- धर्मः, गुणधर्मः, अधिकारः, अवेच्छेदकः, कोष्ठः, गयः, ग्रन्थः, पणः, परिग्रहः, पूगः, बहिरङ्गः, भोगः, वर्णः, वेदः, वृत्तान्तः, सम्भारः, सम्परिग्रहः, आशयः, योगः।
- धर्मः नाम अधिकारः, आशयः।
स्याद्धर्ममस्त्रियां पुण्यश्रेयसी सुकृतं वृषः। मुत्प्रीतिः प्रमदो हर्षः प्रमोदामोदसम्मदाः॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : , गुणः, अदृष्टम्
श्रुतिः स्त्री वेद आम्नायस्त्रयी धर्मस्तु तद्विधिः। स्त्रियामृक्सामयजुषी इति वेदास्त्रयस्त्रयी॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : , क्रिया
धर्माः पुण्ययमन्यायस्वभावाचारसोमपाः। उपायपूर्व आरम्भ उपधा चाप्युपक्रमः॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : , क्रिया
धर्माः पुण्ययमन्यायस्वभावाचारसोमपाः। उपायपूर्व आरम्भ उपधा चाप्युपक्रमः॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : , गुणः, मानसिकभावः
धर्माः पुण्ययमन्यायस्वभावाचारसोमपाः। उपायपूर्व आरम्भ उपधा चाप्युपक्रमः॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : , गुणः, अदृष्टम्
धर्माः पुण्ययमन्यायस्वभावाचारसोमपाः। उपायपूर्व आरम्भ उपधा चाप्युपक्रमः॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : वृत्तिः, द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्यः
धर्माः पुण्ययमन्यायस्वभावाचारसोमपाः। उपायपूर्व आरम्भ उपधा चाप्युपक्रमः॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : , गुणः, मानसिकभावः
धर्माः पुण्ययमन्यायस्वभावाचारसोमपाः। उपायपूर्व आरम्भ उपधा चाप्युपक्रमः॥
पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, आत्मा, देवता
धर्मः [dharmḥ], [ध्रियते लोको$नेन, धरति लोकं वा धृ-मन्; cf. Uṇ 1. 137]
Religion; the customary observances of a caste, sect, &c.
Law, usage, practice, custom, ordinance, statue.
Religious or moral merit, virtue, righteousness, good works (regarded as one of the four ends of human existence); अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्ग- सारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38, and see त्रिवर्ग also; एक एव सुहृद्धर्मो निधने$प्यनुयाति यः H.1.63.
Duty, prescribed course of conduct; षष्ठांशवृत्तेरपि धर्म एषः Ś.5.4; Ms.1.114.
Right, justice, equity, impartiality.
Piety, propriety, decorum.
Nature. disposition, character; उत्पत्स्यते$स्ति मम को$पि समानधर्मा Māl.1.6; प्राणि˚, जीव˚.
An essential quality, peculiarity, characteristic property, (peculiar) attribute; वदन्ति वर्ण्यावर्ण्यानां धर्मैक्यं दीपकं बुधाः Chandr.5.45; Pt.1.34.
Manner, resemblance, likeness.
Good company, associating with the virtuous
Devotion, religious abstraction.
An Upaniṣad q. v.
N. of Yudhiṣṭhira, the eldest Pāṇḍava.
N. of Yama, the god of death.
A drinker of Soma juice.
(In astrol.) N. of the ninth lunar mansion.
An Arhat of the Jainas.
Mastery, great skill; दिव्यास्त्रगुणसंपन्नः परं धर्मं गतो युधि Rām.3.31.15. -र्मम् A virtuous deed. -Comp. -अक्षरम् (pl.) holy mantras; a formula of faith; धर्माक्षराण्युदाहरामि Mk.8.45-46. -अङ्गः (-ङ्गा f.) the Indian crane. -अधर्मौm. (du.) right and wrong, religion and irreligion; धर्माधर्मौ सपदि गलितौ पुण्यपापे विशीर्णे. ˚विद् m. a Mīmāṁsaka who knows the right and wrong course of action.
अधिकरणम् administration of the laws.
a court of justice. (-णः) a judge. -अधिकरणिकः, -अधिकारिन्m. a judge, magistrate, any judicial functionary.-अधिकरणिन् m. a judge, magistrate.
अधिकारः superintendence of religious affairs; Ś1.
administration of justice.
the office of a judge. -अधि- ष्ठानम् a court of justice.
अध्यक्षः a judge.
an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अनुष्ठानम् acting according to religion, virtuous or moral conduct. -अनुसारः conformity to virtue or justice. -अपेत a. deviating from virtue, wicked, immoral, irreligious. (-तम्) vice, immorality, injustice. -अयनम् course of law, law-suit. -अरण्यम् a sacred or penance grove, a wood inhabited by ascetics; धर्मारण्यं प्रविशति गजः Śi.1.32. -अर्थौः religious merit and wealth; धर्मार्थौ यत्र न स्याताम् Ms.2.112.-अर्थम् ind.
for religious purposes.
justly, according to justice or right. -अलीक a. having a false character. -अस्तिकायः (with Jainas) the category or predicament of virtue; cf. अस्तिकाय. -अहन् Yesterday.-आगमः a religious statute, lawbook.
आचार्यः a religious teacher.
a teacher of law or customs.-आत्मजः an epithet of Yudhiṣṭhira q. v. -आत्मता religiousmindedness; justice, virtue. -आत्मन् a. just righteous, pious, virtuous. (-m.) a saint, a pious man.-आश्रय, -आश्रित a. righteous, virtuous; धर्माश्रयं पापिनः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -आसनम् the throne of justice, judgmentseat, tribunal; न संभावितमद्य धर्मासनमध्यासितुम् Ś.6; धर्मासनाद्विशति वासगृहं नरेन्द्रः U.1.7. -इन्द्रः, -ईशः an epithet of Yama; पितॄणामिव धर्मेन्द्रः Mb.7.6.6. -ईप्सुa. wishing to gain religious merit; Ms.1.127. -उत्तरa. 'rich in virtue,' chiefly characterized by justice, eminently just and impartial; धर्मोत्तरं मध्यममाश्रयन्ते R.13.7. -उपचायिन् a. religious; यच्च वः प्रेक्षमाणानां सर्व- धर्मोपचायिनाम् Mb.5.137.16.
उपदेशः instruction in law or duty, religious or moral instruction. आर्षं धर्मोपदेशं च वेदशास्त्राविरोधिना । यस्तर्केणानुसंधत्ते स धर्मं वेद नेतरः ॥ Ms.12.16.
the collective body of laws.
उपदेशकः a teacher of the law.
a spiritual teacher, a Guru. -कथकः an expounder of law. -कर्मन्n.,
कार्यम्, क्रिया any act of duty or religion, any moral or religious observance, a religious act or rite.
virtuous conduct. -कथादरिद्रः the Kali age. -कामa.
devoted to virtue.
observing duty or right.
कायः an epithet of Buddha.
a Jaina saint.-कारणम् Cause of virtue.
कीलः a grant, royal edict or decree.
husband. -कृत् a. observing duty, acting justly. (-m.)
N. of Viṣṇu.
a pious man. धर्मा- धर्मविहीनो$पि धर्ममर्यादास्थापनार्थं धर्ममेव करोतीति धर्मकृत् Bhāg.-केतुः an epithet of Buddha. -कोशः, -षः the collective body of laws or duties; धर्मकोषस्य गुप्तये Ms.1.99. -क्रिया, -कृत्यम् any act of religion, any moral or religious rite.
क्षेत्रम् Bhāratavarṣa (the land of religion).
N. of a plain near Delhi, the scene of the great battle between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas; धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः Bg.1.1. (-त्रः) a virtuous or pious man. -गुप्त a. observing and protecting religion. (-प्तः) N. of Viṣṇu. -ग्रन्थः a sacred work or scripture. -घटः a jar of fragrant water offered daily (to a Brāhmaṇa) in the month of Vaiśākha; एष धर्मघटो दत्तो ब्रह्माविष्णुशिवात्मकः । अस्य प्रदानात् सफला मम सन्तु मनोरथाः ॥ -घ्न a. immoral, unlawful.
चक्रः The wheel or range of the law; Bhddh. Jain.
a Buddha. ˚मृत् m. a Buddha or Jaina.-चरणम्, -चर्या observance of the law, performance of religious duties; शिवेन भर्त्रा सह धर्मचर्या कार्या त्वया मुक्तविचारयेति Ku.7.83; वयसि प्रथमे, मतौ चलायां बहुदोषां हि वदन्ति धर्मचर्याम् Bu. Ch.5.3. चारिन् a. practising virtue, observing the law, virtuous, righteous; स चेत्स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्त- रायो भवसि R.3.45. (-m.) an ascetic.
चारिणी a wife.
a chaste or virtuous wife. cf. सह˚; इयं चोर्वशी यावदायुस्तव सहधर्मचारिणी भवत्विति V.5.19/2. -चिन्तक a.
studying or familiar with duty.
reflecting on the law. -चिन्तनम्, चिन्ता study of virtue, consideration of moral duties, moral reflection. -च्छलः fraudulent transgression of law or duty.
जः 'duly or lawfully born', a legitimate son; cf. Ms.9.17.
N. of युधिष्ठिर; Mb.15.1.44. -जन्मन् m. N. of युधिष्ठिर. -जिज्ञासा inquiry into religion or the proper course of conduct; अथातो धर्मजिज्ञासा Jaimini's Sūtra. -जीवन a. one who acts according to the rules of his caste or fulfils prescribed duties. (-नः) a Brāhmaṇa who maintains himself by assisting other men in the performance of their religious rites; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273.-ज्ञ a.
knowing what is right, conversant with civil or religious law; Ms.7.141;8.179;1.127.
just, righteous, pious. -त्यागः abandoning one's religion, apostacy. -दक्षिणा a fee for instruction in the law.-दानम् a charitable gift (made without any self-interest.) पात्रेभ्यो दीयते नित्यमनपेक्ष्य प्रयोजनम् । केवलं धर्मबुद्ध्या यद् धर्मदानं प्रचक्षते ॥ Ms.3.262. -दुघा a cow milked for religious purposes only. -द्रवी N. of the Ganges. -दाराm. (pl.) a lawful wife; स्त्रीणां भर्ता धर्मदाराश्च पुंसाम् Māl. 6.18. -द्रुह् a. voilating the law or right; निसर्गेण स धर्मस्य गोप्ता धर्मद्रुहो वयम् Mv.2.7. -द्रोहिन् m. a demon.-धातुः an epithet of Buddha. -ध्वजः -ध्वजिन् m. a religious hypocrite, an impostor; Bhāg.3.32.39.-नन्दनः an epithet of युधिष्ठिर. -नाथः a legal protector, rightful master. -नाभः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निबन्धिन्a. pious, holy. -निवेशः religious devotion. -निष्ठ a. devoted to religion or virtue; श्रीमन्तः पान्तु पृथ्वीं प्रशमित- रिपवो धर्मनिष्ठाश्च भूपाः Mk.1.61. -निष्पत्तिः f.
discharge or fulfilment of duty.
moral or religious observance;-पत्नी a lawful wife; R.2.2,2,72;8.7; Y.2.128.-पथः the way of virtue, a virtuous course of conduct.-पर a. religious-minded, pious, righteous. -परिणामः rise of righteous conduct in the heart (Jainism); cf. also एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः Yogadarśana. -पाठकः a teacher of civil or religious law; Ms.12.111. -पालः 'protector of the law', said metaphorically of (दण्ड) 'punishment or chastisement', or 'sword'. -पाडा transgressing the law, an offence against law.
पुत्रः a lawful son, a son begotten from a sense of duty and not from mere lust or sensual pleasure.
an epithet of युधिष्ठिर.
any one regarded as a son for religious purposes, a spiritual son. -प्रचारः (fig.) sword. -प्रतिरूपकः a counterfeit of virtue; Ms.11.9. -प्रधान a. eminent in piety; धर्मप्रधानं पुरुषं तपसा हतकिल्बिषम् Ms.4.243. -प्रवक्तृ m.
an expounder of the law, a legal adviser.
a religious teacher, preacher.
प्रवचनम् the science of duty; U.5.23.
expounding the law. (-नः) an epithet of Buddha.-प्रेक्ष्य a. religious or virtuous (धर्मदृष्टि); Rām.2.85.16.
बाणिजिकः, वाणिजिकः one who tries to make profit out of his virtue like a merchant.
one who performs religious rites with a view to reward, like a merchant dealing in transactions for profit. -बाह्यः a. contrary to religion or what is right.
भगिनी a lawful sister.
a daughter of the spiritual preceptor.
a spiritual sister, any one regarded as a sister or discharging the same religious duties एतस्मिन्विहारे मम धर्मभगिनी तिष्ठति Mk.8.46/47. -भागिनी a virtuous wife. -भाणकः a lecturer or public reader who reads and explains to audiences sacred books like the Bhārata, Bhāgavata, &c. -भिक्षुकः a mendicant from virtuous motives; Ms. 11.2. -भृत् m.
'a preserver or defender of justice,' a king.
a virtuous person. -भ्रातृ m.
a fellow religious student, a spiritual brother.
any one regarded as a brother from discharging the same religious duties. वानप्रस्थयतिब्रह्मचारिणां रिक्थभागिनः । क्रमेणाचार्यसच्छिष्य- धर्मभ्रात्रेकतीर्थिनः ॥ Y.2.137. -महामात्रः a minister of religion, a minister in charge of religious affairs. -मूलम् the foundation of civil or religious law, the Vedas.-मेघः a particular Samādhi. -युगम् the Kṛita age; अथ धर्मयुगे तस्मिन्योगधर्ममनुष्ठिता । महीमनुचचारैका सुलभा नाम भिक्षुकी Mb.12.32.7. -यूपः, -योनिः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -रति a. 'delighting in virtue or justice', righteous, pious, just; तस्य धर्मरतेरासीद् वृद्धत्वं जरसा विना R.1.23. -रत्नम् N. of a Jaina स्मृतिग्रन्थ prepared by Jīmūtavāhana. -राज् -m. an epithet of Yama.-राज a. धर्मशील q. v.; धर्मराजेन जनकेन महात्मना (विदेहान् रक्षितान्) Mb.12.325 19. -राजः an epithet of
a king. -राजन् m. N. of युधिष्ठिर.-राजिका a monument, a stūpa (Sārnāth Inscrip. of Mahīpāla; Ind. Ant. Vol.14, p.14.) -रोधिन् a.
opposed to law, illegal, unlawful.
लक्षणम् the essential mark of law.
the Vedas. (-णा) the Mīmāṁsā philosophy.
लोपः irreligion, immorality.
violation of duty; धर्मलोपभयाद्राज्ञीमृतुस्नातामिमां स्मरन् R. 1.76. -वत्सल a. loving piety or duty. -वर्तिन् a. just, virtuous. -वर्धनः an epithet of Śiva. -वादः discussion about law or duty, religious controversy; अनुकल्पः परो धर्मो धर्मवादैस्तु केवलम् Mb.12.165.15.
वासरः the day of full moon.
वाहनः an epithet of Śiva.
a buffalo (being the vehicle of Yama). -विद्a. familiar with the law (civil or religious). ˚उत्तमः N. of Viṣṇu. -विद्या knowledge of the law or right. -विधिः a legal precept or injunction; एष धर्मविधिः कृत्स्नश्चातुर्वर्ण्यस्य कीर्तितः Ms.1.131. -विप्लवः violation of duty, immorality.
विवेचनम् judicial investigation; यस्य शूद्रस्तु कुरुते राज्ञो धर्मविवेचनम् । तस्य सीदति तद्राष्ट्रं पङ्के गौरिव पश्यतः ॥ Ms.8.21.
dissertation on duty. -वीरः (in Rhet.) the sentiment of heroism arising out of virtue or piety, the sentiment of chivalrous piety; the following instance is given in R. G.: सपदि विलयमेतु राज्यलक्ष्मीरुपरि पतन्त्वथवा कृपाणधाराः । अपहरतुतरां शिरः कृतान्तो मम तु मतिर्न मनागपैतु धर्मात् ॥ स च दानधर्मयुद्धैर्दयया च समन्वितश्चतुर्धा स्यात् S. D. -वृद्धa. advanced in virtue or piety; न धर्मवृद्धेषु वयः समीक्ष्यते Ku.5.16. -वैतंसिकः one who gives away money unlawfully acquired in the hope of appearing generous.-व्यवस्था m. judicial decision, decisive sentence.
शाला a court of justice, tribunal.
any charitabla institution. -शासनम्, शास्त्रम् a code of laws, jurisprudence; न धर्मशास्त्रं पठतीति कारणम् H.1.17; Y.1.5. [मनुर्यमो वसिष्ठो$त्रिः दक्षो विष्णुस्तथाङ्गिराः । उशना वाक्पतिर्व्यास आपस्तम्बो$ थ गौतमः ॥ कात्यायनो नारदश्च याज्ञवल्क्यः पराशरः । संवर्तश्चैव शङ्खश्च हारीतो लिखितस्तथा ॥ एतैर्यानि प्रणीतानि धर्मशास्त्राणि वै पुरा । तान्येवातिप्रमाणानि न हन्तव्यानि हेतुभिः ॥] -शील a. just, pious, virtuous. -शुद्धिः a correct knowledge of the law; प्रत्यक्षं चानुमानं च शास्त्रं च विविधागमम् । त्रयं सुविदितं कार्यं धर्मशुद्धिमभीप्सता ॥ Ms.12.15. -संहिता a code of laws (especially compiled by sages like Manu, Yājñavalkya, &c.).
संगः attachmet to justice or virtue.
संगीतिः discussion about law.
(with Buddhists) a council. -सभा a court of justice.-समयः a legal obligation; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273. -सहायः a partner or companion in the discharge of religious duties. -सूः m. the fork-tailed shrike. -सूत्रम् a book on पूर्वमीमांसा written by Jaimini.-सेतुः an epithet of Śiva. -सेवनम् fulfilment of duties.-स्थः a judge; धर्मस्थः कारणैरेतैर्हीनं तमिति निर्दिशेत् Ms.8.57.-स्थीय a. Concerning law; धर्मस्थीयं तृतीयं प्रकरणम् Kau. A.3. -स्वामिन् m. an epithet of Buddha.
धर्म m. (rarely n. g. अर्धर्चा-दि; the older form of the RV. is धर्मन्See. )that which is established or firm , steadfast decree , statute , ordinance , law
धर्म m. usage , practice , customary observance or prescribed conduct , duty
धर्म m. right , justice (often as a synonym of punishment)
धर्म m. virtue , morality , religion , religious merit , good works(599906 धर्मेणind. or 599906.1 मात्ind. according to right or rule , rightly , justly , according to the nature of anything ; See. below ; 599906.2 मेस्थितmfn. holding to the law , doing one's duty) AV. etc.
धर्म m. Law or Justice personified (as इन्द्रS3Br. etc. ; as यमMBh. ; as born from the right breast of यमand father of शम, कामand हर्षib. ; as विष्णुHariv. ; as प्रजा-पतिand son-in-law of दक्षHariv. Mn. etc. ; as one of the attendants of the Sun L. ; as a Bull Mn. viii , 16 ; as a Dove Katha1s. vii , 89 , etc. )
धर्म m. the law or doctrine of Buddhism (as distinguished from the सङ्घor monastic order MWB. 70 )
धर्म m. the ethical precepts of Buddhism (or the principal धर्मcalled सूस्र, as distinguished from the अभि-धर्मor , " further धर्म" and from the विनयor " discipline " , these three constituting the canon of Southern -BBuddhism MWB. 61 )
धर्म m. the law of Northern -BBuddhism (in 9 canonical scriptures , viz. प्रज्ञा-पारमिता, गण्ड-व्यूह, दश-भूमीश्वर, समाधिराज, लङ्कावतार, सद्धर्म-पुण्डरीक, तथा-गत-गुह्यक, ललित-विस्तर, सुवर्ण-प्रभास, ib. 69 )
धर्म m. nature , character , peculiar condition or essential quality , property , mark , peculiarity(= स्व-भावL. ; See. दश-धर्म-गतS3Br. etc. ; उपमानो-पमेययोर् ध्, the tertium comparationis Pa1n2. 2-1 , 55 Sch. )
धर्म m. a partic. ceremony MBh. xiv , 2623
धर्म m. sacrifice L.
धर्म m. the ninth mansion Var.
धर्म m. an उपनिषद्L.
धर्म m. associating with the virtuous L.
धर्म m. religious abstraction , devotion L.
धर्म m. = उपमाL. (See. above )
धर्म m. a bow Dharmas3.
धर्म m. a सोम-drinker L.
धर्म m. N. of the 15th अर्हत्of the present अव-सर्पिणीL.
धर्म m. of a son of अनुand father of घृतHariv.
धर्म m. of a -sson of गान्धारand -ffather of धृतPur.
धर्म m. of a -sson of हैहयand -ffather of नेत्रBhP.
धर्म m. of a -sson of पृथु-श्रवस्and of उशनस्ib.
धर्म m. of a -sson of सु-व्रतVP. (See. धर्म-सूत्र)
धर्म m. of a -sson of दीर्घ-तपस्, Va1yuP.
धर्म m. of a king of कश्मीर, Ra1j. iv , 678
धर्म m. of another man ib. vii , 85
धर्म m. of a lexicographer etc. (also -पण्डित, -भट्टand -शास्त्रिन्) Cat. [ cf. Lat. firmus , Lith. derme4.]
धर्म Nom. P. मति, to become , law Vop.
धर्म in comp. for मन्See. 2.
धर्म See. p. 510 , col. 3.
(I)--with one foot in Kali (truth), the others are austerity, purity and compassion which have dis- appeared; फलकम्:F1: भा. I. 3. 9; १६. १९; १७. २४-5.फलकम्:/F dialogue with Earth in the guise of a bull; फलकम्:F2: Ib. I. १६. २०-36; १७. 7-१६.फलकम्:/F con- fusion of, due to different schools of metaphysics. फलकम्:F3: Ib. I. १७. १९-20.फलकम्:/F The force of Dharma in administration; फलकम्:F4: Br. III. ५०. ५३-7.फलकम्:/F सनातनधर्म lost in Kali. फलकम्:F5: M. 9. २८-31; २०१. 6-8.फलकम्:/F Vyavastha done by sages in different periods of Manus. फलकम्:F6: भा. VII. ११. 8-१२.फलकम्:/F Thirty characteristics of.
(II)--the father of Nara, married मूर्ती. भा. II. 7. 6; XI. 4. 6. [page२-159+ ३८]
(III)--a son of ब्रह्मा, born of the right side of his chest; one of the first five created things for the propagation of people; the first devata who married the thirteen daughters of दक्ष or the दाक्षायणिस् (ten: वा। प्।): each of whom had sons; they were श्रद्धा, लक्ष्मी, धृति, तुष्टि, पुष्टि, मेधा, क्रिया, Buddhi, लज्जा, Vasu, शान्ति, Siddhi and कीर्ति; फलकम्:F1: भा. III. १२. २५; IV. I. ४८-50; Br. II. 9. 1, ४९-50; IV. 1. ४०; M. 3. १०; 4. ३४ and ५५; 5. १३; १४६. १६; Va. 1. ६९; १०. २६; १००. ४३; Vi. I. 7. २४, २८-31; १५. ७७, १०३. वा. ६३. ४१; ६६. 2; ७६. 3.फलकम्:/F in the Vaivasvata epoch had for his wives दाक्षायणी and अरुन्धती; फलकम्:F2: M. २०३. 1-2.फलकम्:/F father of काम and लक्ष्मी; फलकम्:F3: Ib. १७१. ४२.फलकम्:/F presented पृथु with a garland of fame. फलकम्:F4: भा. IV. १५. १५; VI. 6. 2.फलकम्:/F
(IV)--a constellation which goes round Dhruva keeping him to the right. भा. IV. 9. २१; V. २३. 5; Br. II. २१. १७६.
(V)--married सूनृता and had sons like Satya- sena and others. भा. VIII. 1 २५.
(VI)--The god of righteousness and appointed father of युधिष्ठिर; फलकम्:F1: भा. IX. २२. २७; M. ४६. 9; ५०. ४९; १७१. २६; वा. ९६. १५३; Vi. IV. १४. ३५; २०. ४०.फलकम्:/F father of धर्मव्रता, the future शिल at गया; फलकम्:F2: वा. १०७. 2. १११. २३.फलकम्:/F did not comprehend Hari's माय। फलकम्:F3: भा. IX. 4. ५७.फलकम्:/F
(VII)--the son of गान्धार and father of धृत (घृत: वि। प्।). भा. IX. २३. १५; Br. III. ७४. १०; M. ४८. 8; वा. १९. १०; Vi. IV. १७. 4.
(VIII)--a son of Haihaya, and father of Netra. भा. IX. २३. २२.
(IX)--a son of पृथुश्रवस् and father of उशनस्. भा. IX. २३. ३४. [page२-160+ २९]
(X)--चतुर्मूर्ति in Benares. M. १८३. ४१.
(XI)--a देवऋषि and the १४थ् Vedavya1sa; wife लक्ष्मि and daughter सूनृता; married ten daughters of दक्ष; father of १२ Sa1dhyas, 8 Vasavas, १० Vis4vedevas, of Maruts, of भानुस्, of मुहूर्तस् and so on. Father of युधिष्ठिर; cursed by माण्डव्य the sage. वा. १०. २६; ६३. ४१; ६६. 2; ७६. 3. Br. II. 9. 1, ४९-50.
(XII)--manifold and subtle; to understand the truth is difficult; hence it is not possible to give a definite lead in the Vedic laws; hence sages do not attach weight to दानम् and यज्ञम् but to सनातनधर्म which leads to svarga; is knowledge of the श्रौत Sma1rta dharma and following of वर्णाश्रम for attainment of heaven; इष्टप्रा- paka dharma introduced by the आचार्यस्. फलकम्:F1: वा. ५७. ११२-8; ५९. २१, २८.फलकम्:/F Consists of ten things: begging food, non-theft, purity, disinterestedness, activity, sympathy, non-injury, avoidance of anger, service of the guru, truthfulness; फलकम्:F2: Br. II. 7. १७८; वा. 8. १८६.फलकम्:/F of four पादस्; फलकम्:F3: Ib. २३. ८१-2.फलकम्:/F course of, in the four yugas. फलकम्:F4: Ib. ५८. 5.फलकम्:/F
(XIII)--a son of दीर्घतपस्. वा. ९२. 7.
(XIV)--one of the ten Sutapa गणस्. वा. १००. १५.
(XV)--a son of Suvrata, and father of शुश्रवस्. Vi. IV. २३. 6. [page२-161+ २४]
(XVI)--a Sutapa god. Br. IV. 1. १४.
(XVII)--a son of Raucya Manu. Br. IV. 1. १०४.
(XVIII)--a Vasu; wife मनोहरा; father of a number of sons. Vi. I. १५. ११०, ११३.
(XIX)--a son of Haihaya, and father of Dhar- manetra. Vi. IV. ११. 8.
DHARMA : A deva who is the abode of all luxuries in life.
1) Birth. This deva broke the right nipple of Brahmā and came out in the form of a human being. Three sons were born to him: Śama, Kāma and Harṣa. Kāma married Rati, Śama, Prāpti and Harṣa, Nandā.(**.
Sthānaṁ tu dakṣiṇaṁ bhitvā Brahmaṇo naravigrahaḥ /
Niḥsṛṭo bhagavān dharmaḥ sarvalokasukhāvahaḥ //
Trayastasyavarāḥ putrāḥ sarvabhūtamanoharāḥ /
Śamaḥ Kāmaśca Harṣaśca tejasā lokadhāriṇaḥ //
(M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 65).**)
2) Marriage and family life. The Bhāgavata states that Dharma married the thirteen daughters of Daksaprajā- pati named Śraddhā, Maitrī, Dayā, Śānti, Puṣṭi, Tuṣṭi, Kriyā, Unnati, Buddhi, Medhā, Titikṣā, Hṛī and Mūrti. Besides them he married ten other girls named Bhānu, Lambā, Kukubh, Jāmi, Viśvā, Sādhyā, Marutvatī, Vasu, Muhūrtā and Saṅkalpā and also a woman named Sunṛtā. According to Mahābhārata Dharma married the following daughters of Dakṣa: Kīrti, Lakṣmī, Dhṛti, Medhā, Puṣṭi, Śraddhā, Kriyā, Buddhi and Lajjā.
From each of his wives there originated a family. The son born to each is given below Śraddhā--Śubha; Maitrī--Prasāda; Dayā--Abhaya; Śānti--Sukha; Tuṣṭi-- Moda; Unnati--Darpa; Buddhi--Artha; Medhā-- Sukṛti; Titikṣā--Śama; Hrī--Praśraya. Mūrti gave birth to the virtuous Naranārāyaṇas. Sunṛtā became the mother of the devas, Satyavrata and Satyasena. Satyasena became famous by slaying many cruel and evil-natured Yakṣas, demons and spirits. Lambā gave birth to Ṛṣabha and Vidyotana. Ṛṣabha got a son, Indrasena. Vidyotana became the father of stanayitnu. Kukubh delivered Saṅkaṭa and Saṅkaṭa became the father of Kīkaṭa and Durgadeva. Jāmi got a son Svarga and of him was born Nandī. Viśvā gave birth to Viśva- devas and Sādhyā to Sādhyas. These Sādhyas are different from those born of Brahmā. Sādhyas became the father of Arthasiddhi. Marutvatī gave birth to Marutvat and Jayanta. Vasu gave birth to eight sons and they were known as Aṣṭavasus. Droṇa, the first of the Aṣṭavasus, married Abhimati. Abhimati is known as Dharā also. It was Droṇa and Dharā who were born as Nandagopa and Yaśodā later. Prāṇa, second of the Aṣṭavasus, married Ūrjasvatī, daughter of Priyavrata. (Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
3) Prominent sons. Four sons of Dharma, Hari, Kṛṣṇa, Nara and Nārāyaṇa became prominent. Hari and Kṛṣṇa were great yogis while Nara and Nārāyaṇa were great ascetics. (See under Naranārāyaṇa).
4) The daughter named Dharmavratā. Dharmadeva got a daughter named Dharmavratā of his wife Dharmavatī. Dharmavratā was an ascetic and she was married to Marīci, son of Brahmā. One day Marīci came back from the forest after getting darbha and flowers extre- mely tired and so after food lay down to rest. His wife sitting by his side massaged his legs. The sage fell as- leep. Then Brahmā came there and Dharmavratā attended on him and worshipped him. Marīci, when he woke up, finding Dharmavratā attending on another man cursed her and made her into stone. Dharmavratā pleaded not guilty and standing inside a fire-pit did pen- ance for ten thousand years. Brahmā and other devas appeared before her and consoled her by assuring that though she would be a stone devas would take their abode in it and that she would be worshipped by all. From that day onwards that stone was known as Devaśilā and even now it is believed that Brahmā and other devas live therein. (Chapter 114, Agni Purāṇa).
5) Dharma was cursed and made Vidura by Aṇimāṇḍavya. (See Aṇimāṇḍavyā).
Other details. (1) A portion of Dharma took life as Yudhi- ṣṭhira in Kuntī. (See Dharmaputra).
(2) Dharma did penance in Dharmatīrtha for a very long time. (Śloka 1, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).
(3) The abode of Dharma was Dharmaprastha. (Śloka 1, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).
(4) Dharma did penance on the banks of the river Vaitaraṇī for a long time. (Śloka 4, Chapter 114, Vana Parva).
(5) While the Pānḍavas were in exile in the forest Dharma in the form of a deer came to the hut of a Brahmin and carried away by its horns the Araṇi stick which the Brahmin owned for making fire by attrition. (Chapter 311, Vana Parva).
(6) Dharma appeared in the form of a Yakṣa and made all the Pāṇḍavas swoon except Yudhiṣṭhira, on the shores of a pond in the forest and later got them back to normal. (See under Dharmaputra).
(7) Dharmadeva went to Viśvāmitra in the guise of Vasiṣṭha to test him. (See para 3 of Gālava).
(8) Following a directive from Brahmā, Dharmadeva once brought before Varuṇa all the daityadānavas bound by ropes. (Chapter 128, Udyoga Parva).
(9) Mahāviṣṇu was born as a son of Dharmadeva. (See under Naranārāyaṇa).
(10) Dharma worshipped a brahmin named Satya tak- ing the form of a deer. (Śloka 17, Chapter 272, Śānti Parva).
(11) Dharma tested Sudarśana taking the form of a brahmin. (Śloka 79, Chapter 2, Anuśāsana Parva).
(12) Dharma saved a sage named Vatsanābha from a great downpour taking the shape of a buffalo. (Chapter 12, Anuśāsana Parva).
(13) Dharma disguised as a brahmin, went and impart- ed advice to Janaka, father of Sītā. (Chapter 32, Aśva- medha Parva).
(14) To test Jamadagni, Dharma went to his āśrama taking the form of Anger. Jamadagni had just milked Kāmadhenu and kept the milk in a pot. Dharma as Anger crept into the milk. Jamadagni drank it and yet remained calm. Seeing this Dharma appeared before him in the form of a Brahmin and blessed him assuring Jamadagni that in future he would be obedient to Dharma (Chapter 91, Aśvamedha Parva).
(15) When at the fag end of their life the Pāṇḍavas started on their Mahāprasthāna, Dharma as a dog accompanied them up to the gates of heaven. (Śloka 22, Chapter 5, Svargārohaṇa Parva).
7) Dharma and Kāla. There is a misunderstanding found even in some Purāṇas that Kāla, the chief of Kālapurī, and Dharma are one and the same person. But if the stories around each are examined it is easy to deduce that they are two different devas. The father and mother of Dharmadeva is Brahmā. The father of Kāla is Sūrya and mother Saṁjñā, daughter of Viśvakarmā. This itself is a sufficient evidence to show that the two are different persons. Further, Kāla or Yama is the sixth descendant of Viṣṇu.
But scholars are misled to think that the two are iden- tical. There is a reason for it.Dharmarājaḥ Pitṛpatiḥ
Samavarttī Paretarāṭ /
Śamano Yamarāḍ Yamaḥ //
Kālo Daṇḍadharaḥ Srāddha-
Devo Vaivasvatontakaḥ. / (Amara).
The above are the synonyms of Kāla. Vyāsa has used as synonyms for Dharmadeva in the Mahābhārata the words Dharmarāja, Vṛṣa and Yama. Now among the synonyms for the two there are two words in common-- Dharmarāja and Yama. This has led to this misunder- standing. Because Kāla weighs the evil and good in man he got the name Dharmarāja. Dharmadeva got that name because he is the incarnation of Dharma. The real name of Kāla is Yama. Dharmadeva got the name Yama because he possesses ‘Yama’ (control of the self for moral conduct). Kāla has no sons; Vidura and Yudhiṣṭhira are the sons of Dharmadeva.
*5th word in left half of page 224 (+offset) in original book.
Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]
Dharma, Dharman, are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘law’ or ‘custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administration of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.
(1) Criminal Law.--The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (bhrūṇa), the slaying of a man (vīra), and the slaying of a Brahmin, a much more serious crime. Treachery is mentioned in the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa as being punishable by death, as it was punished later. But there is no trace of an organized criminal justice vested either in the king or in the people. There still seems to have prevailed the system of wergeld (Vaira), which indicates that criminal justice remained in the hands of those who were wronged. In the Sūtras, on the other hand, the king's peace is recognized as infringed by crimes, a penalty being paid to him, or, according to the Brahminical textbooks, to the Brahmins. It may there- fore reasonably be conjectured that the royal power of jurisdiction steadily increased; the references in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to the king as wielding punishment (Daṇḍa) confirm this supposition. Whether, as the analogy of other systems suggests, the king was assisted in his judicial duties, as he undoubtedly was later, by assessors, presumably of the Brahmin caste, cannot be made out clearly.
The procedure adopted in deciding cases is quite uncertain. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad the ordeal of the red-hot axe is mentioned as applied in an accusation of theft. It must apparently be understood to have been inflicted by the direction of the king. But no other judicial ordeal is known to Vedic literature (see Divya). The punishment of theft was in some cases at least death, probably when the thief was taken redhanded; in other cases binding to posts was the penalty, presumably accompanied by the return of the stolen goods. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad the list of sins given as apparently equal in wickedness is stealing gold, drinking spirits, defiling a Guru's bed, and the murder of a Brahmin.
(2) Civil Law.--There is little recorded as to civil law in Vedic literature. The relations of the family and the question of family property are dealt with under Urvarā, Kṣetra, Pati; succession and partition of property are treated under Dāya. As regards the transfer of chattels--for land as transferable inter vivos is hardly yet recognized, save exceptionally as a sacrificial fee (Dakṣiṇā), and then disapproved --the recognized modes are gift (Dāna) and barter or sale (Kraya), which includes exchange. Original acquisition of land was no doubt brought about by occupation and apportionment among the tribesmen, while chattels were acquired by taking possession of them, provided that they were found on one's own land or on unoccupied land, and did not belong to any other person originally. The Sūtras contain rules for the disposal of lost property, which tend to give it to the king, with the deduction of a percentage for the finder, unless the latter is a Brahmin, who keeps it all. As for contract, save in regard to moneylending (for which see Ṛṇa), practically nothing is to be gathered from Vedic literature, doubtless because of the primitive conditions prevailing in that early period. Much of the labour, which would in a more developed society have been done by workers for hire, would be performed by slaves (cf. Dāsa, Śūdra), while the technical workers of the village--of whom long lists are given in the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa --may have been recompensed not by any sum based on each piece of work done, but by fixed allowances, much as the village servants are in modern times. But this must remain a matter of conjecture, and it is uncertain what exact status the carpenter or smith held in the village. Similarly it is impossible to trace in the early literature any legal theory or practice as to torts, but rules as to penalties for insults appear in the Sūtras.
Very little is recorded as to procedure. The list of victims at the Puruṣamedha, or ‘horse sacrifice,’ includes a praśnin, an abhi-praśnin, and a praśna-vivāka, in whom it is not unreasonable to see the plaintiff, the defendant, and the arbitrator or judge: the terms may refer to what is probably an early form of judicial procedure, a voluntary arbitration. The same idea may be conveyed by the word madhyama-śī, ‘lying in the midst,’ which occurs in the Rigveda, and which Roth, followed by Zimmer, understood to mean an arbitrator or judge, the expression being derived from the judge acting with other judicial persons, and being surrounded by the assembly of the people. But this interpretation is uncertain; Whitney thinks that the word merely alludes to a chief round whom his men encamp. The king is later the chief civil judge, and may presumably have been so earlier, no doubt in conjunction with the elders of the tribe, but for this we are reduced to conjecture.
The use of witnesses as evidence is uncertain (see Jñātṛ), and the ordeal is not recorded as deciding any civil matter except the dispute between Vatsa and his rival as to the true Brahminical descent of the former, which was settled by his walking unharmed through the flame of a fire. But it is probable on analogy that the ordeal may have been used for the purpose of deciding disputes. Whether the oath was so used cannot be certainly shown. It appears, however, that a Brahmin was preferred in legal matters to a non-Brahmin.
There are very few references to police officials: no doubt the king employed some of his dependents to execute sentences and arrest offenders (see Ugra, Jīvagṛbh).
(3) Morality.--It is convenient to notice under this head several points bearing on the moral condition of the people: (a) the exposure of children; (b) the exposure of the aged; (c) prostitution; (d) adultery; (e) incest.
(a) The exposure of girl infants is asserted by Zimmer on the strength of a passage in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, but it seems clear that the passage has been misunderstood, and that it refers merely to laying the child aside, not exposing it, while a boy was lifted up. It is, however, true that the birth of a girl was not at all popular, not an unnatural sentiment in an early society, and paralleled among other Āryan peoples.
(b) The exposure of the aged is also inferred by Zimmer from a passage of the Rigveda, and from the mention of persons exposed (ud-hitāḥ) in the Atharvaveda. The latter passage may well refer merely to the bodies being exposed after death to the elements (as is done by the Parsis). The former passage merely refers to the individual case of some person who may have been cast out, and proves absolutely nothing as to a habitual or recognized custom, nor can such a custom be inferred from, e.g., the legend of Cyavāna.
(c) That prostitution existed in Rigvedic times is certain, but its extent is disputed. Brotherless girls were frequently reduced to becoming prostitutes; the putting away of an illegitimate child is referred to in the Rigveda; besides the terms puṃścalī and mahānagnī, which undoubtedly mean ‘harlot,’ there are other clear references to prostitution; and expressions like kumārī-putra, ‘son of a maiden,’ and the ‘son of an unmarried girl’ (agrū), spoken of in the Rigveda as exposed and attacked by animals, point in the same direction. The Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā seems to recognize prostitution as a profession. Pischel sees many references to Hetairai in the Rigveda, which as Geldner insists reflects in its imagery the court life of Indian princes. But the correctness of the view of these two scholars on this point is not by any means certain.
(d) Adultery was generally regarded among Āryan peoples as a serious offence against the husband of the woman affected. We accordingly find in the legal literature of India traces of the rule that an adulterer can be slain with impunity if taken in the act. Weber, however, has adduced some material indicating an indifference to these matters in Vedic times, and Ludwig has adopted the same view. But, as Delbrück has clearly shown, the evidence is not convincing; the cited prescriptions forbidding connexion with another man's wife during a certain rite do not imply that such connexion would otherwise be allowed: the ritual of the Varuṇa-praghāsas, when a wife names her lover or lovers, seems originally to have been a solemn means of banishing the evil brought on a family by a wife's fall; Yājñavalkya's famous saying that no one cares whether a wife is ‘unchaste’ (paraḥ-puṃsā) or not is a mere mistranslation, the expression paraḥ-puṃsā really meaning ‘removed from the male persons.’ And the uncertainty asserted in some passages as to origin from a Ṛṣi is not a sign of doubtful descent, but is due to the fact that Ṛṣihood was a difficult matter to ascertain. None the less woman's position was lowered by the prevalence of polygamy, and such stories as that of Ahalyā and Indra are not compatible with a very high standard of morality. A similar conclusion is pointed to by references in the Yajurveda to relations between the Ārya man and the Śūdrā woman, and by a spell given in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad to expiate relations with the wife of a Śrotriya (Brahmin theologian).
(e) Incest was recognized in the marriage of brother and sister as appears from the legend of Yama and Yamī in the Rigveda, which clearly shows that such a marriage was not approved by the feeling of the Vedic age. There is also another hymn in which reference to such intercourse appears to be made. Mention is further made in the Rigveda to the wedlock of Prajāpati and his daughter, which is, however, interpreted mythologically in the Brāhmaṇas, an interpretation which may be correct. That incest, however, actually did take place is clear from the Atharvaveda; but even though the mythological interpretation of the passage were not justified, no conclusion could be drawn from the hymn as to the normal occurrence of such relations.
Vedic Rituals Hindi[सम्पाद्यताम्]
कर्मकाण्डीय नियम, भा.श्रौ.सू. 7.6.7 (ये उपभृतो धर्मा.....पृषदाज्यधान्यामपि क्रियेरन्); देखें-7.6.9 में ‘स्रुवधर्म’, ‘पयोधर्म’।
- i. 22, 18;
164, 43, 50;
iii. 3, 1;
v. 26, 6;
72, 2, etc.;
Av. xiv. 1, 51;
Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, x. 29, etc. Cf. Geldner, Rigveda, Glossar, 90.
- Dharma is found in Av. xi. 7, 17;
xii. 5, 7;
xviii. 3, 1;
Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 5, 2, 2;
Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xv. 6;
xxx. 6, etc.
- See Jolly, Recht und Sitte;
Foy, Die ko7nigliche Gewalt nach den altindischen Rechtsbüchern;
Bühler, Sacred Books of the East, 2 and 14.
- Compare the list in Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 1, 9;
Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxi. 7;
Kapiṣṭhala Saṃhitā, xlvii. 7;
and Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 2, 8, 11 (see Delbrück. Die indogermanischen Verwandtschaftsnamen, 579 et seq.), where bodily defects (bad nails and discoloured teeth), marrying a younger daughter when her elder sister was unmarried, are coupled with murder, though not equated with it. See also Chāndogya Upaniṣad, v. 11, 5, where Aśvapati's list of sinners includes a drinker of intoxicating liquor, a thief, and one who does not maintain a sacrificial fire.
- Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vi. 5, 10, 2;
Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxvii. 9;
Kapiṣṭhala Saṃhitā, xli. 7;
Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 1, 9;
Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 2, 8, 12;
Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, ii. 7, 8;
Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, iv. 1, 22;
Nirukta, vi. 27;
Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, iii. 1. Cf. Av. vi. 112, 3;
Weber, Indische Studien, 9, 481;
Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 522;
American Journal of Philology, 17, 430.
- Kāṭhaka, xxxi. 7;
Kapiṣṭhala, loc. cit.;
Maitrāyaṇī, loc. cit.;
Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, loc. cit.;
Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 5, and cf. Vaira. For cases of justifiable homicide, see, e.g., Vasiṣṭha Dharma Sūtra, iii. 15-18. Cf. also the story of Vṛśa Jāna in Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 3, 12, where the death of a boy by careless driving is mentioned, and the king is reproached for it by his Purohita. They dispute as to the guilt, and, according to one version (see Sieg, Die Sagenstoffe des Ṛgveda, 66, 67), the Ikṣvākus decide that the action was sinful, and required expiation.
- Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 5, 1, 2;
v. 3, 12, 1;
vi. 5, 10, 2;
Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxi. 7 (where the Kapiṣṭhala has brahma-jya, ‘oppressor of a Brahmin’);
Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 2, 8, 12. The Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, x. 38, declares that the slaying of a Brahmin alone is truly murder, and the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 3, 1, 1 et seq., states that the sin of murdering a Brahmin can be expiated only by the performance of an Aśvamedha, or ‘horse sacrifice’--the ne plus ultra of human generosity to Brahmins. See also Nirukta, vi. 27. The later tradition also interprets bhrūṇa as Brahmin (see Saṅkara, cited in Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 410, n.;
Keith, Śāṅkhāyana Āraṇyaka, 30, n. 5;
Konow, Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa, 46, n. 1, and cf. Vasiṣṭha Dharma Sūtra, xx. 23).
- xiv. 6, 8, the story of Kutsa.
- Jolly, op. cit., 127.
- See references in Bühler, Sacred Books of the East, 14, 345.
- Compare the story of the death of the child killed by Tryaruṇa, and the decision of the Ikṣväkus referred to in n. 6 above, and the notice in Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxvii. 4, that a Rājanya is adhyakṣa, when a Sūdra is punished (han).
- vi. 16. Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 72, 73.
- Gautama Dharma Sūtra, xii. 43;
Āpastamba Dharma Sūtra, i. 9, 25, 4.
- See Av. xix. 47, 9;
50, 1, and Taskara.
- v. 10, 9. Another list is given in Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, x. 65, which includes slaying a Brahmin, defiling a Guru's bed, stealing a cow, drinking Surā, and killing an embryo, along with irregularities in offering a Śrāddha, ‘water offering to the dead.’ Cf. also Nirukta, vi. 27, for a list of seven. Many more appear in the Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa, but that work cannot claim to be a Brāhmaṇa proper.
- Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 7, 1, 13.
- Cf. Cæsar, Bellum Gallicum, iv. 1;
Tacitus, Germania, 26, for Germany;
Mommsen, Ro7misches Staatsrecht, 3, 1, 21, for the Roman hortus;
and the Greek , Lang, Homer and the Epic, 236-241;
Ridgeway, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 6, 319 et seq.;
Grote, History of Greece, 2, 36, 37. See also Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2, 337 et seq.;
Baden Powell, Village Communities in India, 6 et seq.;
- Gautama Dharma Sūtra, x. 36 et seq.
- iii. 4. See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 426 et seq.;
Weber, Indische Streifen, 1, 75 et seq.
- Cf. Maine, Village Communities, 127, 175;
Baden Powell, op. cit., 124 et seq.;
Grote, History of Greece, 2, 36, n. 2.
- Cf. Jolly, op. cit., 126-128.
- Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 10;
Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 4, 6, 1.
- x. 97, 12 = Av. iv. 9, 4 = Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xii. 86. Madhyamaśīvan, in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 408, is of quite doubtful sense.
- Siebenzig Lieder, 174. This fact renders doubtful Lanman's view (Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 159) that the St. Petersburg Dictionary, in giving intercessor as the interpretation, did not mean ‘mediator,’ but ‘adversary.’
- Altindisches Leben, 180.
- As, apparently, in early Germany. See Cæsar, Bellum Gallicum, vi. 23;
Tacitus, Germania, 11, 12;
Coulanges, Recherches sur quelques problèmes d'histoire, 361 et seq.
- See n. 25.
- Cf. the later Pariṣad, Gautama Dharma Sūtra, xxviii. 48, 49;
Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra, i. 1, 7-16;
Vasiṣṭha Dharma Sūtra, xi. 5-7, 20;
Jolly, op. cit., 132 et seq. The parallels from other Āryan peoples suggest the use of assessors, as in the Anglo-Saxon courts of the shire and hundred. Cf. Sohm, Altdeutsches Reichs-und Gerichtsverfassung, 6 et seq.
- Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xiv. 6, 6.
- Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 5, 11, 9, which seems to refer either to giving evidence for or passing judgment on a case when both a Brahmin and a nonBrahmin are engaged.
- Altindisches Leben, 319, 320. Cf. also Weber, Indische Studien, 5, 54, 260;
Kaegi, Der Rigveda, n. 49;
Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 389, 390;
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda. 6, 142;
Pischel, Vedische Studien, 2, 48.
- xxvii. 9. Cf. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vi. 5, 10, 3;
Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xv. 17, 12;
Nirukta iii. 4.
- Bo7htlingk, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 44, 494496. The traditional rendering of the passages is not that it refers to exposure, but to getting rid of a daughter on her marriage.
- Av. viii. 6, 25;
Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 15;
Max Müller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 409;
Zimmer, op. cit., 320;
Schrader, op. cit., 390.
- Op. cit., 327, 328. Strabo, pp. 513, 517, 520, reports the practice as prevailing in Iran, Bactria, and the Massagetae;
it prevailed among the Norsemen, Weinhold, Altuordisches Leben, 473, and conceivably among the early Romans (depontani senes, Cicero, Pro Roscio, 100;
but this and other cases may be really instances of the ritual casting into water of the wornout vegetation spirit for the purpose of reviving it). See Kaegi, op. cit., n. 50;
Schrader, op. cit., 379, n.
- viii. 51, 2.
- xviii. 2, 34. See Anagnidagdha.
- Rv. i. 124, 7;
iv. 5, 5;
Av. i. 17, 1;
and of. Ayogü.
- ii. 29, 1. Cf. Max Müller, op. cit., 26.
- Av. xv. 2, etc.
- Av. xiv. 1, 36;
xx. 136, 5 et seq.;
Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, i. 27. Cf. nagnā in Av. v. 7, 8.
- Rv. i. 167, 4 (Wilson, Translation of the Rigveda, 2, xvii), can hardly be so interpreted;
see Zimmer, op. cit., 332, n. Max Müller, Sacred Books of the East, 32, 277, interprets it as a reference to polyandry, but this is still more doubtful;
but see Rv. viii. 17, 7.
- Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 6;
Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 4, 2, 1.
- iv. 19, 9;
30, 16. 19;
ii. 13, 12;
Zimmer, op. cit., 334, 335.
- Apparently this is meant by the epithets atiṣkadvarī (apaskadvarī in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 4, 11, 1), atītvarī, vijarjarā, in the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 15.
- Vedische Studien, 1, xxv;
196, 275, 299, 309, etc.;
- Ibid., 2, 154.
- Cf. Winternitz, Geschichte der indischen Litteratur, 1, 60;
Jolly, op. cit., 48.
- Leist, Altarisches Jus Gentium, 276 et seq., 309.
- Indische Studien, 10, 83 et seq.
- Op. cit., 5, 573.
- Die indogermanischen Verwandtschaftsnamen, 545 et seq.
- Taittirīya Saṃhitā, v. 6, 8, 3;
Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 4, 7.
- Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 10, 11;
Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ii. 5, 2, 20.
- Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 3, 1, 21.
- So Bo7htlingk, Dictionary, s.v.;
Delbrück, op. cit., 548.
- Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 4, 11;
Gopatha Brāhmaṇa, cited in Ludwig, loc. cit.
- Cf. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 65.
- Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 4, 19, 2. 3;
Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxiii. 30. 31.
- vi. 4, 11.
- x. 10.
- x. 162, 5.
- x. 61, 5-7.
- Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 33;
Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 7, 4, 1;
Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 4, 46, 47;
Max Müller, op. cit., 529, 530.
- viii. 6, 7.