पुराण

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पुराणम्, क्ली, (पुरा भवमिति । पुरा + “सायं- चिरंप्राह्णेप्रगेऽव्ययेभ्यष्ट्युट्युलौ तुट् च ।” ४ । ३ । २३ । इति ट्युः । “पूर्ब्बकालैकसर्व्वजरत्पुराणनव- केवलाः समानाधिकरणेन ।” २ । १ । ४९ । इति निपातनात् तुडभावः । यद्वा, “पुराणप्रोक्तेषु ब्राह्मणकल्पेषु ।” ४ । ३ । १०५ । इति निपा- तितः । यद्वा, पुरा नीयते इति । नी + ड । णत्वञ्च ।) व्यासादिमुनिप्रणीतवेदार्थवर्णित- पञ्चलक्षणान्वितशास्त्रम् । तत्पर्य्यायः । पञ्चलक्ष- णम् २ । इत्यमरः । १ । ६ । ५ ॥ पञ्चलक्षणानि यथा, सर्गः १ प्रतिसर्गः २ वंशः ३ मन्वन्तरम् ४ वंशानुचरितम् ५ ॥ महापुराणस्य दश लक्ष- णानि । यथा, सर्गः १ विसर्गः २ वृत्तिः ३ रक्षा ४ अन्तरम् ५ वंशः ६ वंश्यानुचरितम् ७ संस्था ८ हेतुः ९ अपाश्रयः १० ॥ अथाष्टादशमहा- पुराणानि तेषां श्लोकसंख्यानि च तथा । ब्राह्मं दशसहस्रम् १ पाद्मं पञ्चपञ्चाशत्सहस्रम् २ वैष्णवं त्रयोविंशतिसहस्रम् ३ शैवं चतुर्व्विंशति- सहस्रम् ४ भागवतम् अष्टादशसहस्रम् ५ नार- दीयं पञ्चविंशतिसहस्रम् ६ मार्कण्डेयं नवसह- स्रम् ७ आग्नेयं चतुःशताधिकपञ्चदशसहस्रम् ८ भविष्यं पञ्चशताधिकचतुर्द्दशसहस्रम् ९ ब्रह्मवैवर्त्तम् अष्टादशसहस्रम् १० लैङ्गं एका- दशसहस्रम् ११ वाराहं चतुर्व्विंशतिसहस्रम् १२ स्कान्दं शताधिकैकाशीतिसहस्रम् १३ वामनं दशसहस्रम् १४ कौर्म्मं सप्तदशसहस्रम् १५ मात्स्यं चतुर्द्दशसहस्रम् १६ गारुडं ऊन- विंशतिसहस्रम् १७ ब्रह्माण्डं द्वादशसहस्रम् १८ । समुदायेन चतुलक्षश्लोकाः । इति श्रीभागवतीय- द्वादशस्कन्धः ॥ (अपि च देवीभागवते १ स्कन्धे ३ अध्याये तथा मत्स्यपुराणे ५३ अध्याये एतद्विवरणं द्रष्टव्यम् ॥) अपि च । सूत उवाच । “विस्तराणि पुराणानि चेतिहासश्च शौनक ! । संहितां पञ्चरात्राणि कथयामि यथागमम् ॥ सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च । वंशानुचरितं विप्र ! पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ॥ एतदुपपुराणानां लक्षणञ्च विदुर्बुधाः । महताञ्च पुराणानां लक्षणं कथयामि ते ॥ * ॥ तत्तु स्कान्दं समाख्यातम् १३ वामनस्य तु वामनम् ॥ १४ ॥ कौर्म्मं कूर्म्मस्य चरितम् १५ मात्स्यं मत्स्यस्य कीर्त्तितम् । १६ । गरुडस्तु स्वयं वक्ता यत्तद् गारुडसंज्ञ- कम् ॥ १७ ॥ ब्रह्माण्डचरितोक्तत्वात् ब्रह्माण्डं परिकी- र्त्तितम् ॥” १८ ॥ पुराभवः वेदः । सृष्ट्यादिप्रतिपादको ग्रन्थः । यथा, शतपथब्राह्मणे । १४ । ६ । १० । ६ । “ऋग्वेदो यजुर्व्वेदः सामवेदोऽथर्व्वाङ्गिरस इतिहासः पुराणं विद्या उपनिषदः श्लोकाः सूत्राण्यनुव्याख्यानानि व्याख्यानानि ॥” तथा च बृहदारण्यकोपनिषदि । “अस्य महतो भूतस्य निश्वसितमेतद् यदृग्वेदो यजुर्व्वेदः सामवेदोऽथर्व्वाङ्गिरस इतिहासः पुराणम् ॥” “इदं वा अग्रेणव किञ्चिदासीदित्यादिकं जगतः प्रागवस्थामुपक्रम्य सर्गप्रतिपादकं वाक्यजातं पुराणम् ।” इति ऋग्वेदोपोद्घाते ॥ * ॥)

पुराणः, पुं, (पुरा पुर्ब्बस्मिन् काले भव इति । पुरा + “सायंचिरंप्राह्णेप्रगेऽव्ययेभ्यष्ट्युष्ट्युलौ तुट्च ।” ४ । ३ । २३ । इति ष्ट्युः निपातनात् तुडभावः ।) पणः । (शिवः । यथा, महा- भारते । १३ । १७ । १०६ । “बलवांश्चोपशान्तश्च पुराणः पुण्यचञ्चुरी ॥”) पुरातने, त्रि । (यथा, मनुः । ५ । २३ । “बभूवुर्हि पुरोडाशा भक्ष्याणां मृगपक्षिणाम् । पुराणेष्वपि यज्ञेषु ब्रह्मक्षत्रसवेषु च ॥”) कार्षापणे, पुं, क्ली । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ (यथा, मनुः । ८ । १३६ । “ते षोडश स्याद्धरणं पुराणञ्चैव राजतम् । कार्षापणस्तु विज्ञेयस्ताम्रिकः कार्षिकः पणः ॥”)

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पुराण वि।

पुरातनः

समानार्थक:पुराण,प्रतन,प्रत्न,पुरातन,चिरन्तन

3।1।77।1।1

पुराणे प्रतनप्रत्नपुरातनचिरन्तनाः। प्रत्यग्रोऽभिनवो नव्यो नवीनो नूतनो नवः॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पुराण¦ आख्याने कण्ड्वादेराकृतिगणत्वात् यक् पर॰ सक॰सेट्। पुराण्यति अपुराण्यीत्।

पुराण¦ त्रि॰ पुरा भवः ट्यु नि॰ तुट् न, पुरा नीयते नी डवा पूर्व॰ णत्वम्।

१ पुराभवे
“सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशोमन्व॰न्तराणि च। वंशानुचरितञ्चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम्” इत्युक्तलक्षजे व्यासादिप्रणीते

२ शास्त्रभेदे न॰। तज द्विविधं महापुराणोपपुराणभेदात् तत्र उपपुराण-शब्दे गद्भेदादिकमुक्तं महापुराणं च दशलक्षणकम्
“सर्गोऽस्या{??} विसर्गश्च वृनी रक्षान्तराणि च। वंशो-वंक्षानुचरितं संस्या हेतुरपाश्रयः। दशभिर्लक्षणैर्युक्तंपुराणं तद्विदो विदुः। केचित् पञ्चविधं ब्रह्मन्! मह-दल्पव्यवस्थया। अव्याकृतगुणक्षोभान्महतस्त्रिवृतोऽहमः। भूतसूक्ष्मेन्द्रियार्थानां सम्भवः सर्ग उच्यते। पुरुषानु-गृहीतानामेतेषां वासनामयः। विसर्गोऽयं समाहारोवीजाद्बीजं चराचरम्। वृत्तिर्भूतानि भूतानां चराणा-गचराणि च। कृता स्वेन नृणां त्वत्र कामाच्चोदनयापिवा। रक्षाऽच्युतावतारेहा विश्वस्यानुयुगे युगे। तिर्य्यङ्गर्त्यर्षिदेवषु हन्यन्ते यैस्त्रयोद्विषः। मन्वन्तरं मनुर्देवामनुपुत्राः सुरेश्वराः। ऋषयोऽंशावताराश्च हरेः षड्-विधमुच्यते। राज्ञां ब्रह्मप्रसूतीनां वंशस्त्रैकालिकोऽ-न्धयः वंशानुचरितं तेषां वृत्तं वंशधराश्च ये। नैमि-त्तिक्तः प्राकृतिको नित्य आत्यन्तिको लयः। संस्थेतिकबिभि प्रोक्तश्चतुर्द्धाख स्वभावतः। हेतुर्जीवोऽस्य सर्गा-देरविद्याकर्मकारकः। यं चानुशयिनं प्राहुरव्याकृत-मुतापरे। व्यतिरेकान्वयौ यस्य जाग्रत्स्नप्रसुषुप्तिषु। मायामयेषु तद्ब्रह्म जीववृत्तिष्यपाश्रयः। पदार्थेषु[Page4369-b+ 38] तथा द्रव्यं त{??}त्रं रूपनामसु। वीजादिपच्चतान्तासह्यवस्थासु युतायुतम्” भाग॰

१२ ।

७ अ॰। तच्चाष्टादशविधम। विष्णुपुराणे तद्भेदा उक्ता यथा
“अष्टादश पुराणानि पुराणज्ञाः प्रचक्षते। ब्राह्मं पाद्मंवैष्णवञ्च शैवं भागवतं तथा। तथान्यन्नारदीयञ्च मार्क-ण्डेयञ्च सप्तमम्। आग्नेयमष्टमञ्चैव भविष्यं नवमं स्मृ-
“तम्। दशमं ब्रह्मवैवर्त्तं लैङ्गमेकादशं स्मृतम्। वा-राहं द्वादशञ्चैव स्कान्दञ्चैव त्रयोदशम्। चतुर्दशंवामनञ्च कौर्मं पञ्चदशं स्मृतम्। मात्स्यञ्च गारुडञ्चैवब्रह्माण्डञ्च ततःपरम्”। हेमाद्रि॰ व्र॰ उक्तं तेषांश्लोकसंख्यादि तत्तत्पुराणशब्दे दृश्यम्। तेषां तामस-त्वादिभेदाः पद्मपु॰ उत्तरख॰

४३ अ॰ दर्शिता यथा
“मात्स्यं कौर्मं तथा लैङ्गं शैवं स्कान्दं तथैव च। आग्नेयञ्च षडेतानि तामसानि निबोधत”।
“वैष्णवंनारदीयञ्च तथा मागवतं शुभम्। गारुडञ्च तथा पाद्मवाराहं शुभदर्शने!। सात्त्विकानि पुराणानि विज्ञे-यानि शुभानि वै”।
“ब्रह्माण्डं व्रह्मवैवर्त्तं मार्क{??}तथैव च! भविष्यं वामनं ब्राह्मं राजसानि नोबोधत। सात्त्विका मोक्षदा देवि! निर्वाणप्राप्तिहेतवः”। अशीतिवराटकमिते

३ पणे

४ कार्षापणे च पु॰ न॰ शब्दरत्ना॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पुराण¦ r. 1st cl. (पुराण्यति) Legendary tale. यक् पर० सक० सेट् |

पुराण¦ n. (-णं) A Pura4n4a or sacred poetical work, supposed to be compiled or composed by the poet VYA4SA; and comprising the whole body of Hindu theology: each Pura4n4a should treat of five topics especially; the creation, the destruction and renovation of worlds; the genealogy of gods and heroes; the reigns of the Manus, and the transaction of their descendants: but great variety prevails in this respect and few contain historical or genealogical matter. There are eighteen acknowledged Pura4n4as.
1. BRAHMA.
2. P4adma, or the lotus.
3. Brahma4n4da, or the egg of BRAHMA
4.
4. A4gneya, or Agni, fire.
5. VAISHNAVA, or of VISHN4U.
6. Garu- da.
7. Brahmavaivarta, or transformations of BRAHMA4, that is of KRISHN4A, identified with the Supreme.
8. SAIVA, or of S4IVA.
9. Linga.
10. NA4RADI4YA.
11. SKANDA.
12. MA4RKAND4EYA, so called from a Muni of that name.
13. Bhavishyat, or prophetic.
14. Matsya, or the fish.
15. Vara4ha, or boar.
16. Kaurma, or of the Kurma or tortoise.
17. Va4mana, or dwarf.
18. Bha4gavat, or life of KRISHN4A, which last is by some considered as a spurious and modern work: the Brahmavaivarta is also of very modern origin. The Pura4n4as ars reckoned to contain four hundred thousand stanzas: there are also eighteen Upapura4n4as or similar poems of inferior sanctity, and different appellations: the whole constitute the popular or poetical creed of the Hindus, and some of them or particular parts of them, are very generally read, and studied. m. (-णः) A karsha or measure of silver equal to sixteen Panas of Cowries. mfn. (-णः-णा or -णी-णं) Old, ancient. E. पुरा old, and द्यु aff. or पुरा the same, णी to get or be, and ड aff.

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पुराण [purāṇa], a. (-णा, -णी f.) [पुरा नवम् Nir.]

Old, ancient, belonging to olden times; पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वं न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् M.1.2; पुराणपत्रापगमादनन्तरम् R.3.7

Aged, primeval; गृध्रराजः पुराणो$सौ श्वशुरस्य सखा मम Rām.3.53.5; अजो नित्यः शाश्वतो$यं पुराणः Bg.2.2.

Decayed, worn out.

णम् A past event or occurrence.

tale of the past, legend, ancient or legendary history.

N. of certain well-known sacred works; these are 18; these are supposed to have been composed by Vyāsa, and contain the whole body of Hindu mythology. A Purāṇa treats of five topics (or लक्षणानि), and is hence often called पञ्चलक्षण; सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च । वंशानुचरितं चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ॥ For the names of the 18 Purāṇas see under अष्टादशन्. -णः A coin equal to 8 cowries; ते षोडश स्याद् धरणं पुराणश्चैव राजतः Ms.8.136. -Comp. -अन्तः an epithet of Yama.-उक्त a. enjoined by or laid down in the Purāṇas. -कल्पः = पुराकल्प q. v.

गः an epithet of Brahman.

a reciter or reader of the Purāṇas.

पुरुषः an epithet of Viṣṇu.

an old man; यद् वदन्ति चपलेत्यपवादं तन्न दूषणमहो चपलायाः । दोष एष जलधेः पितुरस्या यत् पुराणपुरुषाय ददौ ताम् Subhāṣ.; (where both senses are intended). -प्रोक्तa. proclaimed by ancient sages; P.IV.3.15. -विद्या, -वेदः knowledge of the past events.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पुराण mf( ईor आ)n. belonging to ancient or olden times , ancient , old (also = withered , worn out , opp. to नूतन, नव) RV. etc.

पुराण m. a कर्षor measure of silver (= 16 पणs of cowries) Mn. viii , 136 (also n. L. )

पुराण m. N. of a ऋषिKa1t2h.

पुराण m. pl. the ancients MW.

पुराण n. a thing or event of the past , an ancient tale or legend , old traditional history. AV. etc.

पुराण n. N. of a class of sacred works (supposed to have been compiled by the poet व्यासand to treat of 5 topics [See. पञ्च-लक्षण] ; the chief पुराणs are 18 , grouped in 3 divisions: viz. 1. राजसexalting ब्रह्मा[ e.g. the ब्रह्म, ब्रह्मा-ण्ड, ब्रह्मवैवर्त, मार्कण्डेय, भविष्य, वामन] ; 2. सात्त्विकexalting विष्णु[ e.g. the विष्णु, भागवत, नारदीय, गरुड, पद्म, वराह] ; 3. तामसexalting शिव[ e.g. the शिव, लिङ्ग, स्कन्द, अग्निor in place of it the वायु, मत्स्य, कूर्म] ; by some the -P पद्मare divided into 4 , and by others into 6 groups ; See. IW. 509 etc. )

पुराण n. N. of wk. (containing an index of the contents of a number of -P पद्मand some other works.)

पुराण पुरातनSee. p.635.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


--on measurement of time. Br. II. २१. १३७.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


PURĀṆA :

1) General information. The Amarakośa describes a Purāṇa thus:

Sargaśca pratisargaśca
Vaṁśo manvantarāṇi ca /
Vaṁśānucaritaṁ cāpi
Purāṇam pañcalakṣaṇam //


According to this definition, Purāṇa is one which des- cribes Sarga, Pratisarga, Vaṁśa, Manvantara and Vaṁśānucarita. Among these Sarga and Pratisarga are natural creation and renovation (Cosmogony). Vaṁśa means history of sages and patriarchs. By Man- vantara is meant the period of different Manus. Vaṁśā- nucarita means Genealogy of kings. In the Purāṇas which are current now some of these five divisions are wanting.

Statements about Purāṇas are found even in the Brāhmaṇas. Therefore it is to be surmised that Purāṇas existed even before historic times. Mahābhārata has used the term Purāṇa to mean stories about devas and siddhas. The Upaniṣads say that Purāṇas are itihāsas and as such constitute the fifth Veda. Smṛti says that Purāṇas are commentaries on Vedas. From all these statements it can be gathered that Purāṇas have a hoary past. The great Sanskrit scholar Raṅgācārya has defined Purāṇa as Purā nava (Purā=old; nava =new) meaning things which are as good as new though existing from olden times. Though there are large portions of wide imagination dealing with the human side in the Purāṇas many truths about the universe can be grasped from them. All the Purāṇas contain praises of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara. In most of the Purāṇas of old, new additions and interpo- lations are seen. The Purāṇas in original were in exis- tence before Christ.Ākhyānaiścāpyupākhyānair
Gāthābhiḥ Kalpaśuddhibhiḥ /
Purāṇasaṁhitāṁ cakre
Purāṇārthaviśāradaḥ // (Śloka 15, Chapter 6, Aṁśa 3, Viṣṇu Purāṇa)Aṣṭādaśa Purāṇāni
Kṛtvā Satyavatīsutaḥ /
Bhāratākhyānamakhilaṁ
Cakre tadupabṛṁhaṇam // (Śloka 70, Chapter 53, Matsya Purāṇa)

From the above it can be gathered that it was Vyāsa who composed all the Purāṇas. Bāṇa who lived in the seventh century A.D. speaks about Vāyu Purāṇa. Kumā- rila Bhaṭṭa who lived in the eighth century and Śaṅkarā- cārya who lived in the ninth century speak about the Purāṇas. Purāṇas must have therefore taken their pre- sent forms before the sixth or seventh century A.D.

There are eighteen major Purāṇas and another eighteen minor ones. The major Purāṇas contain over four lakhs of Ślokas. All the Purāṇas are in verses like Mahā- bhārata. But none of them is as good as Mahābhārata as a piece of literature. Still the Purāṇas splendidly reflect the culture of Bhārata. The Purāṇas are the basis of the bulk of Indian thinking on matters social, cultural, religious and political. Even the Indian art has taken form from the Purāṇas. The Purāṇas are classified into three, those pertaining to Brahmā, those pertaining to Viṣṇu and those to Śiva.

2) A. Viṣṇu-based Purānas.

(i) Viṣṇu Purāṇa. This is one of the most important of all the Purāṇas. This contains the five technical divisions of the Purāṇas. This is divided into six aṁśas. This deals with the events of Vārāhakalpa and contains twentythree thousand ślokas. The theme is the ten incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu. Viṣṇu Purāṇa is the most ancient of all the Purāṇas and has got the name Purāṇaratna (gem of Purāṇas).

The method of narration is in the form of teaching his disciple Maitreya by sage Parāśara. Since there is a reference in it to the Maurya dynasty it is to be surmised that this was composed in the first or second century A.D. The narrator himself states thus:-- “Vyāsa an adept in the compositon of Purāṇas composed this Purāṇasaṁhitā with ākhyānas, Upākhyānas, gāthās and Kalpanirṇayas. A Sūta named Romaharṣaṇa was Vyāsa's chief disciple. The broad-minded Vyāsa gave that saṁhitā to that sūta. Romaharṣaṇa had six dis- ciples named Sumati, Agnivarcas, Mitrāyus. Śāṁśapā- yana, Akṛtavraṇa, and Sāvarṇi. Of these Akṛtavraṇa, Sāvarṇi and Śāṁśapāyana born in the Kaśyapagotra have composed Purāṇasaṁhitās. There is yet another saṁhitā composed by Romaharṣaṇa which was the basis of the saṁhitās of his three disciples. I have composed Viṣṇupurāṇa basing on the above four saṁhitās.”

If a man gives as gift a book of Viṣṇu Purāṇa on the full moon day in the month of āṣāḍha (July) with Jaladhenu he will attain Viṣṇupāda.

(ii) Bhāgavata Purāṇa. This is the most popular and widely circulated of all the Purāṇas. It is dear to Viṣṇu-devotees. Divided into twelve Skandhas this con- tains eighteen thousand ślokas. All the incarnations of Viṣṇu are described in this. The most interesting Skandha is the tenth Skandha in which the author has described the life and activities of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. There was once a belief that it was Baladeva who lived in the thirteenth century A.D. that had composed this Purāṇa. But this belief was smashed when it was found that Vallā- lasena of Bengal who lived in the eleventh century A.D. had made references to this Purāṇa in some of his works. Bhāgavata accepts Kapila and Buddha as incarnations of Viṣṇu. This has been translated into all Indian languages. This book has to be given as gift on the full- moon day in the month of Proṣṭhapada (September). Agni Purāṇa instructs that this book is to be given along with a golden image of a lion.

(iii) Nāradīya Purāṇa. This is in the form of a narration by Nārada to Sanatkumāra. In this book of twentyfive thousand verses Nārada teaches the dharmas of Bṛhatkalpa. If this is given as gift on the full-moon day in the month of Āśvina there will be great pros- perity.

(iv) Garuḍa Purāṇa. This is in the form of instructions to Garuḍa by Viṣṇu. This deals with astronomy, medicine, grammar, and with the structure and qualities of diamonds. This Purāṇa is dear to Vaiṣṇavites. The latter half of this Purāṇa deals with life after death. The Hindus of north-India generally read this Purāṇa while cremating the bodies of the dead. This has given great importance to the origin of Garuḍa. There are eight thousand verses in this book. This book should be given as gift along with an image in gold of a swan to get prosperity.

(v) Padma Purāṇa (Pādma Purāṇa). This book is divided into six Khaṇḍas comprising fiftyfive thousand verses. The six Khaṇḍas are Sṛṣṭikhaṇḍa, Bhūmi- khaṇḍa, Svargakhaṇḍa, Pātālakhaṇḍa, Uttarakhaṇḍa and Kriyāyogasāra. The Uttarakhaṇḍa describes the importance of all months and also the lotus, the seat of Brahmā. This contains the stories of Śakuntalā and Śrī Rāma as described by Kālidāsa in his works Śākuntala and Raghuvaṁśa which has made some believe that this Purāṇa was written after Kālidāsa. If this Purāṇa is given as gift with a cow in the month of Jyeṣṭha (June) it brings prosperity.

(vi) Varāha Purāṇa. The mode of narration is in the form of narrating the story by Varāha, the third incar- nation of Viṣṇu. The theme is about holy places and mantras. It states that the goddess of earth prayed to Mahāviṣṇu and that prayer took the form of a goddess. This book contains fourteen thousand verses. If one copies down this Purāṇa and gives it as gift along with a golden image of Garuḍa on the full-moon day in the month of Caitra (April) one will attain Viṣṇuloka.

B. Purāṇas relating to Brahmā.

(i) Brahma Purāṇa. This is in the form of teachings by Brahmā to Dakṣa. This contains twentyfive thousand verses. This is called Ādi Purāṇa also. There is a special treatise in this book on Orissa, an ancient holy region of Bhārata. There is in this a special annexure explain- ing the intimacy between Śiva and Sūrya which is a deviation from other Purāṇas. Brahma Purāṇa states about a sūryakṣetra (sun-temple) situated at a place called Koṇārka near the holy place of Purī, installed there in the year 1241 A.D. If this Purāṇa along with Jaladhenu is given as a gift on the full-moon day in the month of Vaiśākha (May) the donor will attain heaven.

(ii) Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa. This deals with the origin of the universe as told by Brahmā. In the beginning there was a golden egg and the prapañca (universe with its activities) was formed out of it. Portions of Adh- yātma Rāmāyaṇa, references to Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and the incarnation of Paraśurāma are included in this. This book contains twelve thousand verses and it is believed to be uttama (best) to give this book as a gift to a brahmin.

(iii) Brahmavaivarta Purāṇa. This was instructed to Sāvarṇika by Nārada. The theme is the story of Rathantara. There are four kāṇḍas in this Purāṇa called Brahmakāṇḍa, Prakṛtikāṇḍa, Gaṇeśakāṇḍa and Kṛṣṇa- janmakāṇḍa. This deals with Prapañcasṛṣṭi (creation of the universe). It says that Prapañca is nothing but the Vaivartta (transformation) of Brahman. It is considered to be holy to give this book containing eighteen thousand verses as a gift on the full-moon day in the month of Māgha (February).

(iv) Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa. This is one of the ancient Purāṇas. There are many stories regarding Indra, Sūrya and Agni in this. This includes a division called Devīmāhātmya containing praises about the goddess Durgā. This contains nine thousand verses and it is considered as uttama (best) to give this book as a gift to a brahmin on a full-moon day in the month of Kārttika (November).

(v) Bhaviṣya Purāṇa. This is what is told to Manu by Sūrya (Sun). This contains statements about future events. The book praises the worship of Sūrya (Sun), Agni (fire) and Nāga (serpent). There is an annexure dealing with the several holy places of Bhārata and the rights of pilgrims. The book contains fourteen thousand verses and it is considered to be uttama (best) to give this book along with treacle as a gift to a brahmin on the full-moon day in the month of Pauṣa (January).

(vi) Vāmana Purāṇa. There is a great similarity between the contents of this Purāṇa and that of Varāha Purāṇa. All the incarnations of Viṣṇu from Vāmana downwards are described in this Purāṇa. The scene of Śiva marry- ing Pārvatī is vividly described in this book. This Purāṇa contains ten thousand verses and it is considered to be uttama (best) to give this book as a gift in the autumn season or at the time of Viṣuva to a brahmin.

C. Purāṇas relating to Śiva.

(i) Vāyu Purāṇa. This Purāṇa is told by Vāyu. Bāṇa- bhaṭṭa who lived in the seventh century A.D. makes references to this Purāṇa in his works. There are many references in this Purāṇa about the Gupta Kings who ruled Bhārata in the 4th century A.D. So it is believed that this Purāṇa must have been written in the fifth or sixth century A.D The book contains plenty of verses in praise of Śiva. There are fourteen thousand verses in the Vāyu Purāṇa and it is considered to be best to give this book as a gift to a brahmin on the full-moon day in the month of Śrāvaṇa (August).

(ii) Liṅga Purāṇa. This contains instructions of Śiva on Dharma sitting in the form of liṅga (Phallus). The twentyeight different forms of Śiva are described in this. This contains twelve thousand verses and if this book is given as a gift to a brahmin with tiladhenu on the full-moon day in the month of Phālguna (March) the donor will attain Śivasāyujya.

(iii) Skānda Purāṇa. This Purāṇa is narrated by Skanda. The theme is the slaughter of the demon Tārakāsura by Skanda (Subrahmaṇya). There is a great similarity between this Purāṇa and the Kumāra- sambhava of Kālidāsa. There are eightyfour thousand verses in this Purāṇa and giving this book as a gift is thought to be good.

(iv) Agni Purāṇa. This Purāṇa was instructed to the sage Vasiṣṭha by Agnideva. There are several refer- ences in this to Śivaliṅga and Durgādevī. The incarna- tions of Rāma and Kṛṣṇa are also dealt with in this. Distinct from other Purāṇas this book deals with arts and science like Kavyālaṅkāranāṭakas (Poems, dramas, figures of speech), Jyotiśsāstra (Astronomy) and Śilpa- kalā (architecture). This Purāṇa contains twelve thousand verses and is capable of imparting knowledge on all arts and sciences.

(v) Matsya Purāṇa. This Purāṇa was taught to Manu by Matsya, the incarnation of Viṣṇu, The incarnation of Matsya is dealt in this. Several subjects like Jaina- mata (religion of Jainism), Buddhamata (Buddhism), Nāṭyaśāstra (histrionics) and Āndhrarājavaṁsa (king- dom and Kings of Āndhra) are discussed in this book. The book contains thirteen thousand verses and this is to be given as gift along with a golden image of a fish at the time of Viṣuva.

(vi) Kūrma Purāṇa. This Purāṇa is taught by Kūrma- mūrti (incarnation of Viṣṇu as Kūrma (tortoise) while narrating the story of Indradyumna at Pātāla. All the seven islands and seven oceans are described in this book. Bhārata is situated in the centre of all these and is called Jambūdvīpa. Though it is believed that there were four saṁhitās for this, only the Brāhmasaṁhitā is available now. It includes Īśvaragītā and Vyāsagītā. The book contains eight thousand verses and is to be given as gift along with a golden image of tortoise.

3) Upapurāṇas. There are eighteen minor Purāṇas besides the eighteen major ones. They are:--(1) Sanatkumāra (2) Nārasiṁha (3) Nāradīya (4) Śiva (5) Durvāsas (6) Kāpila (7) Mānava (8) Uśanas (9) Vāruṇa (10) Kālika (11) Sāmba (12) Saura (13) Āditya (14) Māheśvara (15) Devībhāgavata (16) Vāsiṣṭha (17) Viṣṇudharmottara (18) Nīlamata Purāṇa.

The two Upapurāṇas mentioned lastly are associated with Kashmir. The first is about the Vaiṣṇava religion there and the second about the wise saying of a Nāga King of the place called Nīla. (Purāṇas; History of Sanskrit Literature).


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*1st word in left half of page 617 (+offset) in original book.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


1. Purāṇa, denoting a tale ‘of olden times,’ is often found[१] in the combination Itihāsa-Purāṇa, which is probably a Dvandva compound meaning ‘Itihāsa and Purāṇa.’ It sometimes[२] occurs as a separate word, but beside Itihāsa, no doubt with the same sense as in the Dvandva. Sāyaṇa[३] defines a Purāṇa as a tale which deals with the primitive condition of the universe and the creation of the world, but there is no ground for supposing that this view is correct, or for clearly distinguishing Itihāsa and Purāṇa. See Itihāsa.

2. Purāṇa is the name of a Ṛṣi in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā (xxxix. 7).
==Foot Notes==

  1. Satāpatha Brāhmaṇa, xi. 5, 6, 8;
    Chāndogya Upaniṣad, iii. 4, 1. 2;
    vii. 1, 2. 4;
    2, 1;
    7, 1.
  2. Av. xv. 6, 4;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 4, 3, 13;
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, ii 4, 10;
    iv. 1, 2;
    5, 11;
    Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, ii. 9;
    Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, i. 53;
    Purāṇa-veda: Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xvi. 2, 27;
    Purāṇavidyā: Āśvalāyana Srauta Sūtra, x. 7, etc.
  3. Introduction to Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, cited by St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v.
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