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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पिता, [ऋ] पुं, पाति रक्षत्यपत्यं यः । (पा रक्षणे + “नप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृहोतृपोतृभ्रातृजामातृ- मातृपितृदुहितृ ।” उणां । २ । ९६ । इति तृच्- प्रत्ययेन निपातनात् साधुः ।) उत्पादकः । वाप् इति भाषा । तत्पर्य्यायः । तातः २ जनकः ३ । इत्यमरः । २ । ६२८ ॥ प्रसविता ४ वप्ता ५ जन- यिता ६ गुरुः ७ जन्मदः ८ जन्यः ९ जनिता १० । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ बीजी ११ वप्रः १२ । इति हेमचन्द्रः ॥ * ॥ तस्य मान्यत्वं लक्षणञ्च यथा, -- “मान्यः पूज्यश्च सर्व्वेभ्यः सर्व्वेषां जनको भवेत् । वरो वरेण्यो वरदः पुष्टिदस्तुष्टिदस्तथा ॥ विश्वपाता तथा धाता सप्तैवैते तथा गणाः । महान्महात्मा महितो महिमावान्महाबलः ॥ गणाः पञ्च तथैवैते पितॄणां पापनाशनाः । सुखदो धनदश्चान्यो धर्म्मदोऽन्यश्च भूतिदः ॥ पितॄणां कथ्यते चैतत्तथा गणचतुष्टयम् । एकत्रिंशत्पितृगणा यैर्व्याप्तमखिलं जगत् ॥ ते मेऽनुतृप्तास्तुष्यन्तु यच्छन्तु च सदा हितम् ॥” शिवः । यथा, महाभारते । १३ । १७ । १४१ । “सदसद्व्यक्तमव्यक्तं पिता माता पितामहः ॥”)

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पितृ पुं।

पिता

समानार्थक:तात,जनक,पितृ

2।6।28।2।5

आहुर्दुहितरं सर्वेऽपत्यं तोकं तयोः समे। स्वजाते त्वौरसोरस्यौ तातस्तु जनकः पिता॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्यः

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पितृ¦ पु॰ पाति रक्षति पा--तृच् नि॰।

१ जनके। मात्रा स॰होक्तौ पितृशेषः द्वि॰ व॰। मात्रापित्रोः अमरः। पञ्च-पितृशब्दे

४१

८८ पृ॰ दृश्यम्। पितरः श्राद्ध्वदेवता इत्युक्तेःश्राद्धोद्देश्ये

२ प्राप्तपितृलोकके। पितृलोकः पितृयाणम्

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पितृ¦ m. (-ता) A father, dual, (-रौ) Mother and father, parents. plu. always, (-रः)
1. Paternal ancestors.
2. The manes, or the deceased and deified progenitors of mankind, inhabiting a peculiar region or heaven, or according to some, the orbit of the moon. E. पा to nourish, Una4di aff. तृच्।

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पितृ [pitṛ], m. [पाति रक्षति, पा-तृच् नि˚] A father; तेनास लोकः पितृमान् विनेत्रा R.14.23;1.24;11.67. -रौ (dual) Parents, father and mother; जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमे- श्वरौ R.1.1; Y.2.117. -रः (pl.)

Fore-fathers, ancestors, fathers; नूनं प्रसूतिविकलेन मया प्रसिक्तं धौताश्रुशेष- मुदकं पितरः पिबन्ति Ś.6.24.

Paternal ancestors taken collectively; अध्यापयामास पितॄन् शिशुराङ्गिरसः कविः Ms.2.151.

The Manes; R.2.16;3.2; पितॄणामर्यमा चास्मि Bg. 1.29; Ms.3.81,192. -Comp. -अर्जित a. acquired by a father, paternal (as property). -कर्मन् n., -कार्यम्, -कृत्यम्, -क्रिया oblations or sacrifice offerd to deceased ancestors, obsequial rites; स्वधाकारः परा ह्याशीः सर्वेषु पितृकर्मसु Ms.3.252.

कल्पः performance of the Śrāddha ceremony in honour of the Manes.

Brahma's day of new moon. -काननम् a cemetery; अभ्यभावि भरताग्रजस्तया वात्य- येव पितृकाननोत्थया R.11.16. -कुल्या N. of a river rising in the Malaya mountain. -क्षयः the death anniversary; आनन्त्याय भवेद् दत्तं खड्गमांसं पितृक्षये Mb.13.88.1.

गणः the whole body of ancestors taken collectively.

a class of Manes or deceased progenitors who were sons of the Prajāpati; मनोर्हैरण्यगर्भस्य ये मरीच्यादयः सुताः । तेषा- मृषीणां सर्वेषां पुत्राः पितृगणाः स्मृताः ॥ विराट्सुताः सोमसदः साध्यानां पितरः स्मृताः । अग्निष्वात्ताश्च देवानां मारीचा लोकविश्रुताः ॥ Ms.3. 194-195. -गणा N. of of Durgā. -गामिन् a. devolving on, or belonging to a father.

गृहम् a paternal mansion.

a cemetery, burial-ground. -घातकः, -घातिन्, -घ्नः m. a parricide.

तर्पणम् an oblation to the Manes.

the act of throwing water out of the right hand (as at the time of ablutions) as an offering to the Manes or deceased ancestors; नित्यं स्नात्वा शुचिः कुर्याद् देवर्षिपितृतर्पणम् Ms.2.176.

sesamum.

gifts given at Srāddhas or funeral rites.

the part of the hand between the thumb and the fore-finger (sacred to the Manes). -तिथिः f. the day of new-moon (अमावास्या).

तीर्थम् N. of the place called Gayā where the performance of funeral rites, such as Srāddhas in honour of the Manes, is held to be particularly meritorious.

the part of the hand between the fore-finger and the thumb (considered to be sacred to the Manes). -त्रयम् father, grand-father and great grand-father. -दत्त a. given by a father (as a woman's peculiar property). -दानम् an offering to the Manes.-दायः patrimony. -दिनम् the day of new-moon (अमावास्या). -देव a.

worshipping a father.

relating to the worship of the Manes. (-वाः) the divine Manes. -दे(दै)वत a.

presided over by the Manes.

relating to the worship of the Manes. (-तम्) N. of the tenth lunar mansion (मघा). -दे(दै)वत्य a. belonging to the worship of the Manes. (-त्यम्) a sacrifice offered to the Manes on the day called अष्टका; अष्टकापितृदेवत्यमित्ययं प्रसृतो जनः Rām.2.18.14. -द्रव्यम् patrimony; पितृद्रव्याविरोधेन यदन्यत् स्वयमर्जितम् Y.2.118.

पक्षः the paternal side, paternal relationship.

a relative by the father's side.

'the fortnight of the Manes'; N. of the dark half of Bhādrapada which is particularly appointed for the celebration of obsequial rites to the Manes. -पतिः an epithet of Yama. -पदम् the world of the Manes. -पितृ m. a paternal grandfather. -पुत्रौ (पिता-पुत्रौ dual) father and son. (पितुः पुत्रः means 'the son of a well-known and renowned father'). -पूजनम् worship of the manes; पतिव्रता धर्म- पत्नी पितृपूजनतत्परा Ms.3.262. -पैतामह a. (-ही f.) inherited from ancestors, ancestral, hereditary. (-हाः pl.) ancestors. -प्रसूः f.

a paternal grand-mother.

evening twilight; तारावलीराजतबिन्दुराजत् पितृप्रसूभासुरपत्रपाश्यः, वियद्द्विपस्तिष्ठति Rām. Ch.6.38. -प्राप्त a.

inherited from a father.

inherited patrimonially. -बन्धुः a kinsman by the father's side; they are: पितुः पितुःस्वसुः पुत्राः पितुर्मातुःस्वसुः सुताः । पितुर्मातुलपुत्राश्च विज्ञेयाः पितृबन्धवः ॥ (न्धुम् n.) relationship by the father's side. -भम् The Maghā star; Śabda Ch. -भक्त a. dutifully attached to a father. भक्तिः f. filial duty. -भोजनम् food offered to the Manes. -भ्रातृ m. a father's brother, paternal uncle.

मन्दिरम् a paternal mansion.

a cemetery.-मेधः a sacrifice offered to the Manes, obsequial offerings; गुरोः प्रेतस्य शिष्यस्तु पितृमेधं समाचरन् Ms.5.65; Mb.16.7.23.

यज्ञः obsequial offerings.

offering libations of water every day to the deceased ancestors, it is one of the five daily Yajñas enjoined to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa; पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् Ms.3.1; also 122,283. -यानम् the way of the Manes (to their world). -राज् m., -राजः, -राजन् m. an epithet of Yama. -रूपः an epithet of Siva. -लोकः the world of the Manes. -वंशः the paternal family.

वनम् a cemetery; वसन् पितृवने रौद्रे शौचे वर्तितुमिच्छसि Mb.12.111.9.

death, the abode of death; सर्वे पितृवनं प्राप्य स्वपन्ति विगतज्वराः Mb.11.3.5. (पितृवनेचरः

a demon, goblin.

an epithet of Śiva). -वसतिः f., -सद्मन् n. a cemetery; त्रिलोकनाथः पितृसद्मगोचरः Ku.5.77. -वासरपर्वन् the period of performing the obsequious rites for the Manes; Gaṇeśa P.2. -व्रतः a worshipper of the Manes. (-तम्) obsequial rites. -श्राद्धम् obsequial rites in honour of a father or deceased ancestor. -स्वसृ f. (also पितृष्वसृ as well as पितुः स्वसृ or पितुःष्वसृ) a father's sister; Ms.2.131. -ष्वस्रीयः a paternal aunt's son. -संनिभःa. fatherly, paternal.

सूः a paternal grandmother.

evening twilight. -स्थानः, -स्थानीयः a guardian (who is in the place of a father). -नम् The abode of death; see पितृवन; आनिन्यथुः पितृस्थानाद् गुरवे गुरुदक्षिणाम् Bhāg.1.85.32. -हत्या parricide. -हन् m. a parricide.-हू m. the right ear; पितृहूर्नृप पुर्या द्वार्दक्षिणेन पुरञ्जनः Bhāg.4.25.5.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


पितृ m. (irreg. acc. pl. पितरस्MBh. ; gen. pl. पित्रिणाम्BhP. )a father RV. etc. etc. (in the वेदN. of बृहस्-पति, वरुण, प्रजा-पति, and esp. of heaven or the sky ; अन्तरा पितरं मातरं च, " between heaven and earth " RV. x , 88 , 15 )

पितृ m. du. ( तरौ)father and mother , parents RV. etc. etc. (in the वेदN. of the अरणिs [q.v.] and of heaven and earth)

पितृ m. pl. ( तरस्)the fathers , forefathers , ancestors , ( esp. ) the पितृs or deceased ancestors (they are of 2 classes , viz. the deceased father , grandfathers and great-grandfathers of any partic. person , and the progenitors of mankind generally ; in honour of both these classes rites called श्राद्धs are performed and oblations called पिण्डs [See. ] are presented ; they inhabit a peculiar region , which , according to some , is the भुवस्ar region of the air , according to others , the orbit of the moon , and are considered as the regents of the नक्षत्रs मघाand मूल; See. RTL. 10 etc. ) RV. etc.

पितृ m. a father and his brothers , father and uncles , paternal ancestors Mn. ii , 151 etc. R. Katha1s.

पितृ m. a partic. child's-demon Sus3r. [Origin fr. 3 पाvery doubtful ; cf. Zd. pita ; Gk. ? ; Lat. pater , Jup-piter ; Goth. fadar ; Germ. Vater ; Eng. father.]

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


PITṚ(S) : Pitṛs are a set of demigods. From Manu- prajāpati, son of Brahmā, were born the Saptarṣis like Marīci and they in turn created the Pitṛs. Besides Marīci and his set many others like Virāṭ Puruṣa and Brahmā have created Pitṛs. Some Purāṇas state that Pitṛs are of daily creation. Brahmā in the beginning created three sets of Pitṛs with form and four with brightness making thus seven sets. The three sets of bodied pitṛs are Agniṣvāttas, Barhiṣadas and Somapās and the four bright ones are Yama, Anala, Soma and Aryaman (10th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

“Manor hairaṇyagarbhasya
ye marīcyādayaḥ sutāḥ /
Teṣāmṛṣīṇāṁ sarveṣām
putrāḥ pitṛgaṇāḥ smṛtāḥ” //
(Śloka 194, Chapter 8, Manusmṛti).
Pitṛs (manes) are classified into two types: The Agni- ṣvāttas and Barhiṣadas. Of these the Agniṣvāttas do not perform Yāgas and the Barhiṣadas are those who perform yāgas. Besides these two major divisions they are classified into many other groups as follows:

1. Somasadasya (s). Virāṭ Puruṣa is the creator of these Pitṛs. Somasadasyas are the Pitṛs of Sādhyadevas.

2. Agniṣvātta (s). They are the pitṛs of devas.

3. Barhiṣadas. These Pitṛs are the creation of the sage Atri. They are the manes of daityas, dānavas, yakṣas, gandharvas, uragas (serpents), rākṣasas (demons), suvarṇas and kinnaras.

4. Somapā (s). They are the sons of the sage Bhṛgu and are the manes of brahmins.

5. Havirbhuk (s). The sage Aṅgiras is the father of these Pitṛs who are the manes of Kṣatriyas.

6. Ājyapā (s). These are the sons of the sage Pulastya and are the manes of Vaiśyas.

7. Sukālika (s). Sons of the sage Vasiṣṭha, these Pitṛs are the manes of the Śūdras.

To the seven sages like Marīci were born the pitṛs and to the pitṛs were born the devāsuras (devas and asuras) and to the devāsuras were born everything else in this universe, animate and inanimate. (Chapter 3, Manu- smṛti).

Performing a Śrāddha (offering obsequial oblations to the departed) is just like a yajña. The oblations should be offered in either silver or silver cum copper pots. Viśvadevas are the guardians of the pitṛs. There- fore the oblations should be offered after worshipping the Viśvadevas first and then the pitṛs and then Viṣṇu. (See under Śrāddha).


_______________________________
*9th word in right half of page 590 (+offset) in original book.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Pitṛ, common from the Rigveda onwards, denotes ‘father,’ not so much as the ‘begetter’ (janitṛ),[१] but rather as the protector of the child, this being probably also the etymological sense of the word.[२] The father in the Rigveda[३] stands for all that is good and kind. Hence Agni is compared with a father,[४] while Indra is even dearer than a father.[५] The father carries his son in his arms,[६] and places him on his lap,[७] while the child pulls his garment to attract attention.[८] In later years the son depends on his father for help in trouble,[९] and greets him with joy.[१०]

It is difficult to ascertain precisely how far the son was subject to parental control, and how long such control continued. Reference is made in the Rigveda[११] to a father's chastising his son for gambling, and Ṛjrāśva is said to have been blinded by his father.[१२] From the latter statement Zimmer[१३] infers the existence of a developed patria potestas, but to lay stress on this isolated and semi-mythical incident would be unwise. It is, however, quite likely that the patria potestas was originally strong, for we have other support for the thesis in the Roman patria potestas. If there is no proof that a father legally controlled his son's wedding,[१४] and not much that he controlled his daughter's,[१५] the fact is in itself not improbable.

There is again no evidence to show whether a son, when grown up, normally continued to stay with his father, his wife becoming a member of the father's household, or whether he set up a house of his own: probably the custom varied. Nor do we know whether the son was granted a special plot of land on marriage or otherwise, or whether he only came into such property after his father's death. But any excessive estimate of the father's powers over a son who was no longer a minor and naturally under his control, must be qualified by the fact that in his old age the sons might divide their father's property,[१६] or he might divide it amongst them,[१७] and that when the father-in-law became aged he fell under the control of his son's wife.[१८] There are also obscure traces that in old age a father might be exposed, though there is no reason to suppose that this was usual in Vedic India.[१९]

Normally the son was bound to give his father full obedience.[२०] The later Sūtras show in detail the acts of courtesy which he owed his father, and they allow him to eat the remnants of his father's food.[२१] On the other hand, the father was expected to be kind. The story of Śunaḥśepa in the Aitareya Brāh- maṇa[२२] emphasizes the horror with which the father's heartless treatment of his son was viewed. The Upaniṣads[२३] insist on the spiritual succession from father to son. The kissing of a son[२४] was a frequent and usual token of affection, even in mature years.

On the failure of natural children, adoption was possible.[२५] It was even resorted to when natural children existed, but when it was desired to secure the presence in the family of a person of specially high qualifications, as in Viśvāmitra's adoption of Śunaḥśepa.[२६] It is not clear that adoption from one caste into another was possible, for there is no good evidence that Viśvāmitra was, as Weber[२७] holds, a Kṣatriya who adopted a Brāhmaṇa. Adoption was also not always in high favour: it may be accidental or not that a hymn of the Vasiṣṭha book of the Rigveda[२८] condemns the usage. It was also possible for the father who had a daughter, but no sons, to appoint her to bear a son for him. At any rate the practice appears to be referred to in an obscure verse of the Rigveda[२९] as interpreted by Yāska.[३०] Moreover, it is possible that the difficulty of a brotherless maiden finding a husband[३१] may have been due in part to the possibility of her father desiring to make her a Putrikā, the later technical name for a daughter whose son is to belong to her father's family.

There can be no doubt that in a family the father took precedence of the mother.[३२] Delbrück[३३] explains away the apparent cases to the contrary.[३४] There is no trace of the family as a land-owning corporation.[३५] The dual form Pitarau regularly means ‘father and mother,’ ‘parents.’[३६]

  1. Pitā janitā, is used of gods in the Rigveda--e.g., iv. 17, 12.
  2. As derived from pā, ‘protect.’ But, as Bo7htlingk and Roth, St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. Mātar, footnote, suggest, pa and were probably the much older original onomatopoetic names for ‘father’ and ‘mother,’ which in a later reflective age influenced the formation of pitṛ and mātṛ (which themselves go back to the Indo-European period).
  3. See, e.g., iv. 17, 17;
    viii. 86, 4.
  4. Rv. x. 7, 3.
  5. Rv. vii. 32, 19;
    viii. 1, 6.
  6. Rv. i. 38, 1.
  7. Rv. v. 43, 7.
  8. Rv. iii. 53, 2.
  9. In Rv. x. 48, 1, the jantavaḥ possibly are the sons.
  10. Rv. vii. 103, 3. Cf. 1, 24, 1.
  11. Rv. ii. 29, 5.
  12. Rv. i. 116, 16;
    117, 17. There is also the case of the sale of Sunaḥśepa, Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 12-18;
    and cf. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 3, 3, 3.
  13. Altindisches Leben, 316.
  14. Cf. Delbrück, Die indogermanischen Verwandtschaftsnamen, 576. Ibid., 582, he quotes Mahābhārata, xii. 6108 et seq., which refers in one line to the control of the marriage of the son by the father, and in the next to a case of free marriage. The fact is, no doubt, that the son could marry freely, unless his father had arranged matters for him when he was too young to object.
  15. Zimmer, op. cit., 309, assumes this as certain, but it is far from proved. See, however, Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, iii. 12, 2, which is in favour of Zimmer's view. Cf. Kaegi, Dev Rigveda, 15, and Pati.
  16. Rv. i. 70, 10;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, v. 14;
    Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 156 (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 26, 61, 62).
  17. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 1, 9, 4-6. Cf. the handing over from father to son in the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, ii. 15. If the father recovered, he lived subject to his son.
  18. Rv. x. 85, 46.
  19. Cf. Rv. viii. 51, 2;
    Av. xviii. 2, 34. The first passage need not refer to exposure, and the second merely refers to the exposure of a dead body;
    but Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 326-328, thinks that they prove exposure. Cf. Dharma.
  20. Rv. i. 68, 5
  21. Āpastamba Dharma Sūtra, i. 1, 4, 11.
  22. vii. 12 et seq.;
    Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xv. 17 et seq.
  23. E.g., Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, ii. 15;
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, i. 5, 25 (Mādhyaṃdina = i. 5, 17, Kāṇva).
  24. See Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 28, 120-134;
    Keith, Śāṅkhāyana Āraṇyaka, 26, n. 3.
  25. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 318;
    Mayr, Indisches Erbrecht, 73;
    Jolly, Die Adoption in Indien (Würzburg, 1910), 7 et seq.
  26. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 17 et seq.;
    Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xv. 17. Cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 2, 157.
  27. Episches im vedischen Ritual, 33, 34.
  28. vii. 4, 7. 8.
  29. iii. 31, 1.
  30. iii. 5 ad fin. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 5, 343;
    Geldner, Vedische Studien, 3, 34;
    Oldenberg, Ṛgveda-Noten, 1, 239-241.
  31. Cf. Bhrātṛ.
  32. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ii. 5, 1, 18;
    a citation in Śāṅkhāyana Gṛhya Sūtra, i. 9;
    Chāndogya Upaniṣad vii. 15, 2.
  33. Die indogermanischen Verwandtschaftsnamen, 577.
  34. Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, iv. 7, 5. Some passages in the Sūtras present difficulties, but they are of no importance for Vedic times proper.
  35. Baden Powell, whose various works (Indian Village Community, 1896;
    Village Communities in India, 1899, etc.) have done most to combat the view of the village community in India as a land-holding institution, is prepared to recognize the family as a land-owning unit, considering that the patria potestas is a later growth, and not Indian (see, e.g., Village Communities in India, 128 et seq.). Hopkins, India, Old and New, 218 et seq., adopts a theory which allows of individual and joint family ownership side by side, the latter being apparently the earlier but the decadent stage. He expressly considers (p. 222) that the son had an indefeasible right to prevent the father from alienating the hereditary land, which could only be parted with by the consent of the village if it were a case of joint ownership (cf. the verse cited by Jolly, Recht und Sitte, 94). But it must be remembered that, as is very clearly shown in the case of English law by Pollock and Maitland (History of English Law, 2, 337-352), the recognition of the rights of sons may well be, not a sign of original joint or family ownership, but a development from the existence of intestate succession, and as in England, so in India, there is no trace of a corporate joint family in the early books. And, as Jolly (op. cit., 76, 80) shows, there are clear traces, both in old and modern times, of a despotic control of the family by the father even after his sons grew up, provided only that he was physically able to control them. The same state of affairs seems proved for early English law, as it is beyond question for Roman law (see Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, 2, 351 et seq.). In Greece also, which is sometimes contrasted with Rome, there is the clearest trace of both a real patria potestas, and of the absolute ownership of the land by the father as against the son, especially in the archaic laws of Gortyn (see Gardner and Jevons, Greek Antiquities, 404, 405, 563, 566).
  36. Rv. i. 20, 4;
    160, 3;
    ii. 17, 7;
    vii. 67, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxiii 10;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xix. 11, etc.
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