यमुना

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कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यमुना, स्त्री, (यमयतीति । यमि + “अजियमि शीङ्भ्यश्च ।” उणा ० ३ । ६१ । इति उनन् । टाप् ।) दुर्गा । यथा, -- “सर्व्वाणि हृदयस्थानि मङ्गलानि शुभानि च । ददाति चेप्सितान् लोके तेन सा सर्व्वमङ्गला ॥ सङ्गमाद्गमनाद्गङ्गा लोके देवी विभाव्यते । यमस्य भगिनी जाता यमुना तेन सा मता ॥” इति देवीपुराणे ४५ अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ यच्छति विरमति गङ्गायामिति । नदी- विशेषः । सा तु हिमालयदक्षिणदेशान्नि- र्गत्य प्रयागे गङ्गायां मिश्रिता । तत्पर्य्यायः । कालिन्दी २ सूर्य्यतनया ३ शमनस्वसा ४ । इत्यमरः । २ । १० । ३२ ॥ तपनतनूजा ५ कलिन्द- कन्या ६ यमस्वसा ७ श्यामा ८ तापी ९ कलिन्द- नन्दिनी १० यमनी ११ यमी १२ । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ कलिन्दशैलजा १३ सूर्य्य- सुता १४ । इति जटाधरः ॥ (यथा, -- “गङ्गा सरस्वती शोणयमुना सरयूः सची । वेणा इरावती नीला उत्तरात् पूर्ब्बवाहिनी ॥” इति हारीते प्रथमे स्थाने अप्तमेऽध्याये ॥) अस्या जलगुणाः । पित्तदाहवमनश्रमापहत्वम् । स्वादुत्वम् । वातजननत्वम् । पावनत्वम् । वह्नि- दीपनकरत्वम् । रोचनत्वम् । बलप्रदत्वञ्च । इति राजनिर्घण्टः ॥ * ॥ सा यमस्य भगिनी । यथा, -- “सावर्णिर्मेरुपृष्ठे तु तपो घोरं चकार ह । अद्यादि भविता लोके मनुः सावर्णिकेऽन्तरे ॥ भ्राता शनैश्चरश्चास्य ग्रहत्वं स तु लब्धवान् । तयोर्यवीयसी या तु यमस्वसा यशस्विनी । अभवत् सा सरिच्छ्रेष्ठा यमुना लोकपावनी ॥” इति बह्निपुराणे सागरोपाख्यानम् ॥ * ॥ सा च वृन्दावने सुषुम्नाख्या परा शक्तिः । यथा, श्रीभगवानुवाच । “इदं वृन्दावनं रम्यं मम धामैव केवलम् । तत्र ये पशवः साक्षाद्वृक्षाः कीटा नराधमाः । ये वसन्ति ममाधिष्ठं मृता यान्ति ममान्तिकम् ॥ तत्र या गोपपत्न्यश्च निवसन्ति ममालये । योगिन्यस्तात ! एवं हि मम देवाः परायणाः ॥ पञ्चयोजनमेवं हि वनं मे देहरूपकम् । कालिन्दीयं सुषुम्नाख्या परमामृतवाहिनी ॥” इति पाद्मे पातालखण्डे ७ अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ अस्या जलस्य कृष्णवर्णत्वकारणं यथा, -- पुलस्त्य उवाच । “यदा दक्षसुता ब्रह्मन् ! सती याता यमक्षयम् । विनाश्य दक्षयज्ञं तं विचचार त्रिलोचनः ॥ ततो वृषध्वजं दृष्ट्वा कन्दर्पः कुसुमायुधः । अपत्नीकं तदास्त्रेण औन्मादेनाभ्यताडयत् ॥ ततो हरः शरेणाथ औन्मादेनाभिताडितः । विवचार तदोन्मत्तः काननानि सरांसि च ॥ स्मरन् सतीं महादेवस्तथोन्मादेन ताडितः । न शर्म्म लेभे देवर्षे वाणबिद्ध इव द्बिपः ॥ ततः पपात देवेशः कालिन्दीसरिते मुने । निमग्ने शङ्करे चापे दग्धा कृष्णत्वमागता ॥ तदाप्रभृति कालिन्द्या दृगञ्जननिभं जलम् ॥” इति वामने ६ अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ ज्यैष्ठशुक्लद्वादश्यादिष्वस्यां स्नानपिण्डदानफलं यथा, -- “यज्ज्यैष्ठशुक्लद्वादश्यां स्नात्वा वै यमुनाजले । मथुरायां हरिं दृष्ट्वा प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् ॥ यमुनासलिले स्नातः पुरुषो मुनिसत्तम ! । ज्येष्ठामूलामले पक्षे द्वादश्यामुपवासकृत् ॥ समभ्यर्च्च्याच्युतं सम्यक् मथुरायां समाहितः । अश्वमेधस्य यज्ञस्य प्राप्नोत्यविकलं फलम् ॥ ज्येष्ठामूले सिते पक्षे समभ्यर्च्च्य जनार्द्दनम् । धन्यो नः पिण्डनिर्व्वापं यमुनायां प्रदास्यति ॥” इति विष्णुपुराणे ६ अंशे ८ अध्यायः ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यमुना स्त्री।

यमुना

समानार्थक:कालिन्दी,सूर्यतनया,यमुना,शमनस्वसृ

1।10।32।1।3

कालिन्दी सूर्यतनया यमुना शमनस्वसा। रेवा तु नर्मदा सोमोद्भवा मेकलकन्यका॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : नाम

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यमुना¦ स्त्री यम--उनन्।

१ कालिन्द्यां नद्यां

२ यमभगिन्याम्सूर्य्यसुतायाम् अमरः।

३ दुगायाञ्च देवीपु॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यमुना¦ f. (-ना) The YAMUNA4 or Jamuna4 river, which rises on the south side of the Hima4laya range, at a short distance to the north-west of the source of the Ganges, and which after a course of about 378 miles falls into that river immediately below Alla4ha4ba4d; in mythology, the personified river is considered as the daughter of SU4RYA, and sister of YAMA. E. यम् to stop, (at the Ganges,) and उनन् Una4di aff.

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यमुना [yamunā], 1 N. of a celebrated river (regarded as a sister of Yama).

N. of Durgā. -Comp. -पतिः N. of Viṣṇu. -भिद् m. N. of Balarāma. -भ्रातृ m. Yama, the god of death.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


यमुना f. N. of a river commonly called the Jumna (in Hariv. and Ma1rkP. identified with यमीSee. ; it rises in the हिमा-लयmountains among the Jumnotri peaks at an elevation of 10 ,849 feet , and flows for 860 miles before it joins the Ganges at Allahabad , its water being there clear as crystal , while that of the Ganges is yellowish ; the confluence of the two with the river सरस्वती, supposed to join them underground , is called त्रि-वेणीSee. ) RV. etc.

यमुना f. of a daughter of the मुनिमतंगKatha1s.

यमुना f. of a cow Ka1tyS3r. Sch.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--(कालिन्दी) (R.) in भारतवर्ष from the हिमालयस्; a divine stream. फलकम्:F1:  भा. V. १९. १८; वा. ४५. ९५.फलकम्:/F A महानदी. फलकम्:F2:  Ib. १०४. ५०.फलकम्:/F Here Vidura met Uddhava; फलकम्:F3:  भा. III. 1. २४; 2. २७; IV. 2. ३५.फलकम्:/F the co-wives who administered poison to Citraketu's son, had a purificatory bath in; Citraketu, who was initiated into the विद्या by नारद had his preli- minary bath in this river. फलकम्:F4:  Ib. VI. १६. १४ and १६.फलकम्:/F On its banks Vaivasvata Manu performed तपस् for progeny, and Bharata celebrated his horse sacrifice. On its banks stands Madhuvana near बृण्दावन. कृष्ण, his brother, and others played there and once defeated the Asura Vatsa. Gopi girls bathed there as part of the कात्ययनी व्रतम्। Nanda used to bathe here. फलकम्:F5:  Ib. IX, 2. 1; 4. ३०; २०. २५; X. ११. ३६-43; २२. 2, 6, ३६; २८. 1.फलकम्:/F Immersed in its waters Saubhari performed penance. Poisoned by the कालीय; कृष्ण sent away the reptile to the sea and made its waters drinkable; unapproachable to गरुड by a curse of Saubhari. फलकम्:F6:  Ib. IX. 6. ३९; X. १५. ४७-8; १६. 4, ६०-7; १७. 8-११.फलकम्:/F अक्रूर who took कृष्ण and राम to मथुरा, had his bath on the way in this river. Inside the waters he saw both कृष्ण and राम; also saw Hari on the शेष. Here कृष्ण killed Hamsa. फलकम्:F7:  Ib. X. ३९. ३८-46; ७६. 2 [8]; ७८. [1).फलकम्:/F On its bank जरासन्ध encamped to besiege मथुरा. Here कृष्ण had his अवभृत after the horse sacrifice. Here again कृष्ण and अर्जुण met कालिन्दी. फलकम्:F8:  Ib. X. [५० (v) 6 and १४]; ८९. ६३ [4]; ५८. १६-7.फलकम्:/F During his pilgrimage [page३-017+ ४३] बलराम visited this. फलकम्:F9:  Ib. X. ७८. २०.फलकम्:/F Was in floods when Vasudeva crossed it for Gokula with the new born babe, कृष्ण. फलकम्:F१०:  Ib. X. 3. ५०.फलकम्:/F Sacred for श्राद्ध; sometimes too hot and sometimes too cold; daughter of मार्ताण्ड and सम्ज्ञा and sister of Yama; got changed into a sacred river. On its northern bank is प्रयागा (प्रतिष्ठान). फलकम्:F११:  Br. II. १६. २५; III. १३. ७१-2; ५९. २३ and ८३; ६६. २१; ७३. ११७; IV. १५. २३; M. ११. 4, ३९; १०४. १९; १०८. २२; वा. ७७. ६९-70.फलकम्:/F Sacred to मृगावती; sacred to the पितृस्; फलकम्:F१२:  M. १३. ४०.फलकम्:/F a boundary of the kingdom of पितृस्; फलकम्:F१३:  Ib. २२. २०.फलकम्:/F in the chariot of त्रिपुरारि; फलकम्:F१४:  Ib. ११०. 5; ११४. २१; १३३. २३; १६३. ६१; २३९. १८.फलकम्:/F one of the १६ wives of हव्यवाहन (fire) फलकम्:F१५:  Ib. ५१. १३; वा. २९. १३.फलकम्:/F forms the left side of the Veda; फलकम्:F१६:  Ib. १०४. ७७; १०८. ७९.फलकम्:/F daughter of सुरेणु and सूर्य; फलकम्:F१७:  Ib. ५८. ८८; ८४. २२.फलकम्:/F a sacred river. फलकम्:F१८:  Br. II. १२. १४; वा. ९८. ११७; Vi. III. १४. १८; V. 3. १८; 7. 7ff; १८. ३३.फलकम्:/F
(II)--(personified) sister of Yama. Once बलराम invited her for watersports, and got enraged at her delay. Hence he dragged her by means of his plough through बृण्दावन्. This changed her course; then she prayed for mercy which was granted. She presented राम with clothes and jewels. Even now the change in the course is noticeable. भा. X. 3. ५०; Ib. ch. ६५ (whole); Vi. V. २५. 8-११, VI. 8. ३१.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Yamunā : f.: Name of a river.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the rivers uf the Bhāratavarṣa; its water used by people for drinking 6. 10. 14, 13; in the north (udīcyāṁ…yamunā) 3. 88. 1-2; near the mountain Ārcīka 3. 125. 13, 17-18; Gaṅgā flows at some distance from Yāmunā (gaṅgeva yamunāntare) 6. 18. 18; flowing through the mid-country along with Gaṅgā; a big village of Brāhmaṇas, called Parṇaśālā, situated between Gaṅgā and Yamunā and at the foot of the Yāmunagiri (madhyadeśe… gaṅgāyamunayor madhye yāmunasya girer adhaḥ) 13. 67. 3; flowing near the Kurukṣetra 15. 30. 16; the rivers Jalā and Upajalā flow by the side of Yamunā 3. 130. 17; at Prayāga, Yamunā meets Gaṅgā 3. 83. 70; the Bāhlīka country is outsides the rivers Gaṅgā, Sarasvatī and Yamunā (gaṅgayā ca tiraskṛtāḥ/sarasvatyā yamunayā) 8. 30. 10-11; the place Vanaprastha situated on Yamunā (sa cāgamya vanaprasthaṁ yamunāyām) 13. 139. 13.


B. Description: Big river (mahānadī) 6. 10. 14; purifying the worlds (lokapāvanī) 3. 83. 70; highly purifying (paramapāvanī) 15. 30. 16; holy (puṇyā), removing the fear of sin (pāpabhayāpahā), on the banks of which different sacrifices were offered (nānāyajñacitā) and resorted to by royal sages (rājarṣigaṇasevitā) 3. 125. 22; flowing with undecaying stream (akṣayasrotas) 3. 125. 18; flowing with great speed (mahāvegā) 3. 88. 2; the current of Gaṅgā and Yamunā after they meet each other is very terrific and produces fearful sound (gaṅgāyamunayor vegaṁ subhīmaṁ bhīmaniḥsvanam) 13. 50. 7; flowing to the ocean (samudragā) 3. 88. 2; all the rivers listed by Saṁjaya are said to be mothers of the universe and very strong 6. 10. 35 (for citation see Atikṛṣṇā ).


C. Characteristic: The region between Gaṅgā and Yamunā is known as the jaghana of earth (gaṅgāyamunayor madhyaṁ pṛthivyā jaghanaṁ smṛtam) 3. 83. 71 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 3. 85. 75: jaghanaṁ nābher adhobhāgaḥ).


D. Holiness:

(1) No sooner one bathes at the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā he gets the religious merit that is obtained by studying the four Vedas and by speaking truth (cāturvede ca yat puṇyaṁ satyavādiṣu caiva yat/snāta eva tad āpnoti) 3. 83. 80; no gift is superior to a bath at the tīrtha on Gaṅgā and Yamunā (gaṅgāyamunayos tīrthe…upaspṛśya dānaṁ nānyad viśisyate) 13. 26. 34;

(2) The river Yamunā is mentioned among those holy places by visiting which the high-souled ones assume heavenly form, put on heavenly garlands and, becoming auspicious and rich in holy fragrance, obtain the Goloka (? gavāṁ viṁāne 13. 105. 44) 13. 105. 47-48 (for citation see Karatoyinī );

(3) Lomaśa invokes Yamunā, besides Varuṇa, Yama and Gaṅgā, in the benidiction (svasti) he pronounces on Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 140. 13;

(4) There are many tīrthas on Yamunā like Plakṣāvataraṇa and Agniśiras 3. 88. 2-3; Prayāga is at the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā 3. 83. 70-71; 3. 85. 13-14.


E. Importance: Finds mention in the Daivata-Ṛṣi-Vaṁśa 13. 151. 22, 2.


F. Epic events:

(1) The sage Parāśara wanted to cross Yamunā; while he was being ferried over by Satyavatī the sage made advances to her 1. 99. 7-8; Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana was born to Kālī (Satyavatī) from Parāśara on an island in Yamunā (yamunādvīpe) 1. 54. 2; 1. 57. 69;

(2) Śaṁtanu offered seven great sacrifices (sapta mukhyān mahāmedhān) on the river Yamunā 3. 159. 23; when he once went to a forest along the river Yamunā he saw a fisherman's girl who plied a ferry on the river 1. 94. 41, 44;

(3) After the Rājasūya, Kṛṣṇa stayed back at Indraprastha and, in the company of Arjuna, used to roam on the banks of Yamunā 1. 213. 57; once, as the days were hot, Arjuna suggested to Kṛṣṇa to spend a day on the bank of Yamunā 1. 214. 14;

(4) After leaving Gaṅgā and the Kurukṣetra the Pāṇḍavas, in their westward march, went to Yamunā 3. 6. 2;

(5) At the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā the Pāṇḍavas bathed and gave gifts to Brāhmaṇas 3. 93. 6; shown by Lomaśa to the Pāṇḍavas 3. 125. 18, 22;

(6) The basket containing the newly-born Karṇa went from the river Carmaṇvatī to Yamunā and from there to Gaṅgā 3. 292. 25;

(7) Ambā practised extraordinary austerities (tapas tepe 'timānuṣam) on the bank of Yamunā for a year 5. 187. 18, 20; at the end she entered fire near Yamunā saying ‘for the death of Bhīṣma’ (uktvā bhīṣmavadhāyeti praviveśa hutāśanam/…yamunām abhito nadīm) 5. 188. 18;

(8) The army of the Kauravas, gathered for the war, spread out from Hāstinapura to the land adjacent to Yamunā (yamunāntare) 6. 18. 18;

(9) Duryodhana, dejected at the death of Jayadratha, told Droṇa that he wanted to offer water oblations near Yamunā to those from his side who were killed in the war (tarpayiṣyāmi tān eva jalena yamunām anu) 7. 125. 23;

(10) Yudhiṣṭhira, wanting to see Dhṛtarāṣṭra and others, reached Kurukṣetra and crossed the river Yamunā 15. 30. 16; the ascetics there told Yudhiṣṭhira that Dhṛtarāṣṭra had gone to Yamunā to get flowers and water (puṣpāṇām udakumbhasya cārthe gata iti prabho) 15. 31. 6;

(11) Balarāma proceeded from the Kārapacanatīrtha to the hermitage of Mitra and Varuṇa on Yamunā 9. 53. 13;

(12) Kṛṣṇa practised austerities on Yamunā 3. 125. 18;

(13) Kṛṣṇa killed a lordly horse (the demon Keśin) who lived in the forest on Yamunā (hayarājaṁ…yamunāvanavāsinam) 7. 10. 3 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 11. 3: hayarājaṁ keśinam);

(14) Haṁsa and Ḍimbhaka were two excellent warriors of Jarāsandha; when Dimbhaka heard that Haṁsa (really his namesake) was killed, he drowned himself in Yamunā; when Haṁsa knew this he did the same 2. 13. 40, 42.


G. Past events:

(1) The semen of King Vasu, being carried by a falcon, fell in the water of Yamunā when another falcon attacked it 1. 57. 46;

(2) Bharata; son of Duḥṣanta, performed many horse sacrifices; he bound thirty horses for gods (according to 3. 88. 7 thirty-five horse sacrifices) on the river Yamunā 12. 29. 41-42;

(3) Yayātī wishing to perform the svayaṁvara of his daughter went to a hermitage on the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā 5. 118. 1; he offered sacrifices on Yamunā 3. 129. 2; when Yayāti gave his kingdom to Puru he told him (Puru) that he would be the king of the land in the middle of the earth and he would rule over the entire region between Gaṅgā and Yamunā (gaṅgāyamunayor madhye kṛtsno 'yaṁ viṣayas tava/madhye pṛthivyās tvaṁ rājā) 1. 82. 5;

(4) King Sahadeva offered sacrifices on the bank of Yamunā 3. 125. 23; there is a gāthā sung by Indra, and which was later sung by the twice-born, which said that Sahadeva offered on Yamunā a hundred thousand sacrifices at which he gave a hundred thousand dakṣiṇās 3. 88. 5-6;

(5) King Māndhātṛ and king Somaka offered sacrifices on the bank of the river Yamunā 3. 125. 22-23;

(6) Ambarīṣa Nābhāga and Prajāpati himself offered sacrifices on Yamunā 3. 129. 2;

(7) In the region between Gaṅgā and Yamunā Haryaśva was killed by the sons of Hehaya in a battle 13. 31. 11;

(9) Sage Cyavana entered the waters of the rivers Gaṅgā and Yamunā at their confluence in order to observe a vow of staying in water for twelve years; he checked the current of the two rivers with his head; the two rivers and the rivers which followed them did not cause any pain to the sage but made a pradakṣiṇā around him (gaṅgā ca yamunā caiva saritaś cānugās tayoḥ/pradakṣiṇam ṛṣiṁ cakrur na caiṇaṁ paryapīḍayan//); Cyavana slept in waters like a log of wood; when once some fishermen cast their net to catch fish they dragged out Cyavana, along with fish, from the water of the two rivers 13. 50. 6-9, 11-20; (a) Agastya practised austerities on the bank of Yamunā 3. 158. 52;

(10) Varuṇa abducted Bhadrā (Utathya's wife) from Vanaprastha on Yamunā and took her to his city 13. 139. 13-14;

(11) Mārkaṇḍeya saw Yamunā, among other rivers, in the belly of the Bāla (3. 186. 83, i. e. Nārāyaṇa 3. 187. 3) 3. 186. 93.


H. Similes:

(1) Bhīṣma, when he fell down from the chariot, was covered with arrows as with the stream of Yamunā (srotasā yāmuneneva śaraugheṇa pariplutam) 7. 3. 3;

(2) The two armies of the Kauravas and the Pāñcālas in their confrontation made terrific dash as the two rivers Jāhnavī and Yamunā do in the rainy season when they are full of water 7. 70. 8; 8. 31. 68;

(3) King Bṛhadratha appeared between his two wives as the ocean, in bodily form, appears between the rivers Gaṅgā and Yamunā (gaṅgāyamunayor madhye mūrtimān iva sāgaraḥ) 2. 16. 19.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Yamunā : f.: Name of a river.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya among the rivers uf the Bhāratavarṣa; its water used by people for drinking 6. 10. 14, 13; in the north (udīcyāṁ…yamunā) 3. 88. 1-2; near the mountain Ārcīka 3. 125. 13, 17-18; Gaṅgā flows at some distance from Yāmunā (gaṅgeva yamunāntare) 6. 18. 18; flowing through the mid-country along with Gaṅgā; a big village of Brāhmaṇas, called Parṇaśālā, situated between Gaṅgā and Yamunā and at the foot of the Yāmunagiri (madhyadeśe… gaṅgāyamunayor madhye yāmunasya girer adhaḥ) 13. 67. 3; flowing near the Kurukṣetra 15. 30. 16; the rivers Jalā and Upajalā flow by the side of Yamunā 3. 130. 17; at Prayāga, Yamunā meets Gaṅgā 3. 83. 70; the Bāhlīka country is outsides the rivers Gaṅgā, Sarasvatī and Yamunā (gaṅgayā ca tiraskṛtāḥ/sarasvatyā yamunayā) 8. 30. 10-11; the place Vanaprastha situated on Yamunā (sa cāgamya vanaprasthaṁ yamunāyām) 13. 139. 13.


B. Description: Big river (mahānadī) 6. 10. 14; purifying the worlds (lokapāvanī) 3. 83. 70; highly purifying (paramapāvanī) 15. 30. 16; holy (puṇyā), removing the fear of sin (pāpabhayāpahā), on the banks of which different sacrifices were offered (nānāyajñacitā) and resorted to by royal sages (rājarṣigaṇasevitā) 3. 125. 22; flowing with undecaying stream (akṣayasrotas) 3. 125. 18; flowing with great speed (mahāvegā) 3. 88. 2; the current of Gaṅgā and Yamunā after they meet each other is very terrific and produces fearful sound (gaṅgāyamunayor vegaṁ subhīmaṁ bhīmaniḥsvanam) 13. 50. 7; flowing to the ocean (samudragā) 3. 88. 2; all the rivers listed by Saṁjaya are said to be mothers of the universe and very strong 6. 10. 35 (for citation see Atikṛṣṇā ).


C. Characteristic: The region between Gaṅgā and Yamunā is known as the jaghana of earth (gaṅgāyamunayor madhyaṁ pṛthivyā jaghanaṁ smṛtam) 3. 83. 71 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 3. 85. 75: jaghanaṁ nābher adhobhāgaḥ).


D. Holiness:

(1) No sooner one bathes at the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā he gets the religious merit that is obtained by studying the four Vedas and by speaking truth (cāturvede ca yat puṇyaṁ satyavādiṣu caiva yat/snāta eva tad āpnoti) 3. 83. 80; no gift is superior to a bath at the tīrtha on Gaṅgā and Yamunā (gaṅgāyamunayos tīrthe…upaspṛśya dānaṁ nānyad viśisyate) 13. 26. 34;

(2) The river Yamunā is mentioned among those holy places by visiting which the high-souled ones assume heavenly form, put on heavenly garlands and, becoming auspicious and rich in holy fragrance, obtain the Goloka (? gavāṁ viṁāne 13. 105. 44) 13. 105. 47-48 (for citation see Karatoyinī );

(3) Lomaśa invokes Yamunā, besides Varuṇa, Yama and Gaṅgā, in the benidiction (svasti) he pronounces on Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 140. 13;

(4) There are many tīrthas on Yamunā like Plakṣāvataraṇa and Agniśiras 3. 88. 2-3; Prayāga is at the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā 3. 83. 70-71; 3. 85. 13-14.


E. Importance: Finds mention in the Daivata-Ṛṣi-Vaṁśa 13. 151. 22, 2.


F. Epic events:

(1) The sage Parāśara wanted to cross Yamunā; while he was being ferried over by Satyavatī the sage made advances to her 1. 99. 7-8; Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana was born to Kālī (Satyavatī) from Parāśara on an island in Yamunā (yamunādvīpe) 1. 54. 2; 1. 57. 69;

(2) Śaṁtanu offered seven great sacrifices (sapta mukhyān mahāmedhān) on the river Yamunā 3. 159. 23; when he once went to a forest along the river Yamunā he saw a fisherman's girl who plied a ferry on the river 1. 94. 41, 44;

(3) After the Rājasūya, Kṛṣṇa stayed back at Indraprastha and, in the company of Arjuna, used to roam on the banks of Yamunā 1. 213. 57; once, as the days were hot, Arjuna suggested to Kṛṣṇa to spend a day on the bank of Yamunā 1. 214. 14;

(4) After leaving Gaṅgā and the Kurukṣetra the Pāṇḍavas, in their westward march, went to Yamunā 3. 6. 2;

(5) At the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā the Pāṇḍavas bathed and gave gifts to Brāhmaṇas 3. 93. 6; shown by Lomaśa to the Pāṇḍavas 3. 125. 18, 22;

(6) The basket containing the newly-born Karṇa went from the river Carmaṇvatī to Yamunā and from there to Gaṅgā 3. 292. 25;

(7) Ambā practised extraordinary austerities (tapas tepe 'timānuṣam) on the bank of Yamunā for a year 5. 187. 18, 20; at the end she entered fire near Yamunā saying ‘for the death of Bhīṣma’ (uktvā bhīṣmavadhāyeti praviveśa hutāśanam/…yamunām abhito nadīm) 5. 188. 18;

(8) The army of the Kauravas, gathered for the war, spread out from Hāstinapura to the land adjacent to Yamunā (yamunāntare) 6. 18. 18;

(9) Duryodhana, dejected at the death of Jayadratha, told Droṇa that he wanted to offer water oblations near Yamunā to those from his side who were killed in the war (tarpayiṣyāmi tān eva jalena yamunām anu) 7. 125. 23;

(10) Yudhiṣṭhira, wanting to see Dhṛtarāṣṭra and others, reached Kurukṣetra and crossed the river Yamunā 15. 30. 16; the ascetics there told Yudhiṣṭhira that Dhṛtarāṣṭra had gone to Yamunā to get flowers and water (puṣpāṇām udakumbhasya cārthe gata iti prabho) 15. 31. 6;

(11) Balarāma proceeded from the Kārapacanatīrtha to the hermitage of Mitra and Varuṇa on Yamunā 9. 53. 13;

(12) Kṛṣṇa practised austerities on Yamunā 3. 125. 18;

(13) Kṛṣṇa killed a lordly horse (the demon Keśin) who lived in the forest on Yamunā (hayarājaṁ…yamunāvanavāsinam) 7. 10. 3 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 11. 3: hayarājaṁ keśinam);

(14) Haṁsa and Ḍimbhaka were two excellent warriors of Jarāsandha; when Dimbhaka heard that Haṁsa (really his namesake) was killed, he drowned himself in Yamunā; when Haṁsa knew this he did the same 2. 13. 40, 42.


G. Past events:

(1) The semen of King Vasu, being carried by a falcon, fell in the water of Yamunā when another falcon attacked it 1. 57. 46;

(2) Bharata; son of Duḥṣanta, performed many horse sacrifices; he bound thirty horses for gods (according to 3. 88. 7 thirty-five horse sacrifices) on the river Yamunā 12. 29. 41-42;

(3) Yayātī wishing to perform the svayaṁvara of his daughter went to a hermitage on the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā 5. 118. 1; he offered sacrifices on Yamunā 3. 129. 2; when Yayāti gave his kingdom to Puru he told him (Puru) that he would be the king of the land in the middle of the earth and he would rule over the entire region between Gaṅgā and Yamunā (gaṅgāyamunayor madhye kṛtsno 'yaṁ viṣayas tava/madhye pṛthivyās tvaṁ rājā) 1. 82. 5;

(4) King Sahadeva offered sacrifices on the bank of Yamunā 3. 125. 23; there is a gāthā sung by Indra, and which was later sung by the twice-born, which said that Sahadeva offered on Yamunā a hundred thousand sacrifices at which he gave a hundred thousand dakṣiṇās 3. 88. 5-6;

(5) King Māndhātṛ and king Somaka offered sacrifices on the bank of the river Yamunā 3. 125. 22-23;

(6) Ambarīṣa Nābhāga and Prajāpati himself offered sacrifices on Yamunā 3. 129. 2;

(7) In the region between Gaṅgā and Yamunā Haryaśva was killed by the sons of Hehaya in a battle 13. 31. 11;

(9) Sage Cyavana entered the waters of the rivers Gaṅgā and Yamunā at their confluence in order to observe a vow of staying in water for twelve years; he checked the current of the two rivers with his head; the two rivers and the rivers which followed them did not cause any pain to the sage but made a pradakṣiṇā around him (gaṅgā ca yamunā caiva saritaś cānugās tayoḥ/pradakṣiṇam ṛṣiṁ cakrur na caiṇaṁ paryapīḍayan//); Cyavana slept in waters like a log of wood; when once some fishermen cast their net to catch fish they dragged out Cyavana, along with fish, from the water of the two rivers 13. 50. 6-9, 11-20; (a) Agastya practised austerities on the bank of Yamunā 3. 158. 52;

(10) Varuṇa abducted Bhadrā (Utathya's wife) from Vanaprastha on Yamunā and took her to his city 13. 139. 13-14;

(11) Mārkaṇḍeya saw Yamunā, among other rivers, in the belly of the Bāla (3. 186. 83, i. e. Nārāyaṇa 3. 187. 3) 3. 186. 93.


H. Similes:

(1) Bhīṣma, when he fell down from the chariot, was covered with arrows as with the stream of Yamunā (srotasā yāmuneneva śaraugheṇa pariplutam) 7. 3. 3;

(2) The two armies of the Kauravas and the Pāñcālas in their confrontation made terrific dash as the two rivers Jāhnavī and Yamunā do in the rainy season when they are full of water 7. 70. 8; 8. 31. 68;

(3) King Bṛhadratha appeared between his two wives as the ocean, in bodily form, appears between the rivers Gaṅgā and Yamunā (gaṅgāyamunayor madhye mūrtimān iva sāgaraḥ) 2. 16. 19.


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Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Yamunā, ‘twin,’ the name of a river, so called as running parallel with the Ganges, is mentioned thrice in the Rigveda,[१] and not rarely later. According to the Rigveda,[२] the Tṛtsus and Sudās won a great victory against their foes on the Yamunā; there is no reason[३] whatever to accept Hopkins'[४] view that the Yamunā here was another name of the Paruṣṇī (Ravi). In the Atharvaveda[५] the salve (Āñjana) of the Yamunā (Yāmuna) is mentioned along with that of Trikakud (Traikakuda) as of value. In the Aitareya[६] and the Śatapatha[७] Brāhmaṇas the Bharatas are famed as victorious on the Yamunā. Other Brāhmaṇas[८] also mention this river. In the Mantrapāṭha[९] the Sālvas are spoken of as dwelling on its banks.

  1. v. 52, 17;
    vii. 18, 19;
    x. 75, 5.
  2. vii. 18, 19. See Bharata and Kuru.
  3. The Tṛtsus’ territory lay between the Yamunā and the Sarasvatī on the east and the west respectively.
  4. India, Old and New, 52.
  5. iv. 9, 10.
  6. viii. 23.
  7. xiii. 5, 4, 11.
  8. Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, ix. 4, 11 (cf. Pārāvata);
    xxv. 10, 24;
    13, 4;
    Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xiii. 29, 25. 33;
    Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xxiv. 6, 10. 39;
    Lāṭyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, x. 19, 9, 10;
    Āśvalāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xii. 6, 28, etc.
  9. ii. 11, 12.

    Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 5;
    Max Müller, Sacred Books of the East, 32, 323.
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