कोसल

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


कोसल¦ पु॰ ब॰ व॰। कुस--अलच्। देशभेदे। तेऽभिजनोऽस्य तेषांराजा वा ष्यञ्। कौसल्य पित्रादिक्रमेण तद्देशवासिनिबहुषु तस्य लुक् कोसलाः। कोशलशब्दे विवृतिः। कोसलदेशश्च द्विविधः पूर्व्वोत्तरभेदात्
“कोसलाधिपतिंचैव तथा वेण्वातटाधिपम्। कान्तारकांश्च समरे तथाप्राक्कोसलान्नृपान्” मा॰ स॰

३० अ॰
“दक्षिणाये चपाञ्चालाः पूर्व्वाः कुन्तिषु कोसलाः”

१३ अ॰ उत्तरकोस-लास्तु कोशलशब्दे। र्निताः

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


कोसल m. pl. (in later texts generally , spelt कोशल) , N. of a country and the warrior-tribe inhabiting it (descendants of माठव्यविदेघS3Br. i ) Pa1n2. 4-1 , 171 MBh. etc. ( कोशलानां[ v.l. कौशल्R. vi , 86 , 43 ] नक्षत्रN. of a lunar mansion R. ( ed. Bomb.) vi , 103 , 35 )

कोसल m. N. of the country of कोसलR. i , 5 , 5

कोसल m. N. of the capital of that country or अयोध्या(the modern Oude) L.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kosala : m. (pl.): Name of a country and its people; the name is found twice as Kośala (2. 13. 26; 8. 17. 3) and once as Kosalā (f.) (9. 37. 22 kosalābhāge).


A. Location: Distinguished as eastern and southern Kosalas; the eastern Kośalas formed part of the Kuntī country (pūrvāḥ kuntiṣu kośalāḥ) 2. 13. 26; in the east, beyond the river Sarayū; beyond Kosala lay Mithilā and the rivers Mālā and Carmaṇvatī 2. 18. 28 (see Epic events no. 3 below); in the south, beyond the Kosalas lay the region called Dakṣiṇāpatha (ataḥ paraṁ ca deśo 'yaṁ dakṣiṇe dakṣiṇāpathaḥ) 3. 58. 22 (see Past events no. 1 below); its capital town Ayodhyā (see


B. 2 below).


B. Designation of certain kings after Kosala:

(1) Bṛhadbala called kosalādhipati 2. 27. 1; 8. 4. 21; 11. 25. 10; kosalānām adhipaḥ 7. 46. 20; kosalarāja 7. 46. 21; kosalānām bhartā 7. 46. 22; Sukṣatra's father (Bṛhadbala ?) called kosalādhipati 7. 22. 47;

(2) Ṛtuparṇa, king of Ayodhyā, called kosalādhipa 3. 71. 23;

(3) Kṣemadarśin called kosalānām adhipatiḥ (kosalānām ādhipatyaṁ saṁprāpte kṣemadarśini) 12. 83. 6.


C. Description:

(1) Holy (uttare kosalabhāge puṇye) 9. 37. 22;

(2) Their warriors: Brave (śūra) 8. 8. 19 and heroic (vīra) 8. 33. 22; (śūravīra) 8. 32. 17; skilled in battles while riding elephants (kośalā…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 3.


D. Characterization: Kosalas were counted among those who knew the eternal dharma (kosalā…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 60-61; they comprehended a thing as soon as they saw it (prekṣitajñāś ca kosalāḥ) 8. 30. 79.


E. Epic events:

(1) Bhīṣma defeated all Māgadhas, Kāśis and Kosalas and brought two maidens for Vicitravīrya 13. 44. 37;

(2) Kośalas, along with many other peoples, resorted to the west as they were afraid of Jarāsandha 2. 13. 26-28;

(3) Bhīma, Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa, while going to the Magadha country, had to cross the river Sarayū before they could reach the eastern Kosala (saṁtīrya sarayūṁ ramyāṁ dṛṣṭvā pūrvāṁś ca kosalān/ atītya jagmur mithilāṁ mālāṁ carmaṇvatīm nadīm//) 2. 18. 28;

(4) Kṛṣṇa once defeated them 7. 10. 15;

(5) Karṇa also had once defeated them 8. 5. 19;

(6) Some of the Kosalas sided with the Kauravas (and others with the Pāṇḍavas) (ardhaṁ me kekayā labdhāḥ kāśikāḥ kosalāś ca ye) 7. 23. 7;

(7) On the second day of war, Kosalas and others, led by Duryodhana, guarded the army of Śakuni 6. 47. 15-16;

(8) On the twelfth day of war, Kosalas, on the side of the Pāṇḍavas, attacked Droṇa when they saw Yudhiṣṭhira retreating from Droṇa; he scattered their army 7. 20. 18-19;

(9) On the sixteenth day of war, they rushed at the Kaurava army; their chariotfighters, elephant-riders, and excellent foot soldiers, who were delighted, danced making various sounds and laughed (nānāvidharavair hṛṣtā nṛtyanti ca hasanti ca) 8. 8. 19-20; Bhīma, seated on an elephant was in the midst of their army 8. 8. 21;

(10) On the same day, Kośalas (on the side of the Kauravas), skilled in elephant battles, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna to kill him; they showered arrows, tomaras and nārācas (kośalā…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 3-4;

(11) On the seventeenth day of war, Kṛpa, Kṛtavarman and Śakuni fought with Kosalas (on the side of the Pāṇḍavas) and killed many of them 8. 32. 17-18;

(12) On the same day, Kosalas, along with other warriors, checked the advance of Vasuṣeṇa 8. 33. 22;

(13) On the same day, Arjuna killed many Kosalas (on the side of the Kauravas) 8. 37. 2;

(14) Kosala country mentioned among those reached by the Aśvamedha horse 14. 84. 4.


F. Past events:

(1) Nala showed to Damayantī the roads leading to Dakṣiṇāpatha; one of them led to Kosala country (ete gacchanti bahavaḥ panthāno dakṣināpatham…eṣa panthā vidarbhāṇām ayaṁ gacchati kosalān/ataḥ paraṁ ca deśo 'yaṁ dakṣiṇe dakṣiṇāpathaḥ//) 3. 58. 20, 22;

(2) For the sacrifice of Auddālaka, performed in the northern Kosalā, Sarasvatī appeared as Manohradā (uttare kosalābhāge…auddālakena yajatā…sarasvatī// ājagāma…manohradeti vikhyātā) 9. 37. 22-23.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kosala : m. (pl.): Name of a country and its people; the name is found twice as Kośala (2. 13. 26; 8. 17. 3) and once as Kosalā (f.) (9. 37. 22 kosalābhāge).


A. Location: Distinguished as eastern and southern Kosalas; the eastern Kośalas formed part of the Kuntī country (pūrvāḥ kuntiṣu kośalāḥ) 2. 13. 26; in the east, beyond the river Sarayū; beyond Kosala lay Mithilā and the rivers Mālā and Carmaṇvatī 2. 18. 28 (see Epic events no. 3 below); in the south, beyond the Kosalas lay the region called Dakṣiṇāpatha (ataḥ paraṁ ca deśo 'yaṁ dakṣiṇe dakṣiṇāpathaḥ) 3. 58. 22 (see Past events no. 1 below); its capital town Ayodhyā (see


B. 2 below).


B. Designation of certain kings after Kosala:

(1) Bṛhadbala called kosalādhipati 2. 27. 1; 8. 4. 21; 11. 25. 10; kosalānām adhipaḥ 7. 46. 20; kosalarāja 7. 46. 21; kosalānām bhartā 7. 46. 22; Sukṣatra's father (Bṛhadbala ?) called kosalādhipati 7. 22. 47;

(2) Ṛtuparṇa, king of Ayodhyā, called kosalādhipa 3. 71. 23;

(3) Kṣemadarśin called kosalānām adhipatiḥ (kosalānām ādhipatyaṁ saṁprāpte kṣemadarśini) 12. 83. 6.


C. Description:

(1) Holy (uttare kosalabhāge puṇye) 9. 37. 22;

(2) Their warriors: Brave (śūra) 8. 8. 19 and heroic (vīra) 8. 33. 22; (śūravīra) 8. 32. 17; skilled in battles while riding elephants (kośalā…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 3.


D. Characterization: Kosalas were counted among those who knew the eternal dharma (kosalā…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 60-61; they comprehended a thing as soon as they saw it (prekṣitajñāś ca kosalāḥ) 8. 30. 79.


E. Epic events:

(1) Bhīṣma defeated all Māgadhas, Kāśis and Kosalas and brought two maidens for Vicitravīrya 13. 44. 37;

(2) Kośalas, along with many other peoples, resorted to the west as they were afraid of Jarāsandha 2. 13. 26-28;

(3) Bhīma, Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa, while going to the Magadha country, had to cross the river Sarayū before they could reach the eastern Kosala (saṁtīrya sarayūṁ ramyāṁ dṛṣṭvā pūrvāṁś ca kosalān/ atītya jagmur mithilāṁ mālāṁ carmaṇvatīm nadīm//) 2. 18. 28;

(4) Kṛṣṇa once defeated them 7. 10. 15;

(5) Karṇa also had once defeated them 8. 5. 19;

(6) Some of the Kosalas sided with the Kauravas (and others with the Pāṇḍavas) (ardhaṁ me kekayā labdhāḥ kāśikāḥ kosalāś ca ye) 7. 23. 7;

(7) On the second day of war, Kosalas and others, led by Duryodhana, guarded the army of Śakuni 6. 47. 15-16;

(8) On the twelfth day of war, Kosalas, on the side of the Pāṇḍavas, attacked Droṇa when they saw Yudhiṣṭhira retreating from Droṇa; he scattered their army 7. 20. 18-19;

(9) On the sixteenth day of war, they rushed at the Kaurava army; their chariotfighters, elephant-riders, and excellent foot soldiers, who were delighted, danced making various sounds and laughed (nānāvidharavair hṛṣtā nṛtyanti ca hasanti ca) 8. 8. 19-20; Bhīma, seated on an elephant was in the midst of their army 8. 8. 21;

(10) On the same day, Kośalas (on the side of the Kauravas), skilled in elephant battles, attacked Dhṛṣṭadyumna to kill him; they showered arrows, tomaras and nārācas (kośalā…gajayuddheṣu kuśalāḥ) 8. 17. 3-4;

(11) On the seventeenth day of war, Kṛpa, Kṛtavarman and Śakuni fought with Kosalas (on the side of the Pāṇḍavas) and killed many of them 8. 32. 17-18;

(12) On the same day, Kosalas, along with other warriors, checked the advance of Vasuṣeṇa 8. 33. 22;

(13) On the same day, Arjuna killed many Kosalas (on the side of the Kauravas) 8. 37. 2;

(14) Kosala country mentioned among those reached by the Aśvamedha horse 14. 84. 4.


F. Past events:

(1) Nala showed to Damayantī the roads leading to Dakṣiṇāpatha; one of them led to Kosala country (ete gacchanti bahavaḥ panthāno dakṣināpatham…eṣa panthā vidarbhāṇām ayaṁ gacchati kosalān/ataḥ paraṁ ca deśo 'yaṁ dakṣiṇe dakṣiṇāpathaḥ//) 3. 58. 20, 22;

(2) For the sacrifice of Auddālaka, performed in the northern Kosalā, Sarasvatī appeared as Manohradā (uttare kosalābhāge…auddālakena yajatā…sarasvatī// ājagāma…manohradeti vikhyātā) 9. 37. 22-23.


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Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kosala is the name of a people not occurring in the earliest Vedic literature. In the story of the spread of Āryan culture told in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,[१] the Kosala-Videhas, as the offspring of Videgha Māthava, appear as falling later than the Kuru-Pañcālas under the influence of Brahminism. The same passage gives the Sadānīrā as the boundary of the two peoples--Kosala and Videha. Elsewhere[२] the Kausalya, or Kosala king, Para Āṭṇāra Hairaṇyanābha, is described as having performed the great Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice. Connexion with Kāśi and Videha appears also from a passage of the Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra.[३] Weber[४] points out that Āśvalāyana, who was very probably a descendant of Aśvala, the Hotṛ priest of Videha, is called a Kosala in the Praśna Upaniṣad.[५] The later distinction of North and South Kosala is unknown to both Vedic and Buddhist literature.[६]

Kosala lay to the north-east of the Ganges, and corresponded roughly to the modern Oudh.

  1. i. 4, 1, 1 et seq.
  2. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 5, 4, 4. Cf. Hiraṇya-nābha, a Rājaputra, in Praśna Upaniṣad, iii. 2, and Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xvi. 9, 13, as a Kausalya, while ibid., 11, Para is styled Vaideha.
  3. xvi. 29, 5.
  4. Indische Studien, 1, 182, 441.
  5. vi. 1.
  6. Oldenberg, Buddha, 393, n.

    Cf. von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 167;
    Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 12, xlii;
    Weber, Indian Literature, 39, 132 et seq.;
    Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 213-215;
    Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 25.
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