काशि

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


काशिः, स्त्री, (काश् + “सर्व्वधातुभ्य इन्” । उणां ४ । ११७ । इति इन् ।) काशी । इत्युणादिकोषः ॥ (यथा हेः रामायणे १ । १३ । २३ । “तथा काशिपतिं स्निग्धं सततं प्रियवादिनम् । सद्वृत्तं देवसङ्काशं स्वयमेवानयस्व हि” ॥) काशिनगरोपलक्षिते जनपदे पुंभूम्नि । यथा महाभारते ६ । ९ । ४१ । “अत ऊर्द्धं जनपदान्निबोध गदतो मम” । “बोधा मव्राः कलिङ्गाश्च काशयो परकाशयः” ॥ मुष्टिः । इति निरुक्तिः । यथा ऋग्वेदे ७ । १०४ । ८ । “आप इव काशिना संगृभीतो असन्नस्त्वा- सत इन्द्र वक्ता” ॥ “काशिना मुष्टिना” इति भाष्यम् ॥) सूर्य्ये पुं । इति जुमरव्याकरणम् ॥

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


काशि¦ स्त्री काश--इन्।

१ काश्याम् वा ङीप् काशीत्यपि-तत्र काशीशब्दे विवृतिः
“आःकाशिवासिजनताननु वञ्चिताऽभूत्” काशीख॰।

२ काशीनगरोपलक्षितेदेशभेदे पु॰ भूम्नि।
“अतः काशयोऽग्नीनादत्त”
“यज्ञंकाशीनां भरतः सात्वतामिव” शत॰ ब्रा॰

३ ,

५ ,

४ ,

१९ ,

२१ ।
“काशिष्वपि नृपो राजन् दिवोदासपितामहः” हर्य्यश्व इति विख्यातः” भा॰ आनु॰

३० अ॰
“सौधामद्रभुजिङ्गाश्च काशयोऽपरकाशयः” भा॰ स॰

९ अ॰।

३ सूर्य्येपु॰ उच्छल॰।

४ मुष्टौ निरु॰

६ ।


१ आपैव काशिना संगृ-भीताः” ऋ॰

७ ,

१०

४ ,

८ ,
“काशिना मुष्टिना” भा॰। भावे इन्

५ प्रकाशे च
“अपारे यत् संगृभ्ना मघवन्! काशिरित्ते” ऋ॰

३ ,

३० ,


“काशिरित् लोके प्रसिद्ध्व एव यद्वा काशिर्मुष्टिः” भा॰[Page2031-a+ 38]

६ प्रकाशान्विते त्रि॰” काशेरिदम् तस्यां भवं वा काश्या॰ष्ठञ् ञिठ् वा। काशिक काशिसम्बन्धिनि तत्रभये च त्रि॰ञिठैत् उच्चारणार्थः स्त्रियां ष्ठञि ङीष् ञिठि ठाप्। साच वामनकृतायां पाणिनिवृत्तौ स्वार्थेक। काशिका काशीपुर्य्यां स्त्री।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


काशि¦ f. (-शिः) Kasi a celebrated city and place of pilgrimage, the modern Benares. E. काश् to shine, to be beautiful or renowned, and इन् Unadi affix; also काशीः see काश and काशिका, काशिकी।

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


काशि [kāśi], m. (pl.) N. of a country.

काशिः [kāśiḥ] शी [śī], शी f. N. of a celebrated city on the Ganges, the modern Benares and one of the seven sacred cities; काशी काशीति काशीति त्रिवारं यः पठेत् नरः । सो$पि देशान्तरे- वासी काशीवासफलं लभेत् ॥ see काञ्ची.

शिः The clenched hand, fist.

A handful; आप इव काशिना संगृभीता Rv.7. 14.8.

The sun.

Light, splendour; -Comp. -पः an epithet of Śiva. -राजः N. of a king, father of अम्बा, अम्बिका and अम्बालिका, q. v.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


काशि m. " shining " , the sun L.

काशि m. the clenched hand , fist , handful RV. iii , 30 , 5 ; vii , 104 , 8 ; viii , 78 , 10 Kaus3.

काशि m. N. of a prince (the ancestor of the kings of काशि, of the family of भरत, son of सुहोत्रand grandfather of धन्वन्तरिHariv. 1734 ; the son of काश्यand grandson of सुहोत्रBhP. ix , 17 , 4 )

काशि m. pl. ( अयस्)the descendants of this prince BhP. ix , 17 , 10

काशि m. N. of the people of काशिS3Br. xiii MBh. etc.

काशि f. " the splendid " , N. of a celebrated city and place of pilgrimage (the modern Benares , usually written काशीSee. ) Un2. iv , 119

काशि f. fine cotton or silk (from काशि) DivyA7v.

काशि काशिकSee. col 2.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


--son of काश्य and father of राष्ट्र. भा. IX. १७. 4.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kāśi : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people; the people also referred to as Kāśika (7. 23. 7; 8. 4. 74), or Kāśya (8. 8. 19); often mentioned along with Kosalas or with Cedis and Karūṣas.


A. Location:

(1) Listed by Saṁjaya among the (northern) Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha gadato mama) 6. 10. 37, 5; (kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ) 6. 10. 38;

(2) Listed by Saṁjaya a second time (saudhā madrā bhujiṅgāś ca kāśayo 'parakāśayaḥ) 6. 10. 40; (are these two neighbouring Janapadas, the former being to the east, while the latter to the west ?)


B. Characteristics:

(1) The Kāśi warriors were famous as great chariot-fighters (mahārathāḥ samākhyātāḥ), of noble lineage (kulaputrāḥ), having golden banners (suvarṇavikṛtadhvajāḥ), not turning back, ready to die in battles (aparāvartinaḥ, tanutyajaḥ) 6. 102. 17;

(2) A certain Brāhmaṇa told the Kuru assembly (8. 30. 7, 34, 58) that the people of Kāśi knew what the eternal dharma was (kosalāḥ kāśayo 'ṅgāś ca…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 60-61.


C. Epic events:

(1) Bhīṣma defeated the Kāśi and other warriors and brought for Vicitravīrya two Kāśi princesses (ahaṁ vicitravīryāya dve kanye samudāvaham/jitvā… kāśīn atha ca kosalān//) 13. 44. 37;

(2) When Pāṇḍu marched out for the conquest of the earth he made Kurus famous among the Kāśi people (tathā kāśiṣu…kurūṇām akarod yaśaḥ) 1. 105. 12;

(3) At the birth of Arjuna an incorporeal voice declared that he would subdue the people of Kāśi and enhance the fame of Kurus (vāg uvācāśarīriṇī…eṣa…vaśe kṛtvā…cedikāśikarūṣāṁs ca kurulakṣma sudhāsyati) 1. 114. 28-31;

(4) According to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Sahadeva had conquered the Kāśi people in his expedition to the south before the Rājasūya (yaḥ kāśīn…yudhājayat) 5. 49. 28 (this event is not reported earlier at 2. 28. 48);

(5) They joined the side of the Pāṇḍavas against Duryodhana (kāśayaś cedayaś caiva) 5. 56. 33:

(6) The Kāśi warriors were already on the side of Yudhiṣṭhira when he had proposed to come to terms with Duryodhana in lieu of five villages (kāśibhiś cedipāñcālair…/ bhavatā caiva nāthena pañca grāmā vṛtā mayā) 5. 70. 14;

(7) But Duryodhana informed Dhṛtarāṣṭra that he had won over the Kāśi warriors on his side (ardhaṁ me kekayā labdhāḥ kāśikāḥ kosalāś ca ye) 7. 23. 7 (so these could mean a part of the Kāśi warriors on his side against the others who joined the Pāṇḍavas; or the division may be according as they belonged to Kāśi and Aparakāśi);

(8) Yudhiṣṭhira asked the leaders of the Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa armies to move towards Kurukṣetra (cedikāśikarūṣāṇām) 5. 197. 2;

(9) On the first day of the war, Bhīṣma's palm-marked banner was seen moving among the Kāśi warriors (cedikāṣikarūṣeṣu …bahudhā tālaś caran ketur adṛśyata) 6. 45. 4;

(10) On the third day of the war, the Kāśis, led by Dhṛṣṭaketu, were stationed on the right side of the Ardhacandravyūha (6. 52. 10) of the Pāṇḍavas (cedikāśikarūṣaiś ca…abhisaṁvṛtaḥ) 6. 52. 13;

(11) On the ninth day of the war, fourteen thousand warriors of Cedis, Kāśis and Karūṣas attacked Bhīṣma and perished along with their horses, elephants and chariots (cedikāśikarūṣāṇām sahasrāṇi caturdaśa/…nimagnāḥ paralokāya savājirathakuñjarāḥ//) 6. 102. 17-18; the result of their battle with Bhīṣma described in 6. 102. 16, 20-23;

(12) Same description occurs for the tenth day of the war 6. 112. 73;

(13) Defeating Kāśis mentioned by Dhṛtarāṣṭra as one of the exploits of Kṛṣṇa (kāśikosalān/…ajayad raṇe) 7. 10. 15;

(14) Kṛṣṇa while recounting the exploits of Bhīṣma during the first ten days of the war mentioned his having killed the Kāśis (sa cedikāśipāñcālān…/ …nidhanam anayat) 8. 51. 27;

(15) Abhibhū, the king of Kāśi, who was protected by many Kāśi warriors, was killed by the son of Vasudāna (abhibhūḥ kāśirājaś ca kāśikair bahubhir vṛtaḥ/vasudānasya putreṇa nyāsito deham āhave) 8. 4. 74;

(16) Karṇa's former victory over the Kāśis mentioned by Dhṛtarāṣṭra to Saṁjaya (yaś cājaiṣīd…//…kāśikosalān) 8. 5. 18-19;

(17) On the fifteenth day of the war, Kāśi warriors mentioned among those who rushed at the Kaurava army; in the middle of their army was Bhīmasena; the chariot-riders, the elephant-riders and excellent foot-soldiers, delighted in making different sounds; they laughed and danced (kāśyā māgadhāś cāpi dudruvuḥ// teṣāṁ rathāś ca nāgāś ca pravarāś cāpi pattayaḥ/nānāvidharavair hṛṣṭā nṛtyanti ca hasanti ca//tasya sainyasya mahato… madhyaṁ vṛkodaro 'byāgāt) 8. 8. 19-21;

(18) The army of the Kāśis, Kosalas and Matsyas consisted of Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas and Śūdras; they fought with Kṛpa and others on the seventeenth day of the war and got killed (kṛpaś ca…kṛtavarmā ca/ kosalaiḥ kāśimatsyaiś ca…/…yuyudhur…//teṣāṁ antakaraṁ yuddham…/ śūdraviṭkṣatravīrāṇām) 8. 32. 16-18;

(19) On the same day, Kāśi warriors were among those who checked the progress of Vasuṣeṇa (kāśikosalāḥ/ete ca tvaritā vīrā vasuṣeṇam avārayan//) 8. 33. 22;

(20) The Aśvamedha sacrifice horse went to Kāśi, Andhra and Kosala countries (sa turagottamaḥ/kāśīn andhrān kosalāṁś ca) 14. 84. 4.


D. Past events:

(1) Haryaśva, grand-father of Divodāsa, ruled over Kāśi (kāśiṣv api nṛpo rājan divodāsapitāmahaḥ/haryaśva iti vikhyātaḥ) 13. 31. 10;

(2) Later, Divodāsa, son of Bhīmasena, became the king of Kāśi (kāśinām īśvaraḥ prabhuḥ/divodāsa iti khyāto bhaimasenir narādhipa) 5. 115. 1 (in 13. 31. 15, Divodāsa is said to be the son of Sudeva (saudevis tv atha kāśīśo divodāso 'bhyaṣicyata);

(3) Vītahavya's sons had plundered the Kāśi country of its store of jewels (utsāditaś ca viṣayaḥ kāśīnāṁ ratnasaṁcayaḥ) 13. 31. 47.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kāśi : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people; the people also referred to as Kāśika (7. 23. 7; 8. 4. 74), or Kāśya (8. 8. 19); often mentioned along with Kosalas or with Cedis and Karūṣas.


A. Location:

(1) Listed by Saṁjaya among the (northern) Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha gadato mama) 6. 10. 37, 5; (kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ) 6. 10. 38;

(2) Listed by Saṁjaya a second time (saudhā madrā bhujiṅgāś ca kāśayo 'parakāśayaḥ) 6. 10. 40; (are these two neighbouring Janapadas, the former being to the east, while the latter to the west ?)


B. Characteristics:

(1) The Kāśi warriors were famous as great chariot-fighters (mahārathāḥ samākhyātāḥ), of noble lineage (kulaputrāḥ), having golden banners (suvarṇavikṛtadhvajāḥ), not turning back, ready to die in battles (aparāvartinaḥ, tanutyajaḥ) 6. 102. 17;

(2) A certain Brāhmaṇa told the Kuru assembly (8. 30. 7, 34, 58) that the people of Kāśi knew what the eternal dharma was (kosalāḥ kāśayo 'ṅgāś ca…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 60-61.


C. Epic events:

(1) Bhīṣma defeated the Kāśi and other warriors and brought for Vicitravīrya two Kāśi princesses (ahaṁ vicitravīryāya dve kanye samudāvaham/jitvā… kāśīn atha ca kosalān//) 13. 44. 37;

(2) When Pāṇḍu marched out for the conquest of the earth he made Kurus famous among the Kāśi people (tathā kāśiṣu…kurūṇām akarod yaśaḥ) 1. 105. 12;

(3) At the birth of Arjuna an incorporeal voice declared that he would subdue the people of Kāśi and enhance the fame of Kurus (vāg uvācāśarīriṇī…eṣa…vaśe kṛtvā…cedikāśikarūṣāṁs ca kurulakṣma sudhāsyati) 1. 114. 28-31;

(4) According to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Sahadeva had conquered the Kāśi people in his expedition to the south before the Rājasūya (yaḥ kāśīn…yudhājayat) 5. 49. 28 (this event is not reported earlier at 2. 28. 48);

(5) They joined the side of the Pāṇḍavas against Duryodhana (kāśayaś cedayaś caiva) 5. 56. 33:

(6) The Kāśi warriors were already on the side of Yudhiṣṭhira when he had proposed to come to terms with Duryodhana in lieu of five villages (kāśibhiś cedipāñcālair…/ bhavatā caiva nāthena pañca grāmā vṛtā mayā) 5. 70. 14;

(7) But Duryodhana informed Dhṛtarāṣṭra that he had won over the Kāśi warriors on his side (ardhaṁ me kekayā labdhāḥ kāśikāḥ kosalāś ca ye) 7. 23. 7 (so these could mean a part of the Kāśi warriors on his side against the others who joined the Pāṇḍavas; or the division may be according as they belonged to Kāśi and Aparakāśi);

(8) Yudhiṣṭhira asked the leaders of the Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa armies to move towards Kurukṣetra (cedikāśikarūṣāṇām) 5. 197. 2;

(9) On the first day of the war, Bhīṣma's palm-marked banner was seen moving among the Kāśi warriors (cedikāṣikarūṣeṣu …bahudhā tālaś caran ketur adṛśyata) 6. 45. 4;

(10) On the third day of the war, the Kāśis, led by Dhṛṣṭaketu, were stationed on the right side of the Ardhacandravyūha (6. 52. 10) of the Pāṇḍavas (cedikāśikarūṣaiś ca…abhisaṁvṛtaḥ) 6. 52. 13;

(11) On the ninth day of the war, fourteen thousand warriors of Cedis, Kāśis and Karūṣas attacked Bhīṣma and perished along with their horses, elephants and chariots (cedikāśikarūṣāṇām sahasrāṇi caturdaśa/…nimagnāḥ paralokāya savājirathakuñjarāḥ//) 6. 102. 17-18; the result of their battle with Bhīṣma described in 6. 102. 16, 20-23;

(12) Same description occurs for the tenth day of the war 6. 112. 73;

(13) Defeating Kāśis mentioned by Dhṛtarāṣṭra as one of the exploits of Kṛṣṇa (kāśikosalān/…ajayad raṇe) 7. 10. 15;

(14) Kṛṣṇa while recounting the exploits of Bhīṣma during the first ten days of the war mentioned his having killed the Kāśis (sa cedikāśipāñcālān…/ …nidhanam anayat) 8. 51. 27;

(15) Abhibhū, the king of Kāśi, who was protected by many Kāśi warriors, was killed by the son of Vasudāna (abhibhūḥ kāśirājaś ca kāśikair bahubhir vṛtaḥ/vasudānasya putreṇa nyāsito deham āhave) 8. 4. 74;

(16) Karṇa's former victory over the Kāśis mentioned by Dhṛtarāṣṭra to Saṁjaya (yaś cājaiṣīd…//…kāśikosalān) 8. 5. 18-19;

(17) On the fifteenth day of the war, Kāśi warriors mentioned among those who rushed at the Kaurava army; in the middle of their army was Bhīmasena; the chariot-riders, the elephant-riders and excellent foot-soldiers, delighted in making different sounds; they laughed and danced (kāśyā māgadhāś cāpi dudruvuḥ// teṣāṁ rathāś ca nāgāś ca pravarāś cāpi pattayaḥ/nānāvidharavair hṛṣṭā nṛtyanti ca hasanti ca//tasya sainyasya mahato… madhyaṁ vṛkodaro 'byāgāt) 8. 8. 19-21;

(18) The army of the Kāśis, Kosalas and Matsyas consisted of Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas and Śūdras; they fought with Kṛpa and others on the seventeenth day of the war and got killed (kṛpaś ca…kṛtavarmā ca/ kosalaiḥ kāśimatsyaiś ca…/…yuyudhur…//teṣāṁ antakaraṁ yuddham…/ śūdraviṭkṣatravīrāṇām) 8. 32. 16-18;

(19) On the same day, Kāśi warriors were among those who checked the progress of Vasuṣeṇa (kāśikosalāḥ/ete ca tvaritā vīrā vasuṣeṇam avārayan//) 8. 33. 22;

(20) The Aśvamedha sacrifice horse went to Kāśi, Andhra and Kosala countries (sa turagottamaḥ/kāśīn andhrān kosalāṁś ca) 14. 84. 4.


D. Past events:

(1) Haryaśva, grand-father of Divodāsa, ruled over Kāśi (kāśiṣv api nṛpo rājan divodāsapitāmahaḥ/haryaśva iti vikhyātaḥ) 13. 31. 10;

(2) Later, Divodāsa, son of Bhīmasena, became the king of Kāśi (kāśinām īśvaraḥ prabhuḥ/divodāsa iti khyāto bhaimasenir narādhipa) 5. 115. 1 (in 13. 31. 15, Divodāsa is said to be the son of Sudeva (saudevis tv atha kāśīśo divodāso 'bhyaṣicyata);

(3) Vītahavya's sons had plundered the Kāśi country of its store of jewels (utsāditaś ca viṣayaḥ kāśīnāṁ ratnasaṁcayaḥ) 13. 31. 47.


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Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kāśi, Kāśya.--The name Kāśi denotes (in the plural[१]) the people of Kāśi (Benares), and Kāśya, the king of Kāśi. The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[२] tells of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, king of Kāśi, who was defeated by Śatānīka Sātrājita, with the result that the Kāśis, down to the time of the Brāhmaṇa, gave up the kindling of the sacred fire. Sātrājita was a Bharata. We hear also of Ajātaśatru as a king of Kāśi;[३] and no doubt Bhadrasena Ajātaśatrava, a contemporary of Uddālaka, was also a king of Kāśi.

The Kāśis and Videhas were closely connected, as was natural in view of their geographical position. The compound name Kāśi-Videha occurs in the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad;[४] in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad[५] Gārgī describes Ajātaśatru as either a Kāśi or a Videha king. The Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra[६] mentions one Purohita as acting for the kings of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha; and the Baudhāyana Śrauta Sūtra[७] mentions Kāśi and Videha in close proximity. Weber,[८] indeed, throws out the suggestion that the Kāśis and the Videhas together constitute the Uśīnaras, whose name is very rare in Vedic literature.

As Kosala and Videha were in close connexion, Kāśi and Kosala are found combined in the compound name KāśiKauśalyas of the Gopatha Brāhmaṇa.[९]

Though Kāśi is a late word, it is quite possible that the town is older, as the river Varaṇāvatī referred to in the Atharvaveda[१०] may be connected with the later Vārāṇasī (Benares).

It is significant that while the Kāśis, Kosalas, and Videhas were united, any relations which the Kuru-Pañcala peoples may have had with them were hostile. It is a fair conclusion that between these two great groups of peoples there did exist some political conflict as well as probably a difference of culture in some degree. The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,[११] in the story of the advance of Āryan civilization over Kosala and Videha, preserves a clear tradition of this time, and a piece of evidence that in the Kuru-Pañcāla country lay the real centre of the Brāhmaṇa culture (see also Kuru-Pañcāla). That the Kosala-Videhas were originally settlers of older date than the Kuru-Pañcālas is reasonably obvious from their geographical position, but the true Brāhmaṇa culture appears to have been brought to them from the Kuru-Pañcala country. It is very probable that the East was less Āryan than the West, and that it was less completely reduced under Brahmin spiritual supremacy, as the movement of Buddhism was Eastern, and the Buddhist texts[१२] reveal a position in which the Kṣatriyas rank above Brāhmaṇas. With this agrees the fact that the later Vedic texts[१३] display towards the people of Magadha a marked antipathy, which may be reasonably explained by that people's lack of orthodoxy, and which may perhaps be traced as far back as the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā.[१४] It is, of course, possible that the Kosala-Videhas and Kāśis actually were merely offshoots of the tribes later known as the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that they by reason of distance and less complete subjugation of the aborigines lost their Brahminical culture. This hypothesis, however, appears less likely, though it might be supported by a literal interpretation of the legend of the Aryan migration in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.[१५]

  1. Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 5, 4, 19. 21. The plural occurs also in the Paippalāda recension of the Atharvaveda, v. 22, 14.
  2. xiii. 5, 4, 19.
  3. Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, ii. 1, 1;
    iii. 8, 2;
    Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, iv. 1.
  4. Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, loc. cit.
  5. iii. 8, 2.
  6. xvi. 29, 5.
  7. xxi. 13.
  8. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 212, 213.
  9. i. 2, 9.
  10. iv. 7. 1. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 20;
    Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 376.
  11. i. 4, 1, 10 et seq. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 170 et seq.;
    Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 12, xlii et seq., 104, n. 1.
  12. See Fick, Die seciale Gliederung, chap. iv.
  13. Kātyāyana Srauta Sūtra, xxii. 4, 22;
    Lāṭyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, viii. 6, 28. See Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 99;
    Fick, op. cit., 140, n. 1;
    and of. Magadha.
  14. xxx. 5. 22. See Magadha.
  15. Cf. Eggeling, loc. cit., 104, n. 1. Cf. Grierson, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 837, 1143;
    Keith, ibid., 831, 1138;
    Oldenberg, Buddha, 402 et seq.
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