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विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मत्स्यः, पुं स्त्री, (माद्यन्ति लोका अनेनेति । मद् + “ऋतन्यञ्जीति ।” उणा० । ४ । २ इति स्यन् ।) स्वनामख्यातजलजन्तुः । माछ इति भाषा ॥ तत्पर्य्यायः । पृथुरोमा २ झसः ३ मीनः ४ वैसारिणः ५ अण्डजः ६ विसारः ७ शकली ८ । इत्यमरः । १ । १० । १७ ॥ शन्धली ९ झषः १० आत्माशी ११ संवरः १२ मूकः १३ जले- शयः १४ कण्टकी १५ शल्की १६ मच्छः १७ अनिमिषः १८ । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ शुङ्गी १९ । इति जटाधरः ॥ तस्य गुणाः । बृंहणत्वम् । गुरुत्वम् । शुक्रबर्द्धनत्वम् । बल्यत्वम् । स्निग्ध- त्वम् । उष्णत्वम् । मधुरत्वम् । कफपित्तकर- त्वम् । व्यायामाध्वरतदीप्ताग्नीनां पूजितत्वम् । वातरोगहरत्वञ्च ॥ * ॥ बृहन्मत्स्यगुणाः । गुरु- त्वम् । शुक्रलत्वम् । मलबद्धकारित्वञ्च ॥ * ॥ क्षुद्रमत्स्यगुणाः । लघुत्वम् । ग्राहित्वम् । ग्रहणीरोगे हितत्वञ्च ॥ * ॥ कृष्णमत्स्यगुणाः । लघुत्वम् । स्निग्धत्वम् । वातघ्नत्वम् । वह्निवर्द्धन- त्वञ्च ॥ * ॥ पाण्डरमत्स्यगुणाः । दोषलत्वम् । स्निग्धत्वम् । गुरुत्वम् । मलभेदित्वञ्च ॥ * ॥ क्वथितमत्स्यस्य अर्थात् पूतिमत्स्यस्य गुणः । दोषलत्वम् ॥ * ॥ शुष्कमत्स्यगुणौ । विष्ट- म्भित्वम् । दुर्ज्जरत्वञ्च ॥ * ॥ लवणभावित- मत्स्यगुणाः । कफपित्तकरत्वम् । सारकत्वम् ॥ सामुद्रमत्स्यगुणाः । लघुत्वम् । वृष्यत्वम् । मधु- रत्वम् । स्वल्पमलकारित्वञ्च । “सामुद्रा गुरवो वृष्याः स्निग्धोष्णा वात- नाशनाः ।” इति पाठान्तरम् ॥ * ॥ (तथास्य पर्य्यायाः गुणाश्च । “मत्स्यो मीनो विकारश्च उषो वैसारिणोऽण्डजः । शकुलः पृथुरोमा च स सुदर्शन इत्यपि ॥ रोहिताद्यास्तु ये जीवास्ते मत्स्याः परिकी- र्त्तिताः । मत्स्याः स्निग्धोष्णमधुरा गुरवः कफपित्तलाः ॥ वातघ्ना बृंहणा वृष्या रोचका बलवर्द्ध्वनाः । मद्यव्यवायसक्तानां दीप्ताग्नीनाञ्च पूजिताः ॥” इति भावप्रकाशस्य पूर्ब्बखण्डे द्वितीये भागे ॥ “मत्स्या रोहितपाठीनकूर्म्मकुम्भीरकर्कटाः । शुक्तिशङ्खोड्रशम्बूकशफरीवर्म्मिचन्द्रिका ॥ चुलूकीनक्रमकरशिशुमारतिमिङ्गिलाः । राजीवाः चिलिचिमाद्याश्च ॥” इति वाभटे सूत्रस्थाने षष्ठेऽध्याये ॥ मत्स्यास्तु द्विविधा नादेयाः सामुद्राश्च । तत्र निवेद्य देवताभ्यश्च ब्राह्मणेंभ्यश्च नान्यथा ॥ सफरं सिंहतुण्डञ्च तथा पाठीन-रोहितौ । मत्स्यास्त्वेते समुद्दिष्टा भक्षणाय तपोधनैः ॥ प्रोक्षितं भक्षयेदेषां मांसञ्च द्बिजकाम्यया । यथाविधिनियुक्तश्च प्राणानामपि चात्यये ॥” इति कौर्म्मे उपविभागे १६ अध्यायः ॥ अपि च । “पाठीनरोहितावाद्यौ नियुक्तौ हव्यकव्ययोः । राजीवान् सिंहतुण्डांश्च सशल्कांश्चैव सर्व्वशः ॥” इति मानवे ५ अध्यायः ॥ “अनिवेद्य न भोक्तव्यं मत्स्यं मांसञ्च यद्भवेत् । अन्नं विष्ठा पयो मूत्रं यद्विष्णोरनिवेदितम् ॥” इत्याह्निकतत्त्वम् ॥ प्रेतश्राद्धे मत्स्यदानविधिर्यथा, -- “सपिण्डीकरणं यावत् प्रेतश्राद्धन्तु षोडशम् । पक्वान्नेनैव कर्त्तव्यं सामिषेण द्विजातिभिः ॥” इति श्राद्धतत्त्वधृतकामधेनुवचनम् ॥

मत्स्यः, पुं, (जलं प्राप्य माद्यतीति मद् + “ॠत्यन्यञ्जीति ।” उणा० । ४ । २ । इति स्यन् ।) मीनविशेषः । विराटदेशः । नारायणः । इति हेमचन्द्रः । ४ । ४०९ ॥ देशविशेषे बहुवचनान्तः । इति मेदिनी । ये, ४५ ॥ द्वादशराशिः । यथा, “मत्स्यौ घटी नृमिथुनं सगदं सवीणम् ॥” इत्यादि ज्योतिस्तत्त्वम् ॥ अष्टादशपुराणान्तर्गतपुराणविशेषः ॥ (मत्स्य- रूपेणावतीर्णेन भगवता उक्तत्वात् अस्य तदाख्या ।) यथा, -- “पुण्यं पवित्रमायुष्यमिदानीं शृणुत द्विजाः । मात्स्यं पुराणमखिलं यज्जगाद गदाधरः ॥” इति मत्स्यपुराणे १ अध्यायः ॥ दशावतारान्तर्गतप्रथमावतारः । यथा, -- सूत उवाच । “पुरा राजा मनुर्नाम चीर्णवान् विपुलं तपः । पुत्त्रे राज्यं समारोप्य क्षमावान् रविनन्दनः ॥ मलयस्यैकदेशे तु सर्व्वात्मगुणसंयुतः । समदुःखसुखो वीरः प्राप्तवान् योगमुत्तमम् ॥ बभूव वरदश्चास्य वर्षायुतशते गते । वरं वृणीष्व प्रोवाच प्रीतः स कमलासनः ॥ एममुक्तोऽब्रवीद्राजा प्रणम्य स पितामहम् । एकमेबाहमिच्छामि त्वत्त्वो वरमनुत्तमम् ॥ भूतग्रामस्य सर्व्वस्य स्थावरस्य चरस्य च । भविता रक्षणे यानं प्रलये समुपस्थिते ॥ एवमस्त्विति विश्वात्मा तत्रैवान्तरधीयत । पुष्पवृष्टिश्च महती स्वात् पपात सुरार्पिता ॥ कदाचिदाश्रभे तस्य कुर्व्वतः पितृतर्पणम् । पपात पाण्योरुपरि शफरी जलसंयुतः ॥ दृष्ट्वा तच्छफरीरूपं स दयाजुर्महीपतिः । रक्षणायाकरोद्यत्नं स तस्मिन् करकोदरे ॥ अहोरात्रेण चैकेन षोडशाङ्गुलविस्तृतः । सोऽभवन्मत्स्यरूपेण पाहि पाहीति चाब्रवीत् ॥ स तमादाय मलिके प्राक्षिपज्जलचारिणम् ॥ तत्रापि चैकरात्रेण हस्तत्रयमवर्द्धत ॥ रक्तोत्पलैर्वा पद्मैर्वा मालत्याद्यैः सुगन्धिभिः । एवं कृते वर्षमेकं मन्त्रसिद्धिः प्रजायते ॥ नित्यं द्वादशविप्रांश्च श्रीरूपाञ्च सुवासिनीम् । भोजयेत् पूजनञ्चास्य चरेत्तौ व्याशयेत् सदा ॥ षट्पत्रकर्णिकायाञ्च श्रीयुतं देवमर्च्चयेत् । षट्पत्रेषु षडङ्गानि यजेद्वाह्यचतुर्द्दले ॥ मण्डूकं मकरं कूर्म्मं शिशुमारञ्च पूर्ब्बतः । तद्बाह्येऽष्टदले पूज्याः क्षाराद्याः सप्त सिन्धवः ॥ तद्बाह्येऽङ्कदले पूज्या वामुक्याद्याः फणीश्वराः । तस्य वाह्ये शक्रदले रत्नानि तु चतुर्द्दश ॥ समुद्रजानि पूज्यानि लक्ष्मीकौस्तुभकानि च । गङ्गाद्याः षोडश ततो महानद्यः प्रपूजयेत् ॥ ततश्चाष्टदले वेदानुपवेदसमन्वितान् । दिगीशांश्च तदस्त्राणि नवावरणपूजनम् । एवं सिद्धमनुर्मन्त्री जायते सिद्धिभाजनम् ॥ एतदुक्तशतं मन्त्रं जपेदष्टोत्तरं शतम् । तद्देवतादिने सिद्धः पुस्तकादेव जायते ॥ अकुण्ठितप्रयोगेषु न पुनस्तस्य संस्कृतिः । एतत्पल्लविता मन्त्रा मम सिद्ध्यन्ति पार्व्वति ! ॥ एतत्संपुठिताः सर्व्वे वैदिकाः सिद्धिदाः कलौ । अनेन ग्रथिता जप्ताः कलेश्च द्रुतसिद्धिदाः ॥” इति मेरुतन्त्रे २६ प्रकाशः ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मत्स्य पुं।

मत्स्यः

समानार्थक:पृथुरोमन्,झष,मत्स्य,मीन,वैसारिण,अण्डज,विसार,शकुली,अनिमिष

1।10।17।1।3

पृथुरोमा झषो मत्स्यो मीनो वैसारिणोऽण्डजः। विसारः शकुली चाथ गडकः शकुलार्भकः॥

सम्बन्धि2 : धीवरः,मत्स्यस्थापनपात्रम्,मत्स्यवेधनम्

वृत्तिवान् : धीवरः

 : गडकमत्स्यः, शकुलार्भकमत्स्यः, बहुदंष्ट्रः_मत्स्यः, शिशुमार-आकारमत्स्यः, नलवनचारिणो_मत्स्यविशेषः, प्रोष्ठीमत्स्यः, शफरीमत्स्यः, अण्डादचिरनिर्गतमत्स्यसङ्घम्, मत्स्यविशेषः, रोहितमत्स्यः, मद्गुरमत्स्यः, शालमत्स्यः, राजीवमत्स्यः, शकुलमत्स्यः, तिमिमत्स्यः, तिमिङ्गलमत्स्यः, मद्गुरस्य_स्त्री

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्येतरः, जन्तुः, जलीयः

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मत्स्य¦ पु॰ मद--स्यन्। (माछ)

१ मीने

२ जलचरभेदे स्त्रियांङीष् यलोपः मत्सी। तद्भेदगुणादि भावप्र॰ उक्तं यथातत्र मत्स्येषु रोहितस्य
“रक्तोदरो रक्तमुखो रक्षाक्षोरक्तपक्षतिः। कृष्णपुच्छो झषश्रेष्ठो रोहितः कथितोबुधैः। रोहितः सर्वमत्स्यानां वरो वृष्योऽर्दितार्त्ति-जित्। कषायानुरसः स्वादुर्वातघ्नो नातिपित्तकृत्। ऊर्ध्वजत्रुगतान् रोगान् हन्याद्रोहितमुण्डकम्। ” (सिलन्धा)
“सिलन्धः श्लेष्मलो बल्यो विपाके मधुरोगुरुः। वातपित्तहरो हृद्य आमवातकरश्च सः। ” (अथ भांगन)
“भङ्कुरो मधुरः शीतो वृष्यः श्लेष्मकरोगुरुः। विष्टम्भजनकश्चापि रक्तपित्तहरः स्मृतः”। (मोमाचिका)
“मोचिका वातहृद्बल्या वृंहणी मधुरागुरुः। पित्तहृत् कफकृद्रुच्या वृष्या दीप्ताग्नये हिता। (वोदाल)
“पाठीनः श्लेष्मलो वल्यो निद्रालुः पिशिताशनः। दूषयेद्रुधिरंपित्तकुष्ठरोगं करोति च। ” (अथ सीङ्गी)
“शृङ्गी तु वातशमनी स्निग्धा श्लेष्मप्रकोपनी। रसे तिक्ताकपाया च लघ्वी रुच्या स्मृता बुधैः। ” (अथ हीलसा)
“इ{??}पो मधुरः स्निग्धो रोचनो वह्निवर्द्धनः। पित्तहृत्-कफकृत्किञ्चिल्लघुर्वृष्योऽनिलापहः। ” (अथ सौल)
“शष्कुलीग्राहिणी हृद्या मधुरा तु वरा स्मृता। ” अथ (गर्गरा)
“गर्गरः पित्तलः किल्लिद्वातजित् कफकोपनः। ” अथ(कवै)
“कविका मधुरा स्निग्धा कफघ्नी रुचिकारिणी। किञ्चित्पित्तकरी वातनाशिनी वह्निवर्द्धिनी। ” अथ-(वर्मी)
“वर्मिमत्स्यो हरेद्वातं पित्तं रुचिकरो राधुः। ” अथ (दण्डारी)
“दण्डमत्स्यो रसे तिक्तः पित्तरक्तं सफंहरेत्। वातसाधारणः प्रोक्तः शुक्रलो बलवर्द्धनः। ” (व्यथ आडि)
“एरङ्गो मधुरः स्निग्धो विष्टम्भी शीतलोलवुः। ” (अथ पावता)
“महाशफरसंज्ञस्तु तिक्तः पित्त-कफापहः। शिशिरो मधुरो रुच्यो वातसाधारणःस्मृतः। ” अथ (गरुइ)
“गरघ्नी मधुरा तिक्ता तुवराबातपित्तहत्। कफघ्नी रुचिकृल्लध्वी दीपनी बलवीर्य्य-क्वत्। ” अथ (मागुर)
“मद्गुरो वातहद्वल्यो वृष्यःकफकरो लघुः। अथ टेङ्गरा
“सपादमत्स्योकत् श्लेष्मक्षयकरश्च सः। वातपित्तकरश्चापिपरमो मतः। ” अथ शफरी (पोठी)
“प्राष्ठीतिक्ता कटुः स्यादुः शुक्रघ्नी कफवातजित्। स्तिग्धास्य[Page4722-b+ 38] कण्ठरीगघ्नी रोचनी च लघुः स्मृतः। ”{??} क्षुद्र-मत्स्याः
“क्षुद्रा मत्स्याः स्वादुरसाः दोषत्रयविनाशनाः। लथुपाका रुचिकरा बलदास्ते हिता मताः। ” अथा-तिक्षुद्रमत्स्याः
“अतिसूक्माः पुंस्त्वहरा रुच्याः कासा-निलापहाः। ” अथ मत्स्याण्डः
“मत्स्यगर्भो भृशंवृष्यः स्निग्धः पुष्टिकरो लघुः। कफमेहप्रदो बल्योग्लानिकृन्मेहनाशनः। ” अथ (शुक्टी)
“शुष्कमत्स्याःनवा बल्याः द्जराः विड्विबन्धिनः। ” अथ दग्ध-मत्स्याः
“दग्धमत्स्यो गुणैः श्रेष्ठः पुष्टिकृद्बलबर्द्धनः। अथ कूपजादिमत्स्यगुणाः
“कौपमत्स्याः शूक्रमूत्रकुष्ठश्लेष्म विवर्द्धनाः। सरोजा मधुराः स्निग्धा बल्यावातविनाशंनाः। नादेया वृंहणा मत्स्या गुरवोऽनिल-नाशनाः। रक्तपित्तकरा वृष्याः स्निग्धोष्णाः स्वल्प-वर्चसः। चौञ्जाः पित्तकराः स्निग्धा मधुरा लघबोहिमाः। ताडागा गुरवो वृष्याः शीतलाः बल-मूत्रदाः। ताडागावक्षिप्तजाताः बलायुर्मतिदृक्कराः। ” चथर्त्तुविशेषे मत्स्यविशेषगुणाः
“हेमन्ते कूपजा मत्स्याःशिशिरे सारसा हिताः। वसन्ते ते तु नादेया ग्रीष्मेचौञ्जसमुद्भवाः। तडागजाता वर्षासु तास्यपथ्या नदी-भवाः। नैर्झराः शरदि श्रेष्ठा विशेषोऽवसुदाहृतः। ” तद्भक्षणनिषेधादिकम्
“यो यस्य मांसमश्नाति स तन्मांसाद उच्यते। मत्स्यादःसर्वमांसादस्तस्मान्मत्स्यान् विवर्जयेत्” मनुः।
“जलस्थलचरा ये च प्राणिनस्तान् मृतानपि। नभक्षेन् मानवो ज्ञानी हन्ता तेषां मवेन्नहि। हत्वा हत्वातु मत्स्याशी सर्वेषां यो विशेषतः। मांसादः प्राणिनांगोऽपि तस्मान् मत्स्यं परित्यजेत्”। पाद्मोत्तरखण्डे

१०

५ अ॰। वर्जनीया मत्स्या यथा।
“शृणु देवि!प्रवक्ष्यामि मांसभेदान् निवोध मे। नादेयं तिक्तकमठंपशुं शृङ्गिणमेव च। गोमीनं चक्रशकुलं वडालंराघवं तथा। वामीनं चलकर्णञ्च सचक्रं चेङ्गमेवच। भूबिलञ्चानिरुद्धञ्च गाङ्गेयानि विवर्जयेत्” मत्स्यंसूक्तमहातन्त्रम्। रविवारे मत्स्यभक्षणे निषेधोयथा
“आमिषं रक्तशाकश्च यो भुङ्क्ते च रवेर्दिने। सप्तजन्म भवेत् कुष्ठी दरिद्रश्चोपजायते” भविष्यपु॰।
“माषमामिषमांसञ्च मसूरं निम्बपत्रकम्। भक्षयेद् योरवेर्वारे सप्तजन्मान्यपुत्रकः” ति॰ त॰।
“कार्त्तिके मत्स्य-भक्षणनिषेधो यथा
“न मत्स्यं भक्षयेन्तांसं न कौर्म्यं[Page4723-a+ 38] गान्यदेव हि। चण्डालो जायते राजन्! कार्त्तिकेमांसभक्षणात्” नारदीयपु॰। माघवैशाखयोर्हविष्यब्रह्मचर्य्यविधानात् मत्स्यभक्षणं नितरां निषिद्धमितिकृत्यतत्त्वम्।
“नाभक्ष्यं नैवेद्यार्थे भक्ष्येष्वजामहिषी-क्षीरं वर्जयेत् पञ्चनखमत्स्यवराहमांसानिच” आह्नि॰ त॰विष्णुसूत्रम्। जन्मतिथौ मत्स्यभक्षणनिषेधो यथा
“आमिषं कलहं हिंसां वर्षवृद्धौ विकर्जयेत्”
“भुङ्क्तेयस्तु निरामिषं स हि भवेज्जन्मान्तरे पण्डितः” ति॰ त॰। शैवस्य मत्स्यभक्षणनिषेधो यथा
“क्व मद्यं क्व शिवे भक्तिः क्व मांसं क्व शिवाचनम्। मत्स्यमांसरतानां वै दूरे तिष्ठति शङ्करः” काशीख॰। विन्ध्यपर्वतस्य पश्चिमे मत्स्यभक्षणनिषेधो यथा
“विन्ध्यस्य पश्चिमे भागे मत्स्यभुक् पतितो नरः” पुराणम्। कामतो मत्स्यभक्षणप्रायश्चित्तं यथा
“मत्स्यांस्तु कामतो जग्ध्वा सोपवासस्त्र्यहं वसेत्” अज्ञा-नतस्तदर्द्धम्” प्रा॰ वि॰। मत्स्यभक्षणनिषेधे प्रतिप्रसवो यथा
“मत्स्यान् सशल्कान् भुञ्जीत मांसं रौस्वमेव च। निवेद्य देवताभ्यश्च ब्राह्मणेभ्यश्च नान्यथा। शफसं सिंह-तुण्डञ्च तथा पाठीनरोहितौ। मत्स्यास्त्वेते समुद्दिष्टाभक्षणाय तपोधनैः। प्रोक्षितं भक्षयेदेषां मांसञ्च द्विज-काम्यया। यथाविधि नियुक्तश्च प्राणानामपि चात्यये” कौर्मे पु॰

१६ अ॰।
“पाठीनरोहितावाद्यौ नियुक्तौहव्यकव्ययोः। राजीवान् सिंहतुण्डांश्च सशल्कांश्चैवसर्वशः” मनुः।
“अनिवेद्य न भोक्तव्यं मत्स्यं मांसञ्चयद्भवेत्। अन्नं विष्ठा पयो मूत्रं यद्विष्णोरनिवेदितम्” आ॰ त॰। प्रेतश्राद्धे मत्स्यदानविधिर्यथा
“सपिण्डीकरणं यावत् प्रेतश्राद्धानि षोडश। पक्वान्नेबैव कर्त्तव्यं साभिषेण द्विजातिभिः” श्राद्ध॰ त॰।

२ विराटदेशे पु॰ सोऽभिजनोऽस्य तस्य राजा वाअण्। मात्स्य प्रित्रादिक्रमेण तद्देशवासिनि तस्यनृपे च बहुषु अणो लुक्।

३ तद्देशवासिषु ब॰ व॰।

४ मेषादितोद्वादशराशौ मीनराशौ।

५ भागवतः प्रथमावतारेतत्कथा मत्स्यपु॰

२ अ॰। भा॰ व॰

१८

७ अ॰ च। मत्स्यंभगवदवतारभेदमधिकृत्य कृतो ग्रन्थः अण्। मात्स्य महा-पुराणभेदे तत्प्रतिपाद्यविषयाश्च तत्रैव

२९

० अ॰ उक्ता यथा
“सूत उवाच। एतद्वः कथितं सर्वं यद्क्तं विश्वरू-पिणा। मात्स्यं पुराणमखिलं धर्मकामार्थसाधनम्। यत्रादौ मनुसंवादो व्रह्माण्डकथनन्तथा। साङ्ख्यं[Page4723-b+ 38] शारीरकं प्रोक्तं चतुर्मुखमुखोद्भवम्। देवासुराणामुत्पत्तिर्मारुतोत्पत्तिरेव च। मदनद्वादशी तद्वल्लोक-पालाभिपूजनम्। मन्वन्तराणामुद्देशो वैन्यराजाभि-वर्णनम्। सूर्य्याद्वैवस्वतोत्पत्तिर्बुधस्याममनं तथा। पितृवंशानुकथनं श्राद्धकालस्तथैव च। पितृतीर्थप्रवा-सश्च सोमोत्पत्तिस्तथैव च। कीर्त्तनं सोमवंशस्य ययाति-चरितं तथा। कार्त्तवीर्य्यस्य माहात्म्यं वृष्णिवंशानु-कीर्त्तनम्। भृगुशापस्तथा विष्णोर्दैत्यशापस्तथैव च। कीर्त्तनं पुरुषेशस्य वंशो हौताशनस्तथा। पुराण-कीर्त्तनं तद्वत् क्रियायोगस्तथैव च। व्रतं नक्षत्रसंख्याकंमार्कण्डशयनं तथा। कृष्णाष्टमीव्रतं तद्वद्रोहिणीचन्द्रसंज्ञितम्। तडागविधिमाहात्म्यं पादपोत्सर्गएव च। सौभाग्यशयनं तद्वदगस्त्यव्रतमेव च। तथा-नन्ततृतीया तु रसकल्याणिनी तथा। आर्द्रा नन्द-करी तद्वद् व्रतं सारस्वतं पुनः। उपरागाभिषेकश्चसप्तमीस्नपनं पुनः। भीमाख्या द्वादशी तद्वदनङ्ग-शयनं तथा। अशून्यशयनं तद्वत्तथैवाङ्गारकव्रतम्। सप्तमीसप्तकं तद्वद्विशोकद्वादशी तथा। मेरुप्रदानंदशधा ग्रहशान्तिस्तथैव च। ग्रहस्वरूपकथनं तथाशिवचतुर्दशी। तथा सर्वफलत्थागः सूर्य्यवारव्रतंतथा। संक्रान्तिस्नपनं तद्वद्विभूतिद्वादशीव्रतम्। षष्टिव्रतानां माहात्म्यं तथा स्नानविधिक्रमः। प्रयागस्यतु माहात्म्यं सर्वतीर्थानुकीर्त्तनम्। पैलाश्रमफलंतद्वद्द्वीपलोकानुकीर्त्तनम्। तथान्तरिक्षचारश्च ध्रुव-माहात्म्यमेव च। भवनानि सुरेन्द्राणां त्रिपुरायोधनंतथा। पितृपिण्डदमाहात्म्यं मन्वन्तरविनिर्णयः। वज्रा-ङ्गस्य तु संभूतिः तारकोत्पत्तिरेव च। तारकासुरमा-हात्म्यं ब्रह्मदेवानुकीर्त्तनम्। पार्वतीसम्भवस्तद्वत् तथाशिवतपोवनम्। अनङ्गदेहदाहस्तु रतिशोकस्तथैव च। गौरीतपोवनं तद्वद्विश्वनाथप्रसादनम्। पार्वत ऋषि-संवादस्त्रथैवोद्वाहमङ्गलम्। कुमारसम्भवस्तद्वत् कुमार-विजयस्तथा। तारकस्य वधो घोरी नरसिंहोपवर्ण-नम्। पद्मोद्भवविसर्गस्तु तथैवान्धकघातनम्। वारा-णस्यास्तु माहात्म्यं नर्मदायास्तथैव च। प्रवरानुक्रम-स्तद्वत् पितृनाथानुकीर्त्तनम्। तथोभयमुखीदानं दानंकुष्णाजिनस्य च। तथा सावित्र्युपाख्यानं राजथर्मा-स्तथैव च। यात्रानिमित्तकथनं स्वप्नमाङ्गल्यकीर्न्त-नम्। वामनस्य तु माहात्म्यं तथैवादिवराहकम्। [Page4724-a+ 38] क्षीरोदमयनं तद्वत् कालकूटाभिशासनम्। प्रासाद-लक्षणं तद्वन्मण्डपानान्तु लक्षणम्। पुरुबंशे तुसंप्रोक्तं भविष्यद्राजवर्णनम्। तुलादानादि बहुशोमहादानानुकीर्त्तनम्। कल्पानुकीर्त्तनं तद्वद् ग्रन्थानु-क्रमणी तथा। एतत्पवित्रमायुष्यमेतत् कीर्त्तिविव-र्धनम्। एतत् पवित्रं कल्याणं महापापहरं शुभम्। अस्मात् पुराणादपि पादमेकं पठेत्तु यः सोऽपिविमुक्तपापः। नारायणाख्यं पदमेति नूनमनङ्ग-वद्दिव्यसुखानि भुङ्क्ते। ” तद्दानविधिः मत्स्यपु॰
“श्रुतीनां यत्र कल्पादौ प्रवृत्त्यर्थंजनार्दनः। मत्स्यरूपी च मनवे नरसिंहोपवर्णनम्। अधिकृत्याब्रवीत् सप्तकल्पवृत्तमनुव्रताः!। तन्मानमितिजातीध्वं सहस्राणि चतुर्दश। विष्णवे हेममत्स्येनधेन्वा चै। समन्वितम्। यो दद्यात् पृथिवी तेन दत्ताभवति चाखिला”।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मत्स्य¦ mf. (-त्स्य-त्सी) A fish in general. m. (-त्स्यः)
1. A particular fish probably the Saphari, or fish in which VISHN4U was incarnate in his Matsya Avata4r.
2. A name of VISHN4U, from his incarnation as a fish.
3. A country, enumerated amongst the midland divisions of India, (Din4ajpur and Rangpur.)
4. One of the Pura4nas. E. मदि to be pleased, Una4di aff. स्यत् |

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मत्स्यः [matsyḥ], [मद्-स्यन्; Uṇ.4.2]

A fish; शूले मत्स्यानिवा- पक्ष्यन् दुर्बलान् बलवत्तराः Ms.7.2.

A particular variety of fish.

A king of the Matsyas. -त्स्यौ (dual) The sign Pisces of the zodiac. -त्स्याः (pl.) N. of a country and its inhabitants, the country of Virāṭa q. v.; Ms. 2.19. -Comp. -अक्षका, -अक्षी N. of a kind of Soma plant. -अद्, -अदन, -आद a. feeding on fish, a fisheater. -अवतारः the first of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu; (during the reign of the seventh Manu, the whole earth, which, had become corrupt was swept away by a flood, and all living beings perished except the pious Manu and the seven sages who were saved by Viṣṇu in the form of a fish); cf. Jayadeva's description of this avatāra.; प्रलयपयोधिजले धृतवानसि वेदं विहित- वहित्रचरित्रमखेदम् । केशव धृतमीनशरीर जय जगदीश हरे Gīt.1.

अशनः a king-fisher.

one who eats fish. -अशिकa. fish-eater; मत्स्याशिका लासिका Mk.1.23. -असुरः N. of a demon. -आधानी, -धानी a fish-basket (used by fishermen). -उदरिन् m. an epithet of Virāṭa. -उदरी an epithet of Satyavatī. -उदरीयः an epithet of Vyāsa. -उद्वर्तनम् a kind of dance; Dk.2.8. -उप- जीविन् m., -आजीवः a fisherman. -करण्डिका a fishbasket. -कीशः an elephant; Gīrvāṇa. -गन्ध a. having the smell of fish. (-न्धा) N. of Satyavatī. -घण्टः a kind of fish-sauce.

घातः the killing or catching of fishes, the occupation of a fisherman; मत्स्यघातो निषादानाम् Ms.1.48.

a fisherman. -घातिन्, -जीवत्, -जीविन्m. a fisherman. -जालम् a fishing-net. -देशः the country of the Matsyas. -द्वादशी N. of the twelfth day in the month of मार्गशीर्ष. -नारी 'half-fish, half-woman', an epithet of Satyavatī. -नाशकः, -नाशनः an osprey. -पुराणम् N. of one of the eighteen Purāṇas. -पित्ता Helleborus Niger (Mar. केदारकुटकी). -बन्धः, -बन्धिन्m. a fisherman; कदाचित्तं जलस्थायं मत्स्यबन्धाः समन्ततः Mb. 12.137.5. -बन्धनम् a fish-hook, an angle. -बन्ध (न्धि)नी a fish-basket. -मांसम् fish-flesh; द्वौ मासौ मत्स्यमांसेन Ms.3.268. -रङ्कः, -रङ्गः, -रङ्गकः a halcyon, king-fisher.

राजः the Rohita fish.

N. of Virāṭa.-वेधनम्, -वेधनी an angle. -वेधनी a cormorant.-व्रतिन् one who lives in water. -संघातः a shoal of fish. -सन्तानिकः fish cooked with sauce; दग्धोङ्गारे सलवणो वेशवारैरुपस्कृतः । सार्द्रकः कटुतैलेन मत्स्यसन्तानिको भवेत् Śabdachandrikā.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मत्स्य m. (See. मत्सand मच्छ)a fish RV. etc. etc. (personified as a prince with the patr. साम्मदS3Br. )

मत्स्य m. a partic. species of -ffish L.

मत्स्य m. (in astron. ) the figure of a -ffigure(= तिमि) Su1ryas.

मत्स्य m. a partic. luminous appearance VarBr2S.

मत्स्य m. ( du. )the 12th sign of the zodiac (Pisces) Jyot.

मत्स्य m. a partic. figure(= स्वस्तिकमध्या-कृति) Hcat.

मत्स्य m. ( pl. )N. of a people and country (which accord. to Mn. ii , 19 forms part of ब्रह्मर्षि) RV. etc. etc.

मत्स्य m. a king of the Matsyas. (See. मत्स)

मत्स्य m. N. of विराट(as having been found by fishermen , along with his sister मत्स्याor सत्य-वती, in the body of the अप्सरस्अद्रिका, metamorphosed into a fish) MBh.

मत्स्य m. N. of a pupil of देव-मित्रशाकल्यCat.

मत्स्य etc. See. p. 776 , col. 3.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I) (च्)--in the मध्यदेश, on the way from द्वारका to हस्तिनापुर; फलकम्:F1:  भा. I. १०. ३४; X. ७१. २२; Br. II. १६. ४१; १८. ५१; M. १२१. ५०.फलकम्:/F visited by Vidura; फलकम्:F2:  भा. III. 1. २४.फलकम्:/F king of, van- quished by कृष्ण. फलकम्:F3:  Ib. II. 7. ३५.फलकम्:/F
(II)--an अवतार् of विष्णु; फलकम्:F1:  भा. I. १५. ३५; X. 2. ४०; XI. 4. १८; Br. III. 7. ४३३; २२. ६६; ५७. ६१; IV. 4. २२; २९. १३६; M. २६०. ३९; २८५. 6; २९०. २३; Vi. I. 4. 8.फलकम्:/F once during a Pra- laya an Asura, हयग्रीव, carried off the Vedas when Hari took the form of a fish with one horn and fell into the palm of the द्रविड king Satyavrata, performing ablutions; find- ing that it outgrew the size of his palm he took it to a pond; it outgrew the size of the pond when it was taken to a lake; it was also too small to hold it; hence after many trials it was taken to the sea; addressed by the king the fish revealed to him his true form and warned him of the Pralaya coming in a week and prepared him to get into a boat to be sent by him and have it tied to its horn; the deluge came and Satyavrata did as was directed; when they were all floating on the sea, Matsya Hari narrated to him the मत्स्य पुराण; after the deluge Matsya killed the demon, हयग्रीव and recovered the Vedas; through his blessings Satyavrata became Vai- vasvata Manu; फलकम्:F2:  भा. VIII. ch. २४ (whole).फलकम्:/F appeared to Vaivasvata Manu during deluge; protected Manu and others; फलकम्:F3:  Ib. II. 7. १२; XI. 4. १८; M. २२. ९२.फलकम्:/F the form of विष्णु wor- shipped in Ramyaka. फलकम्:F4:  भा. V. १८. २४.फलकम्:/F
(III)--a Vasu; a son of Uparicara and a Cedipa. भा. IX. २२. 6; M. ५०. २८.
(IV)--gift of a silver one during the ceremo- nial relating to the digging of tanks. M. ५८. १९. [page२-602+ ३५]
(V)--the image of. M. २५९. 2.
(VI)--the disciple of शाकल्य. वा. ६०. ६४.
(VII)--also मत्स्य पुराण; a महा पुराण consisting of १४००० श्लोकस्, फलकम्:F1:  Vi. III. 6. २३; भा. XII. 7. २४; १३. 8.फलकम्:/F styled as पुराण Samhita with details of सान्ख्य, Yoga and Karma narrated by Matsya Hari to king Satyavrata during the deluge. फलकम्:F2:  Ib. VIII. २४. ५४-5.फलकम्:/F

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Matsya : m. (pl.): Name of a country and its people; the country designated as janapada, rāṣṭra, or viṣaya; their capital town referred to as Matsyanagara.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37, 5; (matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ) 6. 10. 38; situated around Kuru country (paritaḥ kurūn) 4. 1. 9; at one place Matsyas are said to lie to the east of Indraprastha (2. 27. 1, 8-9) and at another place to the south of it (2. 28. 1-2, 4); designated as janapada or rāṣṭra in 4. 1. 8-9; 4. 29. 8; 6. 18. 13; as viṣaya in 4. 29. 19, 23-24; its internal divisions also referred to as rāṣṭra (pl.) 4. 29. 9; Matsyas distinguished from the Aparamatsyas (i. e. Matsyas of the borderland ?) 2. 28. 4.


B. Description: (i) of the country: delightful (ramaṇīya, ramya), having ample food (bahvanna), well-protected (gupta) 4. 1. 8-9; (bahudhānyasamākula) 4. 29. 8; very prosperous (susamṛddha) 4. 29. 24; (ii) of their warriors (on the side of both Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas): heroic (vīra) 7. 42. 18; (śūra) 4. 31. 1, 10; 6. 18. 13; 7. 8. 27; 7. 21. 24; strong, very strong (balavant), (mahābala), of great heroism (mahāvīrya) 4. 31. 2; 7. 13. 36; 7. 21. 24; valorous (vikrānta, parākrānta) 5. 52. 2; 7. 21. 24; great chariot-fighters (mahāratha), arrogant in battles (yuddhadurmada), skilled in fighting with arrows (dhanurvedaviśārada) 4. 31. 2; 6. 70 33; 7. 21. 24; having arms as large as parigha (parighabāhu) 4. 31. 10; ready to give up their lives in battles (tanūtyaj) 6. 18. 13; not of cruel appearance (anṛśaṁsarūpa) 5. 47. 33.


C. Characteristic nature: According to a certain Brāhmaṇa (8. 30. 57), Matsyas knew the eternal dharma; they practised the ancient dharma (matsyāḥ…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam/… dharmaṁ purāṇam upajīvanti) 8. 30. 6062, 75; according to Rākṣasa Kalmāṣapāda, Matsyas were truth incarnate (satyaṁ matsyāḥ) 8. 30. 73.


D. Epic events:

(1) Pāṇḍavas, after their escape from Vāraṇāvata, passed through Matsyas, Trigartas and other countries 1. 144. 2;

(2) Matsyas, afraid of Jarāsandha. fled from the north to the south (tathottarāṁ diśaṁ parityajya bhayārditāḥ/…matsyāḥ …dakṣiṇāṁ diśam āśritāḥ//) 2. 13. 27;

(3) Bhīma in his expedition to the east (2. 26. 1) defeated Matsyas 2. 27. 8-9;

(4) Sahadeva in his expedition to the south (2. 28. 1) brought under control the king of Matsyas (matsyarājaṁ...vaśe cakre) and also defeated Aparamatsyas (aparamatsyāṁś ca vyajayat) 2. 28. 2, 4;

(5) Matsya country was one of those suggested by Arjuna to Yudhiṣṭhira for their stay during ajñātavāsa 4. 1. 910;

(6) Virāṭa offered Kaṅka the rulership of Matsyas (praśādhi matsyān) 4. 6. 11;

(7) When Bṛhannaḍā (Arjuna) arrived in the court of Virāṭa, he (Virāṭa) told him to protect Matsyas 4. 10. 7;

(8) In the fourth month of ajñātavāsa there was a grand festival in the Matsya country in honour of Brahman (atha māse caturthe tu brahmaṇaḥ sumahotsavaḥ/ āsīt...matsyeṣu) 4. 12. 12; during the wrestling match, when Ballava (Bhīma) whirled his opponent round, Matsyas were struck with wonder 4. 12. 22;

(9) Sairandhrī (Draupadī) lamented that no one among the Matsyas, nor any one of those present in the assembly showed any knowledge of dharma (svadharmastho na ca matsyaḥ kathaṁcana/sabhāsado 'py adharmajñā...) 4. 15. 25; Yudhiṣṭhira blamed Sairandhrī (Draupadī) for disturbing the dice-game of Matsyas which was in progress in the royal assembly (vighnaṁ karoṣi matsyānāṁ dīvyatāṁ rājasaṁsadi) 4. 15. 34;

(10) Bhīma assured Draupadī that he would kill Matsyas if they came to know that it was he who had killed Kīcaka 4. 21. 33;

(11) Suśarman informed Duryodhana that he was formerly often insulted by the Matsyas 4. 29. 2;

(12) When the cattle-raid was reported to Virāṭa he ordered his army to get ready to fight (senāṁ matsyānāṁ samayojayat) 4. 30. 8; Matsyas encountered Trigartas in the evening (sūrye pariṇate sati); Matsyas and Trigartas fought with one another anxious to get control of the cattle 4. 31. 1-2; (the battle is described in 4. 31. 3-24; 4. 32. 1 ff.); when Virāṭa was held captive by Trigartas, Matsyas who were much oppressed by Trigartas fled in fright (prādravanta bhayāt matsyās trigartair arditā bhṛśam//teṣu saṁtrāsyamāneṣu) 4. 32. 10-11;

(13) It was decided that after Trigartas had left for the Matsya country the previous evening, Duryodhana should attack Virāṭa the next morning (4. 42. 10-11); it was also decided that Trigartas should first capture a large section of the cattle of Matsyas 4. 42. 9-10; accordingly the Trigartas reached the Matsya country and captured their cattle 4. 33. 1, 4; when Virāṭa was released from the captivity of the Trigartas he told Kaṅka, Ballava and others that they had become the rulers of Matsyas (tasmād bhavanto matsyānām īśvarāḥ sarva eva hi) 4. 32. 39; Uttara told Bṛhannaḍā that he did not mind if the Kauravas drove away a large number of cows of Matsyas 4. 36. 24; Duryodhana told Bhīṣma that since the Kauravas wished to fight with the army of Matsyas they were looking for Uttara (uttaraṁ mārgamāṇānāṁ matsyasenāṁ yuyutsatām) 4. 42. 8 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 4. 47. 8: uttaraṁ gograhaṁ mārgamāṇānām icchatām asmākam/anādare ṣaṣṭhī/asmān anādṛtyety arthaḥ); Duryodhana reminded Bhīṣma that Kauravas had marched on Matsyas for the sake of Trigartas since the Trigartas had reported many wrongs done to them by Matsyas (matsyānāṁ viprakārāṁs te bahūn asmān akīrtayan);

(14) At the invitation of Virāṭa and Drupada, kings assembled (in the town of Virāṭa) to take side of Pāṇḍavas 5. 5. 14;

(15) Karṇa told Bhīṣma that Yudhiṣṭhira wanted to get his share of kingdom because he had the support of Matsyas (balam āśritya matsyānām) 5. 21. 21;

(16) Saṁjaya told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Matsyas greeted Yudhiṣṭhira (matsyāḥ pratinandanti) 5. 49., 7; however, they did not respect Dhṛtarāṣṭra (matsyās tvām adya nārcanti) 5. 53. 17;

(17) Arjuna told Saṁjaya that Duryodhana would repent to have waged war when Virāṭa, with his army of Matsyas who in appearance were not cruel, would enter the vital section of the army of their enemies (marmāntare śatrucamūṁ praveṣṭā/matsyaiḥ sārdham anṛśaṁsarūpaiḥ) 5. 47. 33; Saṁjaya too had earlier told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Matsyas were valorous (parākrāntāḥ) 5. 52. 2;

(18) Matsyas enumerated among those who were to fight on the side of Pāṇḍavas 5. 56. 12, 33;

(19) Duryodhana assured Dhṛtarāṣṭra that he would defeat Matsyas (matsyāṁś ca…śrotāsi vijitān mayā) 5. 60. 25; Karṇa assured Duryodhana that he would kill Matsyas with his brahmāstra 5. 61. 5;

(20) Yudhiṣṭhira was prepared for peace for only five villages although he was supported, among others, by Matsyas (…matsyaiś ca madhusūdana/bhavatā caiva nāthena pañca grāmā vṛtā mayā) 5. 70. 14;

(21) Matsyas included among those who protected the army of Duryodhana (rājacamūṁ sametām/…guptām…samatsyaiḥ) 5. 158. 1920; they are listed among the twelve heroic Janapadas whose chariot-fighters protected Bhīṣma in the war (dvādaśaite janapadāḥ sarve śūrās tanūtyajaḥ/mahatā rathavaṁśena te 'bhyarakṣan pitāmahaṁ//) 6. 18. 13-14; at the start of the war, Matsyas were stationed in the middle of the army (sarvasainyasya madhye) 6. 20. 12 (were these Matsyas on the side of the Kauravas from Aparamatsya of the south who had fled from the main stock due to fear of Jarāsandha ? 2. 28. 4; 2. 13. 27);

(22) On the first day of war, Bhīṣma killed (pātayām āsa) Matsyas (those fighting for Pāṇḍavas) 6. 45. 54;

(23) On the second day, he showered many arrows on them (vavarṣa śaravarṣāṇi) 6. 48. 9; Matsyas (on the Pāṇḍavas' side) led by Bhīma attacked Niṣādas 6. 50. 8; later, when Bhīma killed Kaliṅgas, they honoured him 6. 50. 110;

(24) On the third day, Matsyas led by Aśvatthāman and Kṛpa were stationed at the head of the Garuḍavyūha (6. 52. 2) of Kauravas 6. 52. 4; those who fought on the side of Pāṇḍavas raised a loud roar when they attacked the army of Kauravas 6. 55. 126;

(25) On the fifth day, Matsyas marched on Duryodhana and Śakuni 6. 67. 20; they surrounded Arjuna fighting with Bhīṣma (parivavrus tadā pārtham) 6. 70. 33;

(26) On the tenth day, Bhīṣma alone killed innumerable horses and elephants as also seven great warriors (sapta mahārathāḥ) from Matsyas and Pāñcālas; he also killed five thousand chariot-fighters and fourteen thousand foot-soldiers (pañca sahasrāṇi rathinām…/narāṇāṁ ca…sahasrāṇi caturdaśa) 6. 113. 21-22. Matsya and Pāñcāla warriors, while attacking Bhīṣma, raised cries (kilakilāśabdaḥ); they covered him (chādayām āsuḥ) with excellent horses, hosts of chariots and elephants and footsoldiers 6. 113. 47-48;

(27) Dhṛtarāṣṭra enquired who opposed Droṇa when he wanted to fight with the chariot-fighters (rathānīkam) of Virāṭa, the Matsya 7. 9. 67; he imagined that Dhṛṣṭadyumna must have killed Droṇa when he was encircled and excessively distracted by Matsyas and the rest (tair vṛtaḥ sarvataḥ …matsyair anyaiś ca bhūmipaīḥ vyākulīkṛtam ācāryam) 7. 8. 27-28;

(28) On the eleventh day, after assuming charge of the Kaurava army when Droṇa attacked Pāṇḍavas, their heroes and army, including Matsyas, checked his advance (and that of his army); that angered Droṇa (paryagṛhṇaṁs tataḥ sarve samāyāntam… saṁgṛhyamāṇāṁ tāṁ dṛṣṭvā…vāhinīm) 7. 7. 4, 7; assisted by Matsyas Virāṭa opposed Karṇa 7. 13. 36; Pāṇḍavas along with Matsyas held back Kaurava chariotfighters headed by Aśvatthāman 7. 15. 11;

(29) On the twelfth day, Matsyas attacked Droṇa when he killed Satyajit; they fled when Droṇa killed Śatānīka; Droṇa defeated Matsyas 7. 20. 18, 22-23; mighty Droṇa threw Matsyas into disorder (vyakṣobhayat) who were very much angered due to the death of a Pāñcālya prince; when they got killed they trembled (matsyāḥ samakampanta) 7. 20. 49, 53; pushed back by the arrows of Droṇa they were shaken (calitān) 7. 21. 7; Karṇa pointed out to Duryodhana Matsyas who, when instigated by Bhīma, followed him 7. 21. 23; the war between Matsyas and Kekayas (on the side of Kauravas) in which horses, elephants and chariot-fighters were not afraid became extremely confused (utpiñjalakaṁ yuddham…abhītāśvarathadvipam) 7. 24. 21 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 25. 21: utpiñjalakam atyantākulam);

(30) On the thirteenth day, when Abhimanyu attempted to break through the cakravyūha Matsyas were to follow him 7. 34. 22; led by Yudhiṣṭhira they attacked the army of Droṇa to break it (droṇānīkaṁ bibhitsavaḥ) 7. 39. 17; striking Matsyas arranged properly their forces (vyūḍhānīkāḥ prahāriṇaḥ) and attacked Kaurava army; as a result Kaurava army turned back 7. 41. 3-4; Matsyas tried to attack Jayadratha 7. 42. 18; when Abhimanyu's death was reported to Subhadrā she expressed her disgust for Matsyas and others who could not help Abhimanyu (dhik…matsyāñ…) 7. 55. 13;

(31) On the fourteenth day, Matsyas led by Dhṛṣṭadyumna, rushed straight towards Droṇa in order to help Sātyaki (ājagmur añjasā) 7. 73. 50; Droṇa defeated hundreds and thousands of Matsyas (ajayan mahābāhuḥ śataśo 'tha sahasraśaḥ) 7. 85. 31; Droṇa uttered loudly his own name while attacking opponents (nāma viśrāvya saṁyuge) and killed many Matsyas (pracakre kadanaṁ mahat) 7. 98. 26; Yudhiṣṭhira remembered Arjuna's former victory over Kauravas when Pāṇḍas vas lived in the town of Matsyas 7. 103. 38; at the advent of night, Matsyas led by Virāṭa attacked Droṇa (sāyāhne 7. 129. 5; babhūva rajanī ghorā 7. 129. 12) 7. 129, 7;

(32) During the night-war (14th-15th day) Matsyas followed Arjuna and Bhīma who intended to oppress respectively the southern and the northern flanks of Kaurava army (bībhatsur dakṣiṇaṁ pārśvam uttaraṁ tu vṛkodaraḥ) 7. 132. 40-41; 7. 136. 14; Duryodhana asked Karṇa to protect the army which was engulfed by angered Matsyas (matsyakaikeyaiḥ…/vṛtān samantāt saṁkruddhair) 7. 133. 2-3; when everybody believed that Duryodhana was killed by Bhīma, Matsyas rushed towards Droṇa to fight with him with utmost effort (sarvodyogenābhijagmur droṇam eva yuyutsayā) 7. 141. 60; Droṇa defeated all Matsyas and even killed many of them (matsyāṁś caivājayat sarvān…hateṣu matsyeṣu) 7. 161. 32. 35;

(33) On the fifteenth day, Yudhiṣṭhira urged Matsya heroes (nararṣabhān) to go to help Bhīma and others; then their chariot-fighters attacked Droṇa 7. 164. 48-53; Droṇa killed five hundred Matsyas with his brahmāstra (pañcaśatān matsyān) 7. 164. 85, 79; later, Kṛpa informed Aśvatthāman that when Matsyas tried to attack Droṇa they perished as dictated by Fate (saṁkhye droṇarathaṁ prāpya vyanaśan kālacoditāḥ) 7. 165. 101; Aśvatthāman promised Duryodhana that he would rout Matsyas by his nārāyaṇāstra (vidrāvayiṣyāmi) 7. 166. 52; when Pāṇḍava army was routed by Aśvatthāman, Arjuna supported by Matsyas faced Kauravas 7. 172. 3;

(34) On the sixteenth day, Matsyas and the rest surrounded Karṇa with their chariots, horses, elephants and valorous foot-soldiers and struck him with various weapons; bent on killing Karṇa they spoke harsh words to him (bhāṣanto vāgbhir ugrābhiḥ sarve karṇavadhe vṛtāḥ) 8. 21. 2627; Karṇa scattered them away (apovāha) and killed them 8. 21. 28-29;

(35) On the seventeenth day, Kṛpa, Kṛtavarman and Śakuni fought with Matsyas; prepared for the fight (daṁśitāḥ), they attacked Karṇa and struck him with various weapons and showers of arrows 8. 32. 17, 4344; the surviving Matsyas (matsyaśeṣāḥ), to help Yudhiṣṭhira, checked Karṇa 8. 33. 22; Matsyas and others, protected by Arjuna were able to reduce the army of Kauravas (kṛtaḥ śatrugaṇakṣayaḥ) 8. 51. 6; Kṛṣṇa remembered that earlier in the war, Bhīṣma had killed Matsyas with arrows 8. 51. 27; when Matsyas were getting killed (vadhyamānāḥ) they attacked Karṇa and afflicted him with arrows (śarasaṁghaiḥ samārdayan); but Karṇa killed them with sharp arrows 8. 56. 24; later, when Dhṛtarāṣṭra was informed that Karṇa was killed by Arjuna he remembered Karṇa's former victory over Matsyas 8. 5. 18;

(36) On the last day of the war, Matsyas, especially, were again delighted while encouraging Yudhiṣṭhira to fulfil his vow to kill Śalya (tataḥ praharṣaḥ…punar āsīt…/matsyānāṁ ca viśeṣataḥ/pratijñāṁ…dharmarājasya pūrayan//) 9. 15. 26-27; beholding the feat of Śālva, Matsyas uttered cries of despair; their excellent heroes obstructed the elephant of Śālva from all sides (hāhākārair nādayantaḥ sma yuddhe/ dvipaṁ samantād rurudhur narāgryāḥ) 9. 19. 21;

(37) Night of the eighteenth day: after the massacre in the camp of Pāṇḍavas, Aśvatthāman boasted that he had killed all the surviving Matsyas and reported the event to Duryodhana (matsyaśeṣāś ca sarve vinihatā mayā) 10. 8. 150; 10. 9. 49; the event later reported to Kuntī by Yudhiṣṭhira 15. 44. 33-34;

(38) Gāndhārī pointed out to Kṛṣṇa the women of noble family of Virāṭa (matsyarājakulastriyaḥ) trying to take away Uttarā from the dead body of Abhimanyu; then they themselves, more afflicted, cried and lamented over the death of Virāṭa 11. 20. 27-28.


E. Past event: King Sahaja of Cedis and Matsyas listed by Bhīma among eighteen kings who extirpated their kinsmen, friends and relatives 5. 72. 16.


F. Mostly Virāṭa, occasionally some others, designated in various ways as king or the best of the Matsyas:


A. King of Matsyas: (i) matsya: Virāṭa 2. 48. 25; 2. 49. 8; 4. 1. 13; 4. 5. 4; 4. 6. 12; 4. 12. 1, 6; 4. 13. 1; 4. 15. 13; 4. 15. 25-26; 4. 17. 22; 4. 18. 26, 33; 4. 19. 25; 4. 21. 34; 4. 24. 19; 4. 29. 2, 23; 4. 30. 17, 19; 4. 32. 7^2, 46^2, 48; 4. 33. 9, 11; 4. 36. 4; 4. 42. 12-14; 4. 47. 17; 4. 61. 12, 29; 4. 63. 36, 38; 4. 64. 11, 37; 4. 65. 5; 4. 66. 28; 4. 67. 12, 19, 26; 5. 1. 2, 4; 5. 5. 14; 5. 27. 18; 5. 149. 10; 6. 68. 1; 6. 77. 24; 6. 78. 14; 6. 112. 42; 7. 9. 67; 7. 15. 28; 7. 20. 20; 7. 22. 9; 7. 24. 20; 7. 70. 43; (ii) matsyarāj: Virāṭa 4. 10. 11; 4. 11. 2; 4. 12. 16; (iii) matsyarāja:

(1) Yudhiṣṭhira (Kaṅka) 4. 32. 42;

(2) Virāṭa 2. 28. 2 (?); 4. 21. 3; 4. 29. 24; 4. 30. 4; 4. 31. 24; 4. 32. 4, 12, 21, 42; 4. 38. 13; 4. 63. 29, 51; 4. 66. 15, 22; 4. 67. 38; 5. 49. 14; 5. 62. 30; 7. 133. 38; (iv) matsyarājan: Virāṭa 1. 1. 115; 4. 17. 5; 4. 29. 4; 4. 31. 23; 4. 32. 8; 7. 22. 8; matsyānām rājan:

(1) Kīcaka 4. 21. 9;

(2) Virāṭa 4. 21. 9; 4. 30. 12; 4. 42. 15; 4. 43. 2; 4. 63. 5, 13; 5. 19. 12; (v) matsyapati: Virāṭa 4. 33. 20; 5. 1. 2;


B. The best among the Matsyas: (i) matsyaº ºsattama: (matsyabhāratasattamau): Virāṭa 4. 66. 29; (ii) jyeṣṭhaṁ mātsyānām: Uttara 5. 47. 34.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Matsya : m. (pl.): Name of a country and its people; the country designated as janapada, rāṣṭra, or viṣaya; their capital town referred to as Matsyanagara.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37, 5; (matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ) 6. 10. 38; situated around Kuru country (paritaḥ kurūn) 4. 1. 9; at one place Matsyas are said to lie to the east of Indraprastha (2. 27. 1, 8-9) and at another place to the south of it (2. 28. 1-2, 4); designated as janapada or rāṣṭra in 4. 1. 8-9; 4. 29. 8; 6. 18. 13; as viṣaya in 4. 29. 19, 23-24; its internal divisions also referred to as rāṣṭra (pl.) 4. 29. 9; Matsyas distinguished from the Aparamatsyas (i. e. Matsyas of the borderland ?) 2. 28. 4.


B. Description: (i) of the country: delightful (ramaṇīya, ramya), having ample food (bahvanna), well-protected (gupta) 4. 1. 8-9; (bahudhānyasamākula) 4. 29. 8; very prosperous (susamṛddha) 4. 29. 24; (ii) of their warriors (on the side of both Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas): heroic (vīra) 7. 42. 18; (śūra) 4. 31. 1, 10; 6. 18. 13; 7. 8. 27; 7. 21. 24; strong, very strong (balavant), (mahābala), of great heroism (mahāvīrya) 4. 31. 2; 7. 13. 36; 7. 21. 24; valorous (vikrānta, parākrānta) 5. 52. 2; 7. 21. 24; great chariot-fighters (mahāratha), arrogant in battles (yuddhadurmada), skilled in fighting with arrows (dhanurvedaviśārada) 4. 31. 2; 6. 70 33; 7. 21. 24; having arms as large as parigha (parighabāhu) 4. 31. 10; ready to give up their lives in battles (tanūtyaj) 6. 18. 13; not of cruel appearance (anṛśaṁsarūpa) 5. 47. 33.


C. Characteristic nature: According to a certain Brāhmaṇa (8. 30. 57), Matsyas knew the eternal dharma; they practised the ancient dharma (matsyāḥ…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam/… dharmaṁ purāṇam upajīvanti) 8. 30. 6062, 75; according to Rākṣasa Kalmāṣapāda, Matsyas were truth incarnate (satyaṁ matsyāḥ) 8. 30. 73.


D. Epic events:

(1) Pāṇḍavas, after their escape from Vāraṇāvata, passed through Matsyas, Trigartas and other countries 1. 144. 2;

(2) Matsyas, afraid of Jarāsandha. fled from the north to the south (tathottarāṁ diśaṁ parityajya bhayārditāḥ/…matsyāḥ …dakṣiṇāṁ diśam āśritāḥ//) 2. 13. 27;

(3) Bhīma in his expedition to the east (2. 26. 1) defeated Matsyas 2. 27. 8-9;

(4) Sahadeva in his expedition to the south (2. 28. 1) brought under control the king of Matsyas (matsyarājaṁ...vaśe cakre) and also defeated Aparamatsyas (aparamatsyāṁś ca vyajayat) 2. 28. 2, 4;

(5) Matsya country was one of those suggested by Arjuna to Yudhiṣṭhira for their stay during ajñātavāsa 4. 1. 910;

(6) Virāṭa offered Kaṅka the rulership of Matsyas (praśādhi matsyān) 4. 6. 11;

(7) When Bṛhannaḍā (Arjuna) arrived in the court of Virāṭa, he (Virāṭa) told him to protect Matsyas 4. 10. 7;

(8) In the fourth month of ajñātavāsa there was a grand festival in the Matsya country in honour of Brahman (atha māse caturthe tu brahmaṇaḥ sumahotsavaḥ/ āsīt...matsyeṣu) 4. 12. 12; during the wrestling match, when Ballava (Bhīma) whirled his opponent round, Matsyas were struck with wonder 4. 12. 22;

(9) Sairandhrī (Draupadī) lamented that no one among the Matsyas, nor any one of those present in the assembly showed any knowledge of dharma (svadharmastho na ca matsyaḥ kathaṁcana/sabhāsado 'py adharmajñā...) 4. 15. 25; Yudhiṣṭhira blamed Sairandhrī (Draupadī) for disturbing the dice-game of Matsyas which was in progress in the royal assembly (vighnaṁ karoṣi matsyānāṁ dīvyatāṁ rājasaṁsadi) 4. 15. 34;

(10) Bhīma assured Draupadī that he would kill Matsyas if they came to know that it was he who had killed Kīcaka 4. 21. 33;

(11) Suśarman informed Duryodhana that he was formerly often insulted by the Matsyas 4. 29. 2;

(12) When the cattle-raid was reported to Virāṭa he ordered his army to get ready to fight (senāṁ matsyānāṁ samayojayat) 4. 30. 8; Matsyas encountered Trigartas in the evening (sūrye pariṇate sati); Matsyas and Trigartas fought with one another anxious to get control of the cattle 4. 31. 1-2; (the battle is described in 4. 31. 3-24; 4. 32. 1 ff.); when Virāṭa was held captive by Trigartas, Matsyas who were much oppressed by Trigartas fled in fright (prādravanta bhayāt matsyās trigartair arditā bhṛśam//teṣu saṁtrāsyamāneṣu) 4. 32. 10-11;

(13) It was decided that after Trigartas had left for the Matsya country the previous evening, Duryodhana should attack Virāṭa the next morning (4. 42. 10-11); it was also decided that Trigartas should first capture a large section of the cattle of Matsyas 4. 42. 9-10; accordingly the Trigartas reached the Matsya country and captured their cattle 4. 33. 1, 4; when Virāṭa was released from the captivity of the Trigartas he told Kaṅka, Ballava and others that they had become the rulers of Matsyas (tasmād bhavanto matsyānām īśvarāḥ sarva eva hi) 4. 32. 39; Uttara told Bṛhannaḍā that he did not mind if the Kauravas drove away a large number of cows of Matsyas 4. 36. 24; Duryodhana told Bhīṣma that since the Kauravas wished to fight with the army of Matsyas they were looking for Uttara (uttaraṁ mārgamāṇānāṁ matsyasenāṁ yuyutsatām) 4. 42. 8 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 4. 47. 8: uttaraṁ gograhaṁ mārgamāṇānām icchatām asmākam/anādare ṣaṣṭhī/asmān anādṛtyety arthaḥ); Duryodhana reminded Bhīṣma that Kauravas had marched on Matsyas for the sake of Trigartas since the Trigartas had reported many wrongs done to them by Matsyas (matsyānāṁ viprakārāṁs te bahūn asmān akīrtayan);

(14) At the invitation of Virāṭa and Drupada, kings assembled (in the town of Virāṭa) to take side of Pāṇḍavas 5. 5. 14;

(15) Karṇa told Bhīṣma that Yudhiṣṭhira wanted to get his share of kingdom because he had the support of Matsyas (balam āśritya matsyānām) 5. 21. 21;

(16) Saṁjaya told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Matsyas greeted Yudhiṣṭhira (matsyāḥ pratinandanti) 5. 49., 7; however, they did not respect Dhṛtarāṣṭra (matsyās tvām adya nārcanti) 5. 53. 17;

(17) Arjuna told Saṁjaya that Duryodhana would repent to have waged war when Virāṭa, with his army of Matsyas who in appearance were not cruel, would enter the vital section of the army of their enemies (marmāntare śatrucamūṁ praveṣṭā/matsyaiḥ sārdham anṛśaṁsarūpaiḥ) 5. 47. 33; Saṁjaya too had earlier told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Matsyas were valorous (parākrāntāḥ) 5. 52. 2;

(18) Matsyas enumerated among those who were to fight on the side of Pāṇḍavas 5. 56. 12, 33;

(19) Duryodhana assured Dhṛtarāṣṭra that he would defeat Matsyas (matsyāṁś ca…śrotāsi vijitān mayā) 5. 60. 25; Karṇa assured Duryodhana that he would kill Matsyas with his brahmāstra 5. 61. 5;

(20) Yudhiṣṭhira was prepared for peace for only five villages although he was supported, among others, by Matsyas (…matsyaiś ca madhusūdana/bhavatā caiva nāthena pañca grāmā vṛtā mayā) 5. 70. 14;

(21) Matsyas included among those who protected the army of Duryodhana (rājacamūṁ sametām/…guptām…samatsyaiḥ) 5. 158. 1920; they are listed among the twelve heroic Janapadas whose chariot-fighters protected Bhīṣma in the war (dvādaśaite janapadāḥ sarve śūrās tanūtyajaḥ/mahatā rathavaṁśena te 'bhyarakṣan pitāmahaṁ//) 6. 18. 13-14; at the start of the war, Matsyas were stationed in the middle of the army (sarvasainyasya madhye) 6. 20. 12 (were these Matsyas on the side of the Kauravas from Aparamatsya of the south who had fled from the main stock due to fear of Jarāsandha ? 2. 28. 4; 2. 13. 27);

(22) On the first day of war, Bhīṣma killed (pātayām āsa) Matsyas (those fighting for Pāṇḍavas) 6. 45. 54;

(23) On the second day, he showered many arrows on them (vavarṣa śaravarṣāṇi) 6. 48. 9; Matsyas (on the Pāṇḍavas' side) led by Bhīma attacked Niṣādas 6. 50. 8; later, when Bhīma killed Kaliṅgas, they honoured him 6. 50. 110;

(24) On the third day, Matsyas led by Aśvatthāman and Kṛpa were stationed at the head of the Garuḍavyūha (6. 52. 2) of Kauravas 6. 52. 4; those who fought on the side of Pāṇḍavas raised a loud roar when they attacked the army of Kauravas 6. 55. 126;

(25) On the fifth day, Matsyas marched on Duryodhana and Śakuni 6. 67. 20; they surrounded Arjuna fighting with Bhīṣma (parivavrus tadā pārtham) 6. 70. 33;

(26) On the tenth day, Bhīṣma alone killed innumerable horses and elephants as also seven great warriors (sapta mahārathāḥ) from Matsyas and Pāñcālas; he also killed five thousand chariot-fighters and fourteen thousand foot-soldiers (pañca sahasrāṇi rathinām…/narāṇāṁ ca…sahasrāṇi caturdaśa) 6. 113. 21-22. Matsya and Pāñcāla warriors, while attacking Bhīṣma, raised cries (kilakilāśabdaḥ); they covered him (chādayām āsuḥ) with excellent horses, hosts of chariots and elephants and footsoldiers 6. 113. 47-48;

(27) Dhṛtarāṣṭra enquired who opposed Droṇa when he wanted to fight with the chariot-fighters (rathānīkam) of Virāṭa, the Matsya 7. 9. 67; he imagined that Dhṛṣṭadyumna must have killed Droṇa when he was encircled and excessively distracted by Matsyas and the rest (tair vṛtaḥ sarvataḥ …matsyair anyaiś ca bhūmipaīḥ vyākulīkṛtam ācāryam) 7. 8. 27-28;

(28) On the eleventh day, after assuming charge of the Kaurava army when Droṇa attacked Pāṇḍavas, their heroes and army, including Matsyas, checked his advance (and that of his army); that angered Droṇa (paryagṛhṇaṁs tataḥ sarve samāyāntam… saṁgṛhyamāṇāṁ tāṁ dṛṣṭvā…vāhinīm) 7. 7. 4, 7; assisted by Matsyas Virāṭa opposed Karṇa 7. 13. 36; Pāṇḍavas along with Matsyas held back Kaurava chariotfighters headed by Aśvatthāman 7. 15. 11;

(29) On the twelfth day, Matsyas attacked Droṇa when he killed Satyajit; they fled when Droṇa killed Śatānīka; Droṇa defeated Matsyas 7. 20. 18, 22-23; mighty Droṇa threw Matsyas into disorder (vyakṣobhayat) who were very much angered due to the death of a Pāñcālya prince; when they got killed they trembled (matsyāḥ samakampanta) 7. 20. 49, 53; pushed back by the arrows of Droṇa they were shaken (calitān) 7. 21. 7; Karṇa pointed out to Duryodhana Matsyas who, when instigated by Bhīma, followed him 7. 21. 23; the war between Matsyas and Kekayas (on the side of Kauravas) in which horses, elephants and chariot-fighters were not afraid became extremely confused (utpiñjalakaṁ yuddham…abhītāśvarathadvipam) 7. 24. 21 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 25. 21: utpiñjalakam atyantākulam);

(30) On the thirteenth day, when Abhimanyu attempted to break through the cakravyūha Matsyas were to follow him 7. 34. 22; led by Yudhiṣṭhira they attacked the army of Droṇa to break it (droṇānīkaṁ bibhitsavaḥ) 7. 39. 17; striking Matsyas arranged properly their forces (vyūḍhānīkāḥ prahāriṇaḥ) and attacked Kaurava army; as a result Kaurava army turned back 7. 41. 3-4; Matsyas tried to attack Jayadratha 7. 42. 18; when Abhimanyu's death was reported to Subhadrā she expressed her disgust for Matsyas and others who could not help Abhimanyu (dhik…matsyāñ…) 7. 55. 13;

(31) On the fourteenth day, Matsyas led by Dhṛṣṭadyumna, rushed straight towards Droṇa in order to help Sātyaki (ājagmur añjasā) 7. 73. 50; Droṇa defeated hundreds and thousands of Matsyas (ajayan mahābāhuḥ śataśo 'tha sahasraśaḥ) 7. 85. 31; Droṇa uttered loudly his own name while attacking opponents (nāma viśrāvya saṁyuge) and killed many Matsyas (pracakre kadanaṁ mahat) 7. 98. 26; Yudhiṣṭhira remembered Arjuna's former victory over Kauravas when Pāṇḍas vas lived in the town of Matsyas 7. 103. 38; at the advent of night, Matsyas led by Virāṭa attacked Droṇa (sāyāhne 7. 129. 5; babhūva rajanī ghorā 7. 129. 12) 7. 129, 7;

(32) During the night-war (14th-15th day) Matsyas followed Arjuna and Bhīma who intended to oppress respectively the southern and the northern flanks of Kaurava army (bībhatsur dakṣiṇaṁ pārśvam uttaraṁ tu vṛkodaraḥ) 7. 132. 40-41; 7. 136. 14; Duryodhana asked Karṇa to protect the army which was engulfed by angered Matsyas (matsyakaikeyaiḥ…/vṛtān samantāt saṁkruddhair) 7. 133. 2-3; when everybody believed that Duryodhana was killed by Bhīma, Matsyas rushed towards Droṇa to fight with him with utmost effort (sarvodyogenābhijagmur droṇam eva yuyutsayā) 7. 141. 60; Droṇa defeated all Matsyas and even killed many of them (matsyāṁś caivājayat sarvān…hateṣu matsyeṣu) 7. 161. 32. 35;

(33) On the fifteenth day, Yudhiṣṭhira urged Matsya heroes (nararṣabhān) to go to help Bhīma and others; then their chariot-fighters attacked Droṇa 7. 164. 48-53; Droṇa killed five hundred Matsyas with his brahmāstra (pañcaśatān matsyān) 7. 164. 85, 79; later, Kṛpa informed Aśvatthāman that when Matsyas tried to attack Droṇa they perished as dictated by Fate (saṁkhye droṇarathaṁ prāpya vyanaśan kālacoditāḥ) 7. 165. 101; Aśvatthāman promised Duryodhana that he would rout Matsyas by his nārāyaṇāstra (vidrāvayiṣyāmi) 7. 166. 52; when Pāṇḍava army was routed by Aśvatthāman, Arjuna supported by Matsyas faced Kauravas 7. 172. 3;

(34) On the sixteenth day, Matsyas and the rest surrounded Karṇa with their chariots, horses, elephants and valorous foot-soldiers and struck him with various weapons; bent on killing Karṇa they spoke harsh words to him (bhāṣanto vāgbhir ugrābhiḥ sarve karṇavadhe vṛtāḥ) 8. 21. 2627; Karṇa scattered them away (apovāha) and killed them 8. 21. 28-29;

(35) On the seventeenth day, Kṛpa, Kṛtavarman and Śakuni fought with Matsyas; prepared for the fight (daṁśitāḥ), they attacked Karṇa and struck him with various weapons and showers of arrows 8. 32. 17, 4344; the surviving Matsyas (matsyaśeṣāḥ), to help Yudhiṣṭhira, checked Karṇa 8. 33. 22; Matsyas and others, protected by Arjuna were able to reduce the army of Kauravas (kṛtaḥ śatrugaṇakṣayaḥ) 8. 51. 6; Kṛṣṇa remembered that earlier in the war, Bhīṣma had killed Matsyas with arrows 8. 51. 27; when Matsyas were getting killed (vadhyamānāḥ) they attacked Karṇa and afflicted him with arrows (śarasaṁghaiḥ samārdayan); but Karṇa killed them with sharp arrows 8. 56. 24; later, when Dhṛtarāṣṭra was informed that Karṇa was killed by Arjuna he remembered Karṇa's former victory over Matsyas 8. 5. 18;

(36) On the last day of the war, Matsyas, especially, were again delighted while encouraging Yudhiṣṭhira to fulfil his vow to kill Śalya (tataḥ praharṣaḥ…punar āsīt…/matsyānāṁ ca viśeṣataḥ/pratijñāṁ…dharmarājasya pūrayan//) 9. 15. 26-27; beholding the feat of Śālva, Matsyas uttered cries of despair; their excellent heroes obstructed the elephant of Śālva from all sides (hāhākārair nādayantaḥ sma yuddhe/ dvipaṁ samantād rurudhur narāgryāḥ) 9. 19. 21;

(37) Night of the eighteenth day: after the massacre in the camp of Pāṇḍavas, Aśvatthāman boasted that he had killed all the surviving Matsyas and reported the event to Duryodhana (matsyaśeṣāś ca sarve vinihatā mayā) 10. 8. 150; 10. 9. 49; the event later reported to Kuntī by Yudhiṣṭhira 15. 44. 33-34;

(38) Gāndhārī pointed out to Kṛṣṇa the women of noble family of Virāṭa (matsyarājakulastriyaḥ) trying to take away Uttarā from the dead body of Abhimanyu; then they themselves, more afflicted, cried and lamented over the death of Virāṭa 11. 20. 27-28.


E. Past event: King Sahaja of Cedis and Matsyas listed by Bhīma among eighteen kings who extirpated their kinsmen, friends and relatives 5. 72. 16.


F. Mostly Virāṭa, occasionally some others, designated in various ways as king or the best of the Matsyas:


A. King of Matsyas: (i) matsya: Virāṭa 2. 48. 25; 2. 49. 8; 4. 1. 13; 4. 5. 4; 4. 6. 12; 4. 12. 1, 6; 4. 13. 1; 4. 15. 13; 4. 15. 25-26; 4. 17. 22; 4. 18. 26, 33; 4. 19. 25; 4. 21. 34; 4. 24. 19; 4. 29. 2, 23; 4. 30. 17, 19; 4. 32. 7^2, 46^2, 48; 4. 33. 9, 11; 4. 36. 4; 4. 42. 12-14; 4. 47. 17; 4. 61. 12, 29; 4. 63. 36, 38; 4. 64. 11, 37; 4. 65. 5; 4. 66. 28; 4. 67. 12, 19, 26; 5. 1. 2, 4; 5. 5. 14; 5. 27. 18; 5. 149. 10; 6. 68. 1; 6. 77. 24; 6. 78. 14; 6. 112. 42; 7. 9. 67; 7. 15. 28; 7. 20. 20; 7. 22. 9; 7. 24. 20; 7. 70. 43; (ii) matsyarāj: Virāṭa 4. 10. 11; 4. 11. 2; 4. 12. 16; (iii) matsyarāja:

(1) Yudhiṣṭhira (Kaṅka) 4. 32. 42;

(2) Virāṭa 2. 28. 2 (?); 4. 21. 3; 4. 29. 24; 4. 30. 4; 4. 31. 24; 4. 32. 4, 12, 21, 42; 4. 38. 13; 4. 63. 29, 51; 4. 66. 15, 22; 4. 67. 38; 5. 49. 14; 5. 62. 30; 7. 133. 38; (iv) matsyarājan: Virāṭa 1. 1. 115; 4. 17. 5; 4. 29. 4; 4. 31. 23; 4. 32. 8; 7. 22. 8; matsyānām rājan:

(1) Kīcaka 4. 21. 9;

(2) Virāṭa 4. 21. 9; 4. 30. 12; 4. 42. 15; 4. 43. 2; 4. 63. 5, 13; 5. 19. 12; (v) matsyapati: Virāṭa 4. 33. 20; 5. 1. 2;


B. The best among the Matsyas: (i) matsyaº ºsattama: (matsyabhāratasattamau): Virāṭa 4. 66. 29; (ii) jyeṣṭhaṁ mātsyānām: Uttara 5. 47. 34.


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Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


1. Matsya, ‘fish,’ is mentioned only once in the Rigveda,[१] but frequently later.[२]

2. Matsya appears to be the name of a people in one passage of the Rigveda,[३] where they are ranged with the other enemies of Sudās, although it is possible to see merely the sense of ‘fish’ in that passage. In the list of Aśvamedhins, ‘offerers of the horse sacrifice,’ in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,[४] Dhvasan Dvaitavana is mentioned as a Matsya king (Mātsya). The Matsyas as a people occur also in the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad[५] in connexion with the Vaśas,[६] and in the Gopatha Brāhmaṇa[७] in connexion with Śālvas. In Manu[८] the Kurukṣetra, the Matsyas, the Pancālas, and the Śūrasenakas comprise the land of the Brahmin Ṛṣis (brahmarṣi-deśa). There is no reason to doubt that the Matsyas occupied much the same territory as in Epic times, say Alwar, Jaipur, Bharatpur.[९]

  1. x. 68, 8.
  2. Av. xi. 2, 25;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 9, 5;
    14, 2;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxiv. 21, 34;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 6, 6, 1;
    Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 8, 1, 1 (the famous fish of the deluge legend);
    Chāndogya Upaniṣad, i. 4, 3;
    Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, i. 2;
    mahā-matsya, ‘great fish,’ Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, iv. 3, 18. In the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 4, 3, 12 (cf. Āśvalāyana Śrauta Sūtra, x. 7, 8;
    Sāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xvi. 2, 23), a Matsya Sāṃmada is personfied as the king of the fishes.
  3. vii. 18, 6.
  4. xiii. 5, 4, 9.
  5. iv. 1.
  6. This is the most probable reading, which results from a comparison with Gopatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 2, 9, where Śālva-Matsyeṣu is followed by savaśaUśīnareṣu (misprinted śavaśa-). See Keith, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 367. The older view was SatvanMatsyeṣu, Max Müller, Sacred Books of the East, 1, lxxvii, following Cowell;
    St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Satvant.
  7. i. 2, 9.
  8. ii. 19;
    vii. 193.
  9. See Vincent Smith, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 56, 675.

    Cf. von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 166;
    Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 211;
    Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 127.
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