विकिशब्दकोशः तः



पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

तुर्वश¦ पु॰ नृपभेदे।
“त्वमाविथ नर्य्यं तुर्वशं यदुम्” ऋ॰

१ ।

५४ ।

६ ।
“नर्य्यादीन् हि राज्ञः” भा॰।
“उत त्या तुर्व-शायदू अस्नातारा शचीपतिः” ऋ॰

४ ।

३० ।

१७ ।


पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

तुर्वश m. N. of a hero and ancestor of the Aryan race (named with यदु; du. तुर्वशा यदू, " -T तुर्वand -Y यदु" , iv , 30 , 17 ; pl. -T तुर्व's race) RV.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

TURVAŚA : A King extolled in the Ṛgveda. Narya, Turvaśa and Turvīti were contemporaries. (Sūkta 54, Maṇḍala 1, Ṛgveda).

*2nd word in right half of page 799 (+offset) in original book.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।

Turvaśa occurs frequently in the Rigveda as the name of a man or of a people, usually in connexion with Yadu. The two words usually occur in the singular without any connecting particle, Turvaśa Yadu or Yadu Turvaśa.[१] In a plural form the name Turvaśa occurs once with the Yadus,[२] and once alone[३] in a hymn in which the singular has already been used. In one passage[४] the dual Turvaśā-Yadū actually occurs, and in another[५] Yadus Turvaś ca, ‘Yadu and Turva.’ In other passages[६] Turvaśa appears alone, while in one[७] Turvaśa and Yādva occur.

From these facts Hopkins[८] deduces the erroneousness of the ordinary view,[९] according to which Turvaśa is the name of a tribe, the singular denoting the king, and regards Turvaśa as the name of the Yadu king. But the evidence for this is not conclusive. Without laying any stress on the argument based on the theory[१०] that the ‘five peoples’ of the Rigveda are the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, Yadus, and Pūrus, it is perfectly reasonable to hold that the Turvaśas and Yadus were two distinct though closely allied tribes. Such they evidently were to the seers of the hymns which mention in the dual the Turvaśā-Yadū and speak of Yadus Turvaś ca. This explanation also suits best the use of the plural of Turvaśa in two Rigvedic hymns.

In the Rigveda the chief exploit of Turvaśa was his participation in the war against Sudās, by whom he was defeated.[११] Hopkins[१२] suggests that he may have been named Turvaśa because of his fleet (tura) escape from the battle. His escape(** 1 i. 36, 18; 54, 6; 174, 9; vi. 20, 12; 45, 1; viii. 4, 7; 7, 18; 9, 14; 45, 27; x. 49, 8. In vii. 18, 6, Turvaśa is joined with Yakṣu, apparently a contemptuous variant of Yadu (Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 15, 261). Cf. Tṛtsu. may have been assisted by Indra, for in some passages[१३] Indra's aid to Turvaśa (and) Yadu is referred to; it is also significant that the Anu, and apparently the Druhyu, kings are mentioned as having been drowned in the defeat, but not the Turvaśa and Yadu kings, and that Turvaśa appears in the eighth book of the Rigveda as a worshipper of Indra with the Anu prince, the successor, presumably, of the one who was drowned.[१४] Griffith,[१५] however, proposes to refer these passages to a defeat by Turvaśa and Yadu of Arṇa and Citraratha on the Sarayu;[१६] but the evidence for this is quite inadequate.

Two passages of the Rigveda[१७] seem to refer to an attack by Turvaśa and Yadu on Divodāsa, the father of Sudās. It is reasonable to suppose that this was an attack of the two peoples on Divodāsa, for there is some improbability of the references being to the Turvaśa, who was concerned in the attack on Sudās, the son.

Zimmer[१८] considers that the Turvaśas were also called Vṛcīvants. This view is based on a hymn[१९] in which reference is made to the defeat of the Vṛcīvants on the Yavyāvatī and Hariyūpīyā in aid of Daivarāta, and of Turvaśa in aid of Sṛñjaya, the latter being elsewhere[२०] clearly the son of Devarāta. But as this evidence for the identification of the Turvaśas with the Vṛcīvants is not clear, it seems sufficient[२१] to assume that they were allies.

Later, in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,[२२] the Turvaśas appear as allies of the Pañcālas, Taurvaśa horses, thirty-three in number, and armed men, to the number of 6,000, being mentioned.[२३] But otherwise the name disappears: this lends probability to Oldenberge's conjecture[२४] that the Turvaśas became merged in the Pañcāla people. Hopkins[२५] considers that in the Śatapatha passage the horses were merely named from the family of Turvaśa; but this view is less likely, since it ignores the difficulty involved in the reference to the men.

It is impossible to be certain regarding the home of the Turvaśas at the time of their conflict with Sudās. They apparently crossed the Paruṣṇī,[२६] but from which side is disputed. The view of Pischel[२७] and Geldner,[२८] that they advanced from the west towards the east, where the Bharatas were (see Kuru), is the more probable.

  1. v. 31, 8.
  2. i. 108, 8.
  3. viii. 4, 18;
    singular with Ānava in viii. 4, 1.
  4. iv. 30, 17.
  5. x. 62, 10. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 166;
    Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 42, 220, n. 1.
  6. i. 4, 77;
    vi. 27, 7. Cf. viii. 4, 1.
  7. vii. 19, 8.
  8. Op. cit., 258 et seq.
  9. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 122, 124;
    Oldenberg, Buddha, 404;
    Ludwig, op. cit., 153;
    Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 64;
    Sanskrit Literature, 153 et seq., etc.
  10. Zimmer, 122, 124;
    Macdonell, 153, 154.
  11. vii. 18, 6.
  12. Op. cit., 264.
  13. Rv. i. 174, 9;
    iv. 30, 17;
    v. 31, 8;
    viii. 4, 7.
  14. Hopkins, 265.
  15. Hymns of the Rigveda, 1, 433, n.
  16. The hymn is a late one, and the connexion of verse 18, where Arṇa and Citraratha are mentioned, is obscure. Cf. Hopkins. 259.
  17. vi. 45, 1;
    ix. 61, 2 (where Divodāsa is mentioned);
    vii. 19, 8 (where he appears as Atithigva).
  18. Op. cit., 124.
  19. vi. 27, 5-7.
  20. iv. 15, 4.
  21. Oldenberg, Buddha, 404, n. Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 1, 105.
  22. xiii. 5, 4, 16.
  23. The sense is obscure. The St. Petersburg Dictionary takes it apparently as 6,033 horses (of armed warriors);
    Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 44, 400, prefers to understand it as 33 horses and 6,000 men;
    Oldenberg, loc. cit., takes it as 6,033 warriors. Harisvāmin's Commentary, cited by Eggeling, is obscure.
  24. Buddha, 404.
  25. Op. cit., 258, n. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 220.
  26. Rv. vii. 18.
  27. Vedische Studien, 2, 218, Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 126.
  28. Vedische Studien, 3, 152. If in Rv. viii. 20, 24, 1 rvaśa is read with Ludwig for tūrvath hey are connected with the Sindhu.

    Cf. Oldenberg, Religion des Veda, 167;
    Muir, Sanskrit Text, 5, 286;
    Bergaigne, Religion Védique, 2, 354 et seq.
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