यं इञ् ततो वृद्धिः इत् च; द्विपदवृद्धौ पृषो. पूर्वपदस्य ह्रस्वः Tv.] N. of the sage Agastya. -मित्रः N. of a king of the Śunga dynasty, son of Puṣypamitra who must have flourished before 15 B. C. -the usually accepted date of Patañjali-as the latter mentions पुष्यमित्र by name. -मुखः a. having Agni at the head. (-खः) [अग्निर्मुखमिव यस्य]
a deity, god, (for the gods receive oblations through Agni who is, therefore, said to be their mouth; अग्निमुखा वै देवाः; अग्निर्मुखं प्रथमं देवतानाम् &c.; or अग्निर्मुखे अग्रे येषाम्, for fire is said to have been created before all other gods.)
[अग्निर्मुखं प्रधानमुपास्यो यस्य] one who maintains the sacred fire (अग्निहोतृद्विज)
a Brāhmaṇa in general (अग्निर्दाहकत्वात् शापाग्निर्मुखे यस्य for Brāhmaṇas are said to be वाग्वज्राः).
N. of two plants चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica and भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium अग्निरिव स्पर्शात् दुःखदायकं मुखमग्रम् यस्य, तन्निर्यासस्पर्शेन हि देहे क्षतोत्पत्तेस्थयोस्तथात्वम्)
a sort of powder or चूर्ण prescribed as a tonic by चक्रदत्त
'firemouthed, sharp-biting, an epithet of a bug. Pt. 1. (-खी) अग्निरिव मुखमग्रं यस्याः; गौरादि-ङीष्]
N. of a plant भल्लातक (Mar. बिबवा, भिलावा) and लाङ्गलिका (विषलाङ्गला).
N. of the Gāyatri Mantra (अग्निरेव मुखं मुखत्वेन कल्पितं यस्याः सा, or अग्नेरिव मुखं प्रजापतिमुखं उत्पत्ति- द्वारं यस्याः, अग्निना समं प्रजापतिमुखजातत्वात्; कदाचिदपि नो विद्वान् गायत्रीमुदके जपेत् । गायत्र्याग्निमुखी यस्मात्तस्मादुत्थाय तां जपेत् ॥ गोभिल).
a kitchen [पाकशाला अग्निरिव उत्तप्तं मुखं यस्याः सा]. -मूढ a. [तृ. त.] Ved. made insane or stupefied by lightning or fire. -यन्त्रम् A gun अग्नियन्त्रधरैश्चक्रधरैश्च पुरुषैर्वृतः Śivabhārata 12.17. -यानम् An aeroplane. व्योमयानं विमानं स्यात् अग्नियानं तदेव हि । अगस्त्यसंहिता. -योगः See पञ्चाग्निसाधन. अग्नियोगवहो ग्रीष्मे विधिदृष्टेन कर्मणा । चीर्त्वा द्वादशवर्षाणि राजा भवति पार्थिवः ॥ Mb.13.14,2.43. -योजनम् causing the sacrificial fire to blaze up.
रक्षणम् consecrating or preserving the sacred (domestic) fire or अग्निहोत्र.
[अग्निः रक्ष्यते अनेन अत्र वा] a Mantra securing for Agni protection from evil spirits &c.
the house of an अग्निहोतृ. -रजः, -रजस् m. [अग्निरिव रज्यते दीप्यते; रञ्ज्-असुन् नलोपः]
a scarlet insect by name इन्द्रगोप.
(अग्नेः रजः) the might or power of Agni.
gold. Mb.3. 16.86.7 -रहस्यम् mystery of (worshipping &c.) Agni; N. of the tenth book of Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. -राशिः a heap of fire, burning pile. -रुहा [अग्निरिव रोहति रुह्-क] N. of the plant मांसादनी or मांसरोहिणी (तदङ्कुरस्य वह्नितुल्य- वर्णतया उत्पन्नत्वात्तथात्वं तस्याः). -रूप a. [अग्नेरिव रूपं वर्णो यस्य] fire-shaped; of the nature of fire. -रूपम् the nature of fire. -रेतस् n. the seed of Agni; (hence) gold. -रोहिणी [अग्निरिव रोहति; रुह्-णिनि] a hard inflammatory swelling in the armpit. -लोकः the world a Agni, which is situated below the summit of Meru; in the Purāṇas it is said to be in the अन्तरिक्ष, while in the Kāśī Khaṇḍa it is said to be to the south of इन्द्रपुरी; एतस्या दक्षिणे भागे येयं पूर्दृश्यते शुभा । इमामर्चिष्मतीं पश्य वीतिहोत्रपुरीं शुभाम् ॥ -वधूः Svāhā, the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Agni -वर्चस् a. [अग्नेर्वर्च इव वर्चो यस्य] glowing or bright like fire. (n.) the lustre of Agni. (-m.) N. of a teacher of the Purāṇas. -वर्ण a. [अग्नेरिव वर्णो यस्य] of the colour of fire; hot; fiery; सुरां पीत्वा द्विजो मोहादग्निवर्णां सुरां पिबेत् Ms.11.9; गोमूत्रमग्निवर्णं वा पिबेदुदकमेव वा 91.
(र्णः) N. of a prince, son of Sudarśana.
N. of a King of the solar race, See R.19.1. the colour of fire. (-र्णा) a strong liquor. -वर्धक a. stimulating digestion, tonic.
(कः) a tonic.
regimen, diet (पथ्याहार).-वल्लभः [अग्नेर्वल्लभः सुखेन दाह्यत्वात्]
the Śāla tree, Shorea Robusta.
the resinous juice of it. -वासस् a. [अग्निरिव शुद्धं वासो यस्य] having a red (pure like Agni) garment. (n.) a pure garment. -वाह a. [अग्निं वाहयति अनुमापयति वा]
a goat. -वाहनम् a goat (छाग). -विद् m.
one who knows the mystery about Agni.
an अग्निहोत्रिन् q. v. -विमोचनम् ceremony of lowering the sacrificial fire. -विसर्पः pain from an inflamed tumour, inflammation.
विहरणम्, विहारः taking the sacrificial fire from आग्नीध्र to the उत्तरवेदि.
offering oblations to fire; प्रत्यासन्ना ˚वेला K.348.
वीर्यम् power or might of Agni.
gold. -वेतालः Name of Vetāla (connected with the story of Vikramāditya). -वेशः [अग्नेर्वेश इव] N. of an ancient medical authority (चरक). -वेश्मन् m. the fourteenth day of the karma-ṃāsa; Sūryaprajñapti.
वेश्यः N. of a teacher, Mbh.
Name of the 22nd muhūrta; Sūryapraj- ñapti. धौम्य cf. Mb 14.64.8. -शरणम्, -शाला-लम् a fire-sanctuary; ˚मार्गमादेशय Ś.5; a house or place for keeping the sacred fire; ˚रक्षणाय स्थापितो$हम् V.3.-शर्मन् a. [अग्निरिव शृणाति तीव्रकोपत्वात् शॄ-मनिन्] very passionate. (-m.) N. of a sage. -शिख a. [अग्नेरिव अग्निरिव वा शिखा यस्य] fiery, fire-crested; दहतु ˚खैः सायकैः Rām.
(खः) a lamp.
a rocket, fiery arrow.
an arrow in general.
(खा) a flame; शरैरग्निशिखोपमैः Mb.
N. of two plants लाङ्गली (Mar. वागचबका or कळलावी) Gloriosa Superba; of other plants (also Mar. कळलावी) Menispermum Cordifolium. -शुश्रूषा careful service or worship of fire. -शेखर a. fire-crested. (-रः) N. of the कुसुम्भ, कुङ्कुम and जाङ्गली trees (-रम्) gold, -शौच a. [अग्नेरिव शौचं यस्य] bright as fire; purified by fire K.252. -श्रीa. [अग्नेरिव श्रीर्यस्य] glowing like fire; lighted by Agni-ष्टुत्, -ष्टुभ, -ष्टोम &c. see ˚ स्तुत्, ˚स्तुभ् &c.
ष्ठम् kitchen; अग्निष्ठेष्वग्निशालासु Rām.6.1.16.
a fire-pan.-संयोगाः explosives. Kau. A.2.3. -ष्वात्तः see स्वात्तः
संस्कारः consecration of fire.
hallowing or consecrating by means of fire; burning on the funeral pile; यथार्हं ˚रं मालवाय दत्वा Dk.169; नास्य कार्यो$ग्निसंस्कारः Ms.5.69, पितरीवाग्निसंस्कारात्परा ववृतिरे क्रियाः । R.12.56.
सखः; सहायः the wind.
the wild pigeon (smokecoloured).
smoke. -सम्भव a. [प. ब.] sprung or produced from fire.
(वः) wild safflower.
lymph, result of digestion. (-वम्) gold. -साक्षिक [अग्निः साक्षी यत्र, कप्] a. or adv. keeping fire for a witness, in the presence of fire; पञ्चबाण˚ M.4.12. ˚मर्यादो भर्ता हि शरणं स्त्रियाः H.1.v. l, R.11.48. -सारम् [अग्नौ सारं यस्य अत्यन्तानलोत्तापनेपि सारांशादहनात् Tv.] रसाञ्जन, a sort of medical preparation for the eyes. (-रः -रम्) power or essence of fire. -सुतः Kārttikeya; त्वामद्य निहनिष्यामि क्रौञ्चमग्निसुतो यथा । Mb.7.156.93. -सूत्रम् a thread of fire.
a girdle of sacrificial grass (मौञ्जीमेखला) put upon a young Brāhmaṇa at the time of investiture.-सूनुः (See -सुतः), (सेनानीरग्निभूर्गुहः । Amar.); देव्यङ्कसंविष्ट- मिवाग्निसूनुम् । Bu. ch.1.67.
स्तम्भः stopping the burning power of Agni.
N. of a Mantra used in this operation.
N. of a medicine so used.-स्तुत् m. (अग्निष्टुत्) [अग्निः स्तूयते$त्र; स्तु-आधारे क्विप् षत्वम्] the first day of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice; N. of a portion of that sacrifice which extends over one day; यजेत वाश्वमेधेन स्वर्जिता गोसवेन वा । अभिजिद्विश्वजिद्भ्यां वा त्रिवृता- ग्निष्टुतापि वा ॥ Ms.11.74. -स्तुभ् (˚ष्टुभ्) m. [अग्निः स्तुभ्यते$त्र; स्तुभ्-क्विप् षत्वम्]
N. of a son of the sixth Manu. -रतोमः (˚ष्टोमः) [अग्नेः स्तोमः स्तुतिसाधनं यत्र]
N. of a protracted ceremony or sacrificeial rite extending over several days in spring and forming an essential part of the ज्योतिष्टोम.
a Mantra or Kalpa with reference to this sacrifice; ˚मे भवो मन्त्रः ˚मः; ˚मस्य व्याख्यानम्, कल्पः ˚मः P.IV.3.66. Vārt.
N. of the son of the sixth Manu.
a species of the Soma plant; ˚सामन् a part of the Sāma Veda chanted at the conclusion of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice. -सावर्णिः Name of Manu. -स्थ a. (ष्ठ) [अग्नौ स्थातुमर्हति; स्था-क षत्वम्] placed in, over, or near the fire. (ष्ठः) an iron frying-pan; in the अश्वमेध sacrifice the 11th Yūpa which of all the 21 is nearest the fire. -स्वात्तः (written both as ˚स्वात्त and ˚ष्वात्त) (pl.) [अग्नितः i. e. श्राद्धीयविप्रकर- रूपानलात् सुष्ठु आत्तं ग्रहणं येषां ते] N. of a class of Pitṛs or Manes who, when living on earth, maintained the sacred or domestic fires, but who did not perform the Agniṣṭoma and other sacrifices. They are regarded as Manes of Gods and Brāhmaṇas and also as descendants of Marīchi; Ms.3.195. अग्निष्वात्ताः पितर एह गच्छत Tsy.184.108.40.206. (मनुष्यजन्मन्यग्निष्टोमादियागमकृत्वा स्मार्तकर्मनिष्ठाः सन्तो मृत्वा च पितृत्वं गताः इति सायणः).-हुत्, -होतृ Ved. sacrificing to Agni, having Agni for a priest; Rv.1.66.8. -होत्रम् [अग्नये हूयते$त्र, हु-त्र, च. त.]
an oblation to Agni (chiefly of milk, oil and sour gruel.).
maintenance of the sacred fire and offering oblation to it; (अग्नये होत्रं होमो$स्मिन् कर्मणीति अग्निहोत्रमिति कर्मनाम); or the sacred fire itself; तपोवनाग्निहोत्रधूमलेखासु K.26. होता स्यात् ˚त्रस्य Ms.11.36. ˚त्रमुपासते 42; स्त्रीं दाहयेत् ˚त्रेण Ms.5.167,6.4, दाहयित्वाग्निहोत्रेण स्त्रियं वृत्तवतीम् Y.1.89. The time of throwing oblations into the fire is, as ordained by the sun himself, evening (अग्नये सायं जुहुयात् सूर्याय प्रातर्जुहुयात्). Agnihotra is of two kinds; नित्य of constant obligation (यावज्जीवमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति) and काम्य occasional or optional (उपसद्भिश्चरित्वा मासमेकमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति). (-त्र) a. Ved.
destined for, connected with, Agnihotra.
sacrificing to Agni. ˚न्यायः The rule according to which the नित्यकर्मन्s (which are to be performed यावज्जीवम्) are performed at their stipulated or scheduled time only, during one's life time. This is discussed and established by जैमिनि and शबर at Ms.6. 2.23-26. in connection with अग्निहोत्र and other कर्मन्s. ˚हवनी (णी) a ladle used in sacrificial libations, or अग्निहोत्रहविर्ग्रहणी ऋक् Tv.; See हविर्ग्रहणी; ˚हुत् offering the अग्निहोत्र; ˚आहुतिः invocation or oblation connected with अग्निहोत्र. -होत्रिन् a. [अग्निहोत्र-मत्वर्थे इनि]
one who practises the Agnihotra, or consecrates and maintains the sacred fire.
one who has prepared the sacrificial place. -होत्री Sacrificial cow; तामग्निहोत्रीमृषयो जगृहु- र्ब्रह्मवादिनः Bhāg.8.8.2.
अग्नि m. ( अग्Un2. )fire , sacrificial fire (of three kinds , गार्हपत्य, आहवनीय, and दक्षिण)
अग्नि m. the number three Su1ryas.
अग्नि m. the god of fire , the fire of the stomach , digestive faculty , gastric fluid
अग्नि m. bile L.
अग्नि m. gold L.
अग्नि m. N. of various plants Semicarpus Anacardium Sus3r. , Plumbago Zeylanica and Rosea , Citrus Acida
अग्नि m. mystical substitute for the letter र्
अग्नि m. in the कातन्त्रgrammar N. of noun-stems ending in इand उ([ cf. Lat. igni-s ; Lith. ugni-s ; Slav. ognj]).
(I)--the God of Fire also known as हुताशन, हव्यवाहन and Vahni. फलकम्:F1: भा., I. १५. 8; Br., III. १०. २४-35.फलकम्:/F A place sacred to Agni in the Sara- स्वती which Vidura visited. फलकम्:F2: भा., III. 1. २२.फलकम्:/F स्वाहा and her three sons are deities presiding over Agni. फलकम्:F3: Ib. IV. 1. ६०.फलकम्:/F One of the gods with power to confer boons or pronounce curse on the world, curse on elephants. फलकम्:F4: Ib. IV. १४. २६-27; Br. III. 7, ३५२.फलकम्:/F On the tail of शिशुमार. फलकम्:F5: भा., V. २३. 5; Br. II. २३. १०४.फलकम्:/F Invested by the माया of भगवान्, Agni does not sometimes understand his will and work. फलकम्:F6: भा., VI. 3. १४. १५.फलकम्:/F A guardian of the world. फलकम्:F7: Ib., VIII. १०. २६.फलकम्:/F The mouth of Hari as embodying all Vedas. फलकम्:F8: Ib. VIII. १६. 9.फलकम्:/F Is pleased with a devotee of Hari. फलकम्:F9: Ib. X. ४१. १३.फलकम्:/F Even the powerful Agni could not digest ब्राह्मन्'s property when misappropriated. फलकम्:F१०: Ib. X. ६४. ३२.फलकम्:/F Identified with Hari. फलकम्:F११: Ib. XI. १६. १३.फलकम्:/F Swallowed the seed of शिव borne by गङ्गा as a punishment for disturbing उमा's union with the Lord, and unable to digest it, he discharged it into a bush of reeds (शरकानन) where it became कुमार. फलकम्:F१२: Ib. IV. 7. ६४; VI. 6. १४; Br. IV. १५. २१; २०. ४६; २६. ५३.फलकम्:/F Goes round Dhruva. फलकम्:F१३: भा., IV. 9. २१.फलकम्:/F Pre- sented आजगव bow to पृथु. फलकम्:F१४: Ib. IV. १५. १८.फलकम्:/F Married a daughter of दक्ष. फलकम्:F१५: Ib. IV. 1. ४८.फलकम्:/F Worshipped in कुशद्वीप. फलकम्:F१६: Ib. V. २०. 2.फलकम्:/F His son was Manu स्वारोचिष. फलकम्:F१७: Ib. VIII. 1. १९.फलकम्:/F Fought with Puloma in a देवासुर war, फलकम्:F१८: Ib. VIII. १०. ३१;फलकम्:/F fol- lowed Indra's army against कृष्ण who took away पारिजात from heaven. Beaten by कृष्ण, he escaped alive from the field. फलकम्:F१९: Ib. X. [६५ (V) ४०]; [६६ (V) २७-31].फलकम्:/F His town visited by Arjuna in search of a dead child of a ब्राह्मन् of द्वारका. फलकम्:F२०: Ib. X. ८९. ४४.फलकम्:/F
(II)--a लोकपाल: Gold pleasing to Agni; worship of; फलकम्:F1: M. २२५. १३; २६६. २०, ६३.फलकम्:/F burning women and children in Tripura, he pleaded that he was not a free agent, but only carrying out orders. फलकम्:F2: M. १८८. २९-57.फलकम्:/F The वम्श of Agni. The succession of fires and their descendants detailed in Ch. ५१ of the मत्स्य पुराण। फलकम्:F3: Cf. Mhb. Vana: २२०. 4.फलकम्:/F The भागवत पुराण mentions ४९ Agnis. पावक, पवमान [page१-011+ २७] and शुचि and their ४५ sons together with स्वाहा. All invoked in sacrifices. फलकम्:F4: भा. IV. 1. ६०-62; 7, १६.फलकम्:/F Another classification of fires: दिव्यम्, भौ- तिकम् or अब्योनि, and पार्थिवम्। फलकम्:F5: Br. II. २४. 6; २१. ५३. ५६; वा. ५३. 5.फलकम्:/F
(III)--one of the eight Vasus, and a son of Vasu. Wife वसोर्द्धार. द्रविणक and others are sons. फलकम्:F1: भा., VI. 6. ११, १३.फलकम्:/F Identi- fied with Hari. फलकम्:F2: Ib. XI. १६. १३; M. 8. 4.फलकम्:/F
(IV)--married विकेशि. Father of ऊर्ज्ज clan of apsaras and also of Nala and अङ्गारक, who afterwards became a planet. Br. II. २४. ९१; III. 7. २१, २२९.
(V)--an आत्रेय, and one of the seven sages of तामस epoch. Br. II. ३६. ४७; M. 9. १५; वा. ६२. ४१.
(VI)--a son of आग्नेयी and ऊरु: His daughter Suc- छाया married शिष्ट, son of Dhruva: आर्षेय pravara. M. 4. ३८, ४३; १९६. 9.
(VII)--अलिअस् ऋत; son of Samvatsara; फलकम्:F1: Br. II. १३. २३.फलकम्:/F married स्वाहा, a daughter of दक्ष. फलकम्:F2: वा. 1. ७६; Br. II. 9. ५६; १२. 1.फलकम्:/F
(VIII)--a Marut gana of that name. M. १७१. ५२. [page१-012+ ३२]
(IX)--The eldest son and mindborn son of ब्रह्मा in स्वायम्भुव antara; फलकम्:F1: वा. २९. 1; Vi. I. १०. १४.फलकम्:/F of ब्रह्मा's tapas; फलकम्:F2: वा. २१. ६३-4.फलकम्:/F one of the eight तनुस् of महादेव, फलकम्:F3: वा. २७. ३५.फलकम्:/F hymns to; फलकम्:F4: वा. २१. ७१ff.फलकम्:/F gave rise to a family of ४९ fires. फलकम्:F5: Vi. I. १०. १५-7.फलकम्:/F
(X)--(भूतपति) one Agni made into three by Aila to attain the Gandharva loka in the त्रेतायुग. The Gandharvas presented him with a pot of Agni which he took to his city to perform sacrifices. He placed it on the अरणि when an अश्वत्थ appeared to his surprise. When Aila informed Gandharvas the latter asked him to turn the अश्वत्थ thrice and get three fires with which to sacrifice. वा. ९१. ४८: १०१. २१.
(XI)--see अनिल। Vi. I. १५. ११४.
(XII)--a महापुराण (also आग्नेय). Vi. III. 6. २२.
1) Genealogy. Agni was descended from Viṣṇu in this order: Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Aṅgiras-Bṛhaspati-Agni.
2) Birth. We come across several contradictory state- ments in the Purāṇas regarding the birth of Agni. There is some real difficulty, therefore, in tracing correctly the true genealogy of Agni. The one given above is based on statements in Bhāgavata and Mahābhārata. Aṅgiras is one of the six mind-born sons of Brahmā.(** Manas=Mind. Putra=Son. Mānasa-putras are sons created from the mind of Brahmā, Śloka 10, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.**) Aṅgiras married Śraddhā and got four daughters and two sons. Bṛhaspati was one of the sons and Utatthya was the other. The daughters were Sinīvālī, Kuhū, Rākā and Anumati. (There is a mention of a third son named Saṁvarta in the Bhāgavata by Eluthassan though the original quoted below does not say so)
Śraddhā tu aṅgirasaḥ patnī
Sinīvālī Kuhū Rākā
Utatthyo bhagavān sākṣāt
Bṛhaspati married Cāndramasī and got six divine sons.
Of these Saṁyu, the eldest, married Satyā and Agni was born to Saṁyu of Satyā. (Ślokas 1 to 4, Chapter 219, Āraṇya Kāṇḍa of Malayālam Mahābhārata).
3) Agni--One of the Aṣṭa-dik-pālakas. (Aṣṭa=eight, dik=zone, pālaka=guardian). The Devī Bhāgavata states in its eighth chapter that Agni is one of the eight guards posted at the eight different zones to protect the universe. Indra guards the east; Agni, the south- east; Yama the south; Nirṛti, the south-west; Varuṇa, the west; Vāyu, the north-west; Kubera, the North and Śiva, the north-east. The place where Agni sits on guard is known as tejovatī.
4) Agni--One of the five elements. The universe is be- lieved to be composed of five elements of which Agni is one. The other four are Water, Earth, Ether and Air.
5) The story of how Agni gave a Māyā Sītā (Phantom Sītā) to Śrī Rāma. During their exile in the forests Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa were for some time living in an āśrama built on the shores of the ocean. One day Agni disguised as a Brāhmin approached them and said “O, Śrī Rāma, thou art born to kill the demon Rāvaṇa and save the world from his atrocities. Sītā is going to be a cause for that. Time is not far for you to finish this duty of yours. Rāvaṇa is soon to come and kidnap your wife, Sītā. You must, therefore, allow me to play a trick on Rāvaṇa. Entrust Sītā with me and I shall keep her safe. In her place here you can keep a Māyā Sītā. (Phantom Sītā) which will be a live rep- lica of your real wife. In the end when you take back Sītā after killing Rāvaṇa you will be compelled to throw your wife into the fire to test her chastity. At that time I will take back the replica and give you back your real wife”. Śrī Rāma was very much pleased to hear this. Agni then, by his yogic powers created a Phantom Sītā and gave her to him. Rāma kept this as a secret even from Lakṣmaṇa. In the great Rāma-Rāvaṇa battle Rāvaṇa was killed and Śrī Rāma took back Sītā to his kingdom. Then respecting public opinion and wishing to establish in public the purity of his queen King Śrī Rāma put her into the fire. At that moment Agni took back the replica and gave back the real Sītā to Śrī Rāma. Sītā thus came out from the fire unscathed. Later, on the advice of Rāma and Agni, the Phantom Sītā went to the sacred place Puṣkara and started doing tapas (penance) there. After doing tapas for a long period of three lakhs of divine years this Phantom Sītā became known as Svargalakṣmī. It was this Svargalakṣmī that later on in the Dvāpara yuga came out from the yajña kuṇḍa of King Pāñcāla as Pāñcālī and became the consort of the Pāṇḍavas. Vedavatī, daughter of Kuśadhvaja in Kṛtayuga, Sītā, daughter of Janaka in the Treta yuga, and Pāñcālī, daughter of Drupada in Dvāpara yuga are one and the same person. On account of this she is known as trihāyanī also. (Chapter 9 of Devī Bhāgavata).
6) The story of how Agni got indigestion. In olden times there was a bold and mighty King called Śvetaki. He conducted several different types of yajña. Afflicted by the unending dense smoke in the yajña hall all the ascetics left the place and went their way. Undaunted by this, Śvetaki started another twelve-year sacrifice in which not a single sage took part. The sages rebuked him and said if he wanted to conduct a sacrifice again he could invite śūdras to help him. (Śūdras belong to the lowest caste among Hindus and are not allow- ed to participate in sacrifices generally.) Enraged by this insult Śvetaki went to Kailāsa and did fierce penance. Lord Śiva appeared before him and gave him Durvāsas as a priest for his yajña. For twelve years sage Durvāsas performed the yajña pouring into the mouth of Agni through the sacrificial pit un- limited materials of food. Agni was overfed and he got indigestion. He lost all appetite for food, be- came weak and the brilliance of his face faded. (Chapter 235, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
7) The story of how Agni burnt the big forest, Khāṇḍava. When the indigestion continued without abate for some time Agni approached Brahmā and asked for a cure. Brahmā declared that his indigestion would be cured if Agni could burn the huge forest, Khāṇḍava, the abode of the enemies of the Devas. Agni immediately started consuming the forest. But the inhabitants of the forest soon quenched the fire. Disappointed Agni went to Brahmā again and the latter advised him to wait for some time till the advent of Nara-Nārāyaṇas to that forest. They would then help Agni to burn the forest. Agni waited for the time to come. At that time the Pāṇḍavas were living in Indraprastha with Śrī Kṛṣṇa. When the heat became unbearable there Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa came to the banks of river Yamunā. Hearing about the arrival of Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna who were none but the incarnations of Nārāyaṇa and Nara, Agni dis- guised as a brahmin approached them and requested them to help him to burn the Khāṇḍava forest. Agni added that any attempt of his to burn the forest was always foiled by Indra who would send a heavy down- pour of rain to quench the fire because Takṣaka, an intimate friend of Indra, was living there.
To gain his end Agni gave Arjuna an arrow-case which would never be empty, a chariot bearing a monkey flag, four white horses adorned with gold chains and also the famous Gāṇḍīva bow. To Śrī Kṛṣṇa he gave the cakrāyudha or the divine wheel-weapon. (All these military equipments were once given to Agni by Varuṇa.) When all these were given to them Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna got ready to help Agni to burn the forest. Agni started burning the forest, Indra at once sent a heavy downpour of rain and Arjuna created a canopy of arrows above the forest preventing the rains from falling on the forest. Agni carried on his work undisturbed, the forest was burnt and Agni was cured of his indigestion. (Ślokas 233 to 239, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
8) Agni falls in love. As an inaugural procedure to the great Rājasūya which Dharmaputra performed at Indraprastha his four brothers Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva conducted a victory march to the four different sides of the kingdom. Sahadeva who turned south conquered many kings including Dantavaktra and Bhīṣmaka and reached a country called Māhiṣmatī- pura. There he had to encounter a powerful king called Nīla. Before long there broke a fire in his camp. Disheartened, Sahadeva prayed to the God, Agni, for help. It was then that Sahadeva came to know about the ties between Agni and Nīla.
King Nīla had a beautiful daughter named Sudarśanā. Once when she was talking to her father after having entered the Agni-hotra Agni fell in love with her. From that day onwards Agni became dreamy about the beautiful lips of Sudarśanā. It reached a stage when Agni would burn only if it was blown by the lips of Sudarśanā. This ended in Agni marrying Sudarśanā. After the marriage Agni lived in the palace of his father-in-law, King Nīla, as a useful ally. It was at this time that Sahadeva came to conquer Nīla. But Agni knew that for the proper conduct of the Rājasūya of Dharmaputra his father-in-law had to surrender to Sahadeva and so advised his father-in-law to do so. What appeared to be a difficult problem was thus easily solved. (Chapter 31, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).
9) How Emperor Śibi was tested by Agni. Once Agni and Indra thought of testing how strong and deep was the sense of charity in Emperor Śibi. Indra took the shape of a hawk and Agni that of a dove and the dove flew and dropped down into the lap of the Emperor who was at that time doing a yāga. The hungry hawk came chasing its prey and finding the dove in the lap of the Emperor said: “O King, is it proper on your part to withhold my food from me, and keep it in your lap?” Hearing this Śibi replied: “This dove has sought refuge in me. It is my duty to give it protection. If it is only food you want I shall give you food.” Śibi then offered many things including his kingdom to the hawk in return for the dove. But the hawk refused them all and finally agreed to accept an equal weight of flesh from the body of the Emperor. Śibi without any hesitation cut a portion of his thigh and weighed it against the dove in a scale. The dove weighed more and the Emperor started putting more and more flesh from his body to make the weight equal. But the dove always weighed more and at last the Emperor said he would weigh himself against the dove. As the weak and fleshless Emperor was about to get into the pan of the scale Agni and Indra emerged from the bodies of the dove and hawk and appeared before the Emperor. They blessed him and immediately took him to heaven. (Chapter 131, Vana Parva, M.B.).
10) Agni and the testicles of a goat. The occasion is when sage Viśvāmitra is taking Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to the forests to give protection to the sages against the de- mons. They reached the place where Ahalyā lay as a stone cursed by Gautama. Viśvāmitra told them the story: “It was here that the great sage, Gautama, lived with his beautiful consort, Ahalyā. Once Indra had an intercourse with her privately and Gautama coming to know of the misdeed cursed her and turned her into stone. By the curse of the same sage Indra lost his testicles. Greatly aggrieved by this loss Indra prayed to god Agni for help and on the advice of Agni the devas removed the deformity by placing a goat's testi- cles instead.” (Ślokas 48 & 49, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
11) How sage Bhṛgu cursed Agni. Sage Bhṛgu was living with his wife Pulomā in his āśrama. Pulomā became pregnant. One day when Bhṛgu wanted to go out for a bath in the river he asked Agni to keep a watch over his pregnant wife. There was a demon by name Puloma who was once in love with Pulomā. On this particular day Puloma entered the āśrama to see his former love. When he entered the āśrama Puloma saw Agni there burning with a brilliant flame in the fire-pit. Puloma said: “O God of fire, if I ask you a question you must give me an impartial reply. I was in love with this Pulomā and I had accepted her as my wife spiritually. But, then, her father gave her to Bhṛgu. Who, then, is the true owner of Pulomā?” Agni was afraid of Bhṛgu. Yet he explained the posi- tion honestly. “It is true that Pulomā has married Bhṛgu. But he has not married her according to Hindu rites.” Hearing this the demon changed himself into the shape of a swine and carried away Pulomā. On the way Pulomā delivered a male babe and it fell on the ground. The boy was named Cyavana. It was this boy that became later on the famous Cyavana Maha- rṣi. Even at birth the boy was brilliant as the Sun to look at and Puloma, the demon, noticing the un- usual brilliance of the child left the mother and child on the way and fled frightened. Pulomā returned to the āśrama carrying the child weeping profusely all the way and creating a lanchrymal river called Vadhū- saras. As soon as she entered the āśrama the angry sage asked “Who told Puloma that you are my wife?” Pulomā then told her husband all that happened there and Bhṛgu called Agni and cursed him thus: “May you be a consumer of all things on this Earth”. Great- ly aggrieved Agni went away and hid himself. The absence of Agni created chaos in all the three worlds; Heaven, Earth and the Nether-world. A deputation of all the afflicted people waited upon Brahmā and Brahmā modified the curse and declared that all that Agni touched would become pure. Agni was consoled and he started his work as usual.
12) How Agni cursed frogs, birds and elephants. Many important events took place while Agni was under- ground cursed by Bhṛgu. It was during that time that Pārvatī cursed all the Devas and the Devas were defeated by the asuras (demons). The necessity of a warrior capable of defeating the asuras arose then. The idea of creating Lord Subrahmaṇya came up and Brahmā said that only Agni could help them in this matter since Agni was the only one who escaped from the curse of Pārvatī, being underground at the time of the curse. The Devas started a vigilant search but Agni was not to be found. Agni was then hiding inside the ocean. The ocean was getting hot and the animals living there found their life unbearable. Frogs went to the devas and told them where Agni was hiding. Enraged at this Agni cursed the frogs saying that they would never be able to find the taste of anything. Frogs went weeping to the devas who in turn blessed the frogs saying that they would acquire the ability to move about easily in any darkness. Agni changed his place of hiding and went and hid in a big banyan tree. An elephant going by that way found him out and informed the devas; knowing this Agni cursed the elephants saying that its tongue would go deep inside. But the devas blessed the elephants saying that the position of the tongue would never be a hindrance to free eating and that elephants would be able to eat anything and everything. Agni left the banyan tree and hid himself in the hollow of a Śamī tree. A little bird living in that tree gave information to the devas and the devas found him out before he got time to leave the place. Agni cursed the bird saying that its tongue would always be curved inside and the devas blessed it saying that the curvature would help it to sing beautiful songs. Since Agni was found out from Śamī tree this tree became sacred. Since this finding out of Agni after a long absence is like a re-birth of Agni the Purāṇas mention that Agni was born from the Śamī tree. The Devas then requested Agni to help them to create a son capable of conquering the de- mons.(** Kathāsaritsāgara gives another version of why Agni went and hid himself under the ocean. When Kāma, the God of Love, was burnt to death by Śiva, Pārvatī, Śivā's wife, did not find a way to get a child for her from her husband. At last Brahmā approached Śiva and told him that the absence of Kāma was making creation difficult. Śiva then declared that thereafter Kāma would find a place in the minds of all living beings including himself. Pārvatī and Śiva immediately commenced a sexual life which went on incessantly for a hundred years with- out reaching the climax. The world was agitated and the universe stood on the verge of ruin. The Devas decided to send Agni to intervene But Agni was afraid of Śiva and so went and bid himself under the ocean. (Chapter 6, Lāvāṇakalambaka of Kathāsaritsāgara).**) (Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
13) Birth of Subrahmaṇya. At that time Varuṇa performed a yāga. All the dikpālakas (zone guardians of the universe) including Śiva participated in the yāga. Seeing the beautiful wives of the sages Śiva had emission. Taking the semen in his hand he put it into the fire. Agni carried it to Gaṅgā and requested her to take it for conception. Though she at first refused she took it, became pregnant and finally delivered a male child whom she threw into the forest Śaravaṇa. It was this child who became known as Kārttikeya or Subrah- maṇya later on. (Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
14) How Agni blessed Nala. While Nala was going to the wedding of Damayantī Indra, Agni, Varuṇa and Kāla accosted him on his way and asked him to go as a messenger of theirs and advise Damayantī to marry one of them. Nala did so but Damayantī was adamant and said she would marry none other than Nala. So all the four gods appeared as Nala in the wedding hall. Damayantī who was confused prayed that she should be shown the real Nala. The gods then changed into their original forms and blessed Nala. Agni said he would come and help him the moment he wanted him. Thus Nala became a good cook and Nala Pācakaṁ (Pācakaṁ=cooking) became famous. Even now it is a synonym for good cooking. (Chapter 57, Vana Parva, M.B)
15) Agni and Raṁbhā. There was once a dānava called Danu. He had two sons named Raṁbha and Karaṁ- bha. They had no children and tormented by this they went to Pañcanada and started doing penance. Raṁbha sat in the centre of Pañcāgni (five fires) and Karaṁbha in water to do penance. Indra afraid of the severe and powerful tapas of the two took the form of a crocodile and killed Karaṁbha who was doing pe- nance in water by dragging him down to the water. Be- reaved Raṁbha started to commit suicide by jumping into the fire. God Agni appeared before him then and asked him what he wanted. Raṁbha then said that he should get a son who would be famous as a warrior in all the three worlds. Agni agreed. Raṁbha on his way back saw a voluptuous she-buffalo and married her at yakṣa kavāṭa. They lived a happy married life and one day a he-buffalo envious of their life attacked Raṁbha and killed him. Grief-stricken Raṁbha's wife jumped into the funeral pyre and committed suicide. Then from the fire arose a demon named Mahiṣāsura (Mahiṣa=Buffalo. Asura=Demon). This buffalo- demon became a terror to all in the three worlds later on. (Chapter 5, Devī Bhāgavata).
16) Difference of opinion between Agni and Aṅgiras. Bhaga- vān Aṅgiras did penance in his own āśrama and became more brilliant than Agni. The whole world was submerged in his brilliance. Agni felt a bit depress- ed at this. Agni argued that it was not proper on the part of Brahmā to give anybody else more brilliance than himself. So as a protest against this Agni dis- appeared from the world. Even Aṅgiras was annoyed at Agni's disappearance and so he went and consoled Agni and took him to Brahmā. Brahmā declared that hence- forth the world world recognize Agni as the father and Aṅgiras as his son. Thus Agni got the first place in effulgence. This is a story told by sage Mārkaṇḍeya to Dharmaputra. (Chapter 217, Vana Parva, M.B.).
17) Agni and Mahābali. On their way to the forest sage Viśvāmitra took Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to Siddhāśrama. The sage explained to the princes the importance of that āśrama. He said: “Mahāviṣṇu lived in this āśrama for a number of years. It was at that time that the Emperor of the asuras (demons), Mahābali, son of Virocana, was ruling the world conquering even the devas. After having conquered all the three worlds Mahābali decided to conduct a yāga. A deputation of the Devas headed by Agni then waited upon Mahā- viṣṇu and Agni said: “O Lord, Mahābali has com- menced a yāga and before it is finished you should go to him and do something for the benefit of the devas”. It was at this request of Agni that Mahāviṣṇu took the form of Vāmana and sent Mahābali to the nether-world. (Chapter 29, Bālakāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
18) Agni and Nahuṣa. Repenting for his act of killing Vṛtra Indra unknown to anybody went and hid in a lotus in the Mānasa Saras (Lake Mānasa). Perplexed by the disappearance of their leader the devas brought Nahuṣa from the Earth and made him their leader. Nahuṣa became very proud and arrogant of his new position and tried to make Indrāṇī his wife. Indrāṇī went to Bṛhaspatī for help. Bṛhaspati commanded Agni to go and find out Indra. Agni searched for him in forests, rivers and oceans. At last he went to Mānasa Saras and searched among the lotuses. There he found Indra hiding in a lotus and Bṛhaspati was duly informed. Then Bṛhaspati gave Indrāṇī some clever directions to kill Nahuṣa and Nahuṣa was killed. (See Agastya). There is a story in Śānti Parva, Chapter 28, of how Agni took for himself a quarter of the sin which Indra acquired because of his killing Vṛtra, a brahmin by birth. (Chapter 14, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).
19) Agni Deva and Kārttavīryārjuna. After the great Kurukṣetra battle the Pāṇḍavas went again to Kuru- kṣetra along with Śrī Kṛṣṇa. On their way Kṛṣṇa showed them the Paraśurāmahradas and narrated to them several stories of Rāma. Reference to Agni comes when Kṛṣṇa explains the reason why Paraśurāma cut off the thousand hands of Kārttavīryārjuna. It was at the time when Kārttavīryārjuna was ruling the three worlds by his might that Agni went and asked for alms from him. Kārttavīrya gave Agni mountains and forests for his food which Agni burnt and ate. In one of the forests was the āśrama of sage Āpava and that also was burnt. Enraged at this the sage cursed Kārtta- vīrya saying that his thousand hands would be cut off by Paraśurāma. Though the curse was not seriously minded by the King then, it so happened that before long Kārttavīrya had to encounter Paraśurāma in a battle when the children of the King stole a sacrificial cow belonging to Jamadagni, father of Paraśurāma. In the battle all the thousand hands of Kārtta- vīryārjuna were cut off by Paraśurāma. (Chapter 43, Śānti Parva, M.B.).
20) How Agni was duped. Once the wives of the Sapta- ṛṣis (seven Saints) attended a yāga where Agni was also present. Agni fell in love with them but knowing it to be futile to make any attempt to fulfil his desire he went to the forests dejected. Svāhādevī, daughter of Dakṣa was for a long time craving to marry Agni and she decided to take advantage of the opportunity thus offered. Disguising herself as the wife of Aṅgiras, one of the seven saints, she approached Agni and said: “O Lord, I am Śivā, wife of Aṅgiras. We were all excited when you darted cupids' arrows against us and they have now selected me to come to you for fulfilling your desire”. Agni believed her and took her as his consort. (Chapters 223 to 227 of Vana Parva, M.B.).
21) How Agni became a doctor. There was once a sage called Dattātreya who had a son called Nimi. Nimi had a son and he died after thousand years. The bereaved sage performed a Śrāddha which was attend- ed by all devas. The feast was so sumptuous that the devas got indigestion after that. Consulting Brahmā Agni prescribed a remedy for their indigestion. He said: “whenever you take any food make me also a partici- pant in that. If you do so you will never get indiges- tion”. That is why a very small portion of any cooked food is first thrown into the fire before given for eat- ing. This story is part of Bhīṣma's oration to Dharma- putra on the origin of Śrāddha (The ceremony con- ducted on the anniversary of the death of a person by his son). (Chapter 92, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
22) How Agni became a horse. There was once a precep- tor named Āveda. He got a disciple named Uttaṅga. One day Āveda left his āśrama for a distant place leaving his disciple in charge of the management of the āśrama. The preceptor was absent for a long time and his wife started making love to Uttaṅga. The dutiful disciple strongly objected to this. When Uttaṅga com- pleted his course of study under Āveda he enquired what he should give to his preceptor. The preceptor directed him to his wife. The wife who bore a grudge against Uttaṅga resolved to tease him and said that he should go to King Pauṣya and beg of him the earrings worn by his wife. Uttaṅga started immediately and getting the earrings was coming back when on the way Takṣaka wrested the ornament from him and went and hid in the nether-world. Uttaṅga followed Takṣaka and there Agni in the form of a horse appear- ed before him and asked Uttaṅga what he wanted. He replied that he wanted to subdue all the serpents in the nether-world. Agni then advised him to blow thro' the nostrils of the horse. As he did so flames burst forth from all the openings of the horse making the nether- world hot and smoky. Takṣaka was frightened and he at once gave back the earrings to Uttaṅga. Uttaṅga was again worried for he had very little time to carry the earrings to the preceptor in time. Here again Agni helped him by carrying him swiftly on his back to the āśrama. When the preceptor and his wife found that Uttaṅga had carried out their wish they blessed him. (Chapter 3, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
23) Agni becomes a messenger. Once there arose a mis- understanding between Bṛhaspati and Saṁvarttaka, sons of Aṅgiras. Bṛhaspati went to devaloka as priest while the other remained in the world as a mad saint. At that time a King called Marutta invited Bṛhaspati to officiate as priest for a yajña of his. But Bṛhaspati refused to accept it. Nārada saw Marutta in despair and told him thus: “You go to Kāśī (Benares) and there at Puradvāra place a dead body and wait there. Saṁvarttaka, Bṛhaspati's brother will come and repri- mand you. Without minding his scoldings follow him and request him to become the chief priest for your yāga. He will then ask you who advised you to do like this. Tell him that Nārada did so and if he asks where he could find Nārada do tell him that Nārada is hiding inside Agni”. Hearing this Marutta went to Kāśī and did all as directed. Saṁvartta agreed to be- come the priest but wanted Marutta to bring some gold from Kailāsa before that. Marutta brought that also and the yajña started. Bṛhaspati when he came to know of all these developments became sorry for his refusal first and decided to become the priest of Marutta for his yāga. It was Agni who carried this message of consent to King Marutta. Thus Marutta's yajña was performed in a grand way. (Chapter 9, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.).
24) Agni takes back the Gāṇḍīva. At the time of Khāṇḍava dahana (burning of Khāṇḍava forest) Agni gave Arjuna the famous Gāṇḍīva bow which Varuṇa had given him. After the great Mahābhārata battle Agni took back this bow from Arjuna. The Pāṇḍavas at the fag end of their life started on a pilgrimage to the south with their consort Pāñcālī. Marching along slowly they reached the shores of Aruṇa Samudra (Aruṇa Ocean). Arjuna had with him then the Gāṇḍīva and also the arrow-case which never becomes empty. When they reached the shores of the ocean Agni blocked their way standing before them in the form of a huge mountain and said, “O Arjuna I am god Agni. It was I who gave this famous Gāṇḍīva bow to you. The bow belongs to Varuṇa. So please throw it into the ocean and proceed on your way”. On hearing this Arjuna threw both the bow and the arrow-case into the ocean and continued the march. (Ślokas 33 to 43, Chapter 1, Mahāprasthānika Parva, M.B.).
25) Additional information about Agni, the God of fire.
1) Svāhādevī, wife of Agni, gave birth to three sons, named Dākṣiṇam, Gārhapatyam and Āhavanīyam. (Chapter 9, Devī Bhāgavata).
2) Agni, the God of fire, got three sons by his wife Svāhādevī named Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuci. These three sons had all together fortyfive sons. These forty- five grandsons, three sons and Agni himself constitute the fortynine Fires mentioned in the purāṇas (Aṅgira- saṁ).
3) Nīla, the monkey, is born of Agni. (Sarga 41, Chapter Kiṣkindhā, Rāmāyaṇa).
4) Dhṛṣṭadyumna, the great archer, was born of Agni. (Śloka 126, Chapter 67, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
5) Subrahmaṇya was born as the son of Agni. (Chapter 225, Vana Parva, M.B.).
6) Agni, the God of fire, loved all prajāpatis like his sons. (Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
7) The sage, Bhṛgu, was born from Agni. (Śloka 8, Chapter 5, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
8) All Devatās are Agni himself. (Śloka 109, Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
9) God Agni loved God Skanda more than anybody else. (Chapter 226, Vana Parva, M.B.).
10) At the time when Śrī Rāma after killing Rāvaṇa was putting Sītā to a purity test by throwing her into the fire, Agni witnessed that Sītā had done no wrong and was pure and chaste as before. (Śloka 28, Chapter 201, Vana Parva, M.B.).
11) In the beginning Brahmā created the universe. There was no death then and the Earth became over- crowded. Brahmā got worried and he sent fire from his body to burn all beings. The world was on the verge of extinction when Lord Śiva intervened and requested Brahmā to withdraw Agni and create the god of Death. (Chapter 52, Droṇa Parva. M.B.).
12) Agni is one of the Aṣṭa Vasūs which are eight in number. The others are: Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Pratyuṣa and Prabhāsa. (Chapter 15, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).
13) Śuci, son of Agni, born of Svāhādevī is Baḍavāgni himself. (Chapter 20, Agni Purāṇa).
14) The God, Agni, uses a spear as his weapon and the vehicle he uses is a goat. (Chapter 51, Agni Purāṇa).
15) The sage, Agastya, converted the Viṣṇu idol at the Kuttālam temple into one of Śiva and when people around started an agitation Agastya sent forth flames of fire through his eyes. (Asura Kāṇḍa of Skānda Purāṇa).
16) Agni was born to Pururavas as a son named Jāta- vedas. (Chapter 14, Navama Skandha of Bhāgavata).
17) The Devas wanted help to clean their hands when oblated materials stuck to their hands and Agni creat- ed from water three sons named Ekata, Dvita and Trita for this purpose. Of these Trita fell into a well while drawing water. Seeing him fall the demons closed the well but Trita broke the top and came out. (Sūkta 52, Anuvāka 10, Maṇḍala 1 of Ṛgveda).
18) Once the earth looked like heaven because of the innumerable celestial beings who came to earth in search of Agni. (Sūkta 65, Anuvāka 12, Maṇḍala 1 of Ṛg- veda).
19) The Sun hands over his effulgence to Agni in the evening and takes it back from him in the morning. (A fact from Śruti--Sūkta 71, Anuvāka 12, Maṇḍala 1 of Ṛgveda).
20) For making fire for the sacrificial ceremony the sages use two Araṇi sticks (These are two pieces of wood, one upper and another lower, and fire is produced by attrition). It is believed that the sages get the strength to produce fire from it through Vyāna, one of the forms of Vāyu (air). So Ṛgveda describes Agni as the son of Vāyu. (Sūkta 112, Anuvāka 16, Maṇḍala 1).
21) In the times of the Ṛgveda Agni was worshipped as a God. (Sūkta 1, Anuvāka 1, Maṇḍala 1, Ṛgveda).
22) Lord Śiva entered into an elaborate and long conjugal play for creating Subrahmaṇya. Hundred years went by and still the preliminaries never ended. The universe was on the verge of a collapse and so the devas decided to send Agni to put a stop to this libidinal play of Śiva. But Agni was afraid of Śiva and therefore absconded and hid himself in the ocean. The ocean became hot and the water-animals unable to bear the increasing heat went and informed the devas of Agni's hiding place. Agni cursed them all saying that all of them would go dumb. He then went to the Mandara mountain in the shape of an owl and hid there. But the devas went there also and picked him up. Agni then by his terrible heat stimulated Śiva into action. Śiva threw his semen into Agni and Agni poured it into Gaṅgā and Gaṅgā delivered a child which later on be- came Subrahmaṇya. (Taraṅga 6, Lāvāṇakalaṁbaka of Kathāsaritsāgara).
26) Conclusion. Agni stands next to Indra in impor- tance in the Vedas. Because Agnī was indispensable for yāgas the care of Agni became very important. Accord- ing to the Ṛgveda the birth of Agni is different. Born of the clouds Agni reaches the earth as lightning. Then Agni forsakes its form and becomes invisible. It was Mātariśvā who gave form to Agni and gave him to the Bhṛgu family. From that day onwards it became possible to produce fire and the Ṛgveda describes how Agni is produced by sages by the use of Araṇi sticks. The main job of Agni is to receive the oblations from devas when they conduct yāgas.
27) Synonyms of Agni. Agnirvaiśvānaro' Vahniḥ
Ścitrabhānurvibhāvasuḥ Śucirappittamaurvastu Bāḍavo Baḍavānalaḥ Vahnerdvayorjvālakīlā- Varcirhetiḥ śikhā striyām Triṣu sphuliṅgognikaṇaḥ Kṣantāpaḥ Sajvaraḥ samau Ulkāsyānnirgata jvālā Bhūtir Bhasita Bhasmanī Kṣāro rakṣā ca dāvastu Davo vanahutāśaṅaḥ. (Amarakośa)
1) Agni, Vaiśvānaraḥ, Vahniḥ, Vītihotra, Dhanañjaya, Kṛpīṭayoni, Jvalana, Jātavedas, Tanūnapāt, Barhis, Śūṣmā, Kṛṣṇavartmā, Sociṣkeśa, Uṣarbhudha, Aśra- yāśa, Bṛhadbhānu, Kṛśānu, Pāvaka, Anala, Rohitāśva, Vāyusakha, Sikhāvān, Āśuśukṣaṇi, Hiraṇyaretas, Huta- bhuk, Dahana, Havyavāhana, Saptārcis, Damuna, Śukra, Citrabhānu, Vibhāvasu, Śuci, Appitta.
2) Baḍavāgni: Aurva, Bāḍava, Baḍavānala.
3) Agnijvālā: Jvalā, Kīla, Arcis, Heti, Sikhā. (Flame)
4) Sparks: Sphuliṅga, Agnikaṇa.
5) Heat: Santāpa, Sajvara.
6) Firebrand: Ulkā.
7) Ashes: Bhūti, Bhasita, Bhasma, Kṣāra, Rakṣa.
8) Wild-fire: Dāva, Dava, Vanahutāśana.
*4th word in right half of page 10 (+offset) in original book.