शूद्र

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
अत्र गम्यताम् : सञ्चरणम्, अन्वेषणम्

यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


शूद्रः, पुं, (शोचतीति । शुच शोके + “शुचेर्दश्च ।” उणा० २ । १९ । इति रक् दश्चान्तादेशो धातो- र्दीर्घश्च ।) चतुर्व्वर्णान्तर्गतचतुर्थवर्णः । तत्- पर्य्यायः । अवरवर्णः २ वृषलः ३ जघन्यजः ४ । इत्यमरः ॥ दासः ५ पादजः ६ अन्त्यजन्मा ७ जघन्यः ८ द्विजसेवकः ९ । इति शब्दरत्नावली ॥ सदाचारपरा नित्यं रता हरिहरार्च्चने । देवविप्रपितॄणाञ्च अतिथीनाञ्च पूजकाः ॥” * ॥ प्रकारान्तरम् । “माहिष्यवनितासूनुर्वैदेहात् यः प्रसूयते । स कायस्थ इति प्रोक्तस्तस्य धर्म्मो विधीयते ॥ क्षत्त्राद्वैश्यायां माहिष्या वैश्याद्विप्राजो वैदेहः । लिपीनां देशजातानां लेखनं स समाचरेत् ॥ गणकत्वं विचित्रञ्च बीजपाटी प्रभेदतः । अधमः शूद्रजातिभ्यः पञ्चसंस्कारवानसौ ॥ चातुर्वर्णस्य सेवां हि लिपिलेखनसाधनाम् । व्यवसायः शिल्पकर्म्म तज्जीवनमुदाहृतम् ॥ शिखां यज्ञोपवीतञ्च वस्त्रमारक्तमम्भसा । स्पर्शनं देवतानाञ्च कायस्थाद्यो विवर्ज्ज येत् ॥” इति कमलाकरभट्टकृतशूद्रधर्म्मतत्त्वम् ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


शूद्र पुं।

शूद्रः

समानार्थक:शूद्र,अवरवर्ण,वृषल,जघन्यज

2।10।1।1।1

शूद्राश्चावरवर्णाश्च वृषलाश्च जघन्यजाः। आचण्डालात्तु सङ्कीर्णा अम्बष्ठकरणादयः॥

पत्नी : शूद्रस्यभार्या

 : चित्रकारादिः, शङ्खवादकः, क्षुरिः, रजकः, शौण्डिकः, अजाजीवनः, देवपूजोपजीविनः, इन्द्रजालिकः, नटः, काथिकः, मृदङ्गवादकः, करतालिकावादकः, वेणुवादकः, वीणावादकः, पक्षीणां_हन्ता, जालेन_मृगान्बध्नः, मांसविक्रयजीविः, वेतनोपजीविः, वार्तावाहकः, भारवाहकः, नीचः, दासः, परेण_संवर्धितः, अलसः, चतुरः, चण्डालः, किरातः, शबरः, पुलिन्दः, मृगवधाजीवः, चोरः, परान्नजीवनः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्यः

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


शूद्र¦ पुंस्त्री॰ शुच--रक् पृषो॰ चस्य दः दीर्घश्च।

१ चतुर्थे वर्णेस्त्रियां टाप्। शूद्रा शूद्रजातिस्त्रियाम्। पुंयोगे ङीष्। शूद्री शूद्रभार्य्यायाम्। शुचा द्रवति द्रु॰ ड पृषो॰।

२ शो-कहेतुकगतियुक्ते शूद्राधिकरणशब्दे दृश्यम्। [Page5132-a+ 38] अथ शूद्रधर्मादि
“विप्राणामर्चनं नित्यं शूद्रधर्मो विधो-यते। तद्द्वेषो तद्धनग्राही शूद्रश्चाण्डालतां व्रजेत्। नृध्रः कोटिसहस्राणि शतजन्मानि शूकरः। श्वापदःशतजन्मानि शूद्रो विप्रधनापहा। यः शूद्रो ब्राह्मणी-गामो मातृगामी स पातकी। कुम्भीपाके पच्यते सयावद्वै ब्रह्मणः शतम्। कुम्भीपाके तप्ततैके दष्टः सर्पैर-हर्निशम्। शब्दञ्च विकृताकारं कुरुते यमताडनात्। ततश्चाण्डालयोनिः स्यात् सप्तजन्मसु पातकी। सप्त-जन्मसु सर्पश्च जलौकाः सप्तजन्मसु। जन्मकोटिसहस्रञ्चविष्ठायां जायते कृमिः। योनिक्रिमिः पुंश्चलीनां स भवेत्सप्तजन्मसु। गवां व्रणकृमिः स्याच्च पातकी सप्तजन्मसु। योनौ यौनौ भ्रमत्येवं न पुनर्जायते नरः” ब्रह्मवै॰पु॰

८३ अ॰।
“द्विजानां पादशुश्रूषा शूद्रैः कार्य्यासदा त्विह। पादप्रक्षालनं गन्धैर्भोज्यमुच्छिष्टमात्रकम्। ते तु चक्रु स्तदा चैव तेभ्यो भूयः पितामहः। शुश्रू-षार्थ मया यूयं तुरीये तु पदे कृताः। द्विजानां क्षात्त्र-वर्गाणां वैश्यानाञ्च भवद्विधाः। त्रिभ्यः शुश्रूषणा कार्य्याइत्यवादीद्वचस्तदा” पाद्मे सृ॰ स्व॰

१६ अ॰।
“शुश्रूषैव द्वि-जातीनां शूद्राणां धर्मसाधनम्। कारुकर्म तथाजीवःपाकयज्ञोऽपि धर्मतः” गारुडे

४९ अ॰।
“तथा मद्यस्यपानेन ब्राह्मणीगमनेन च। वेदाक्षरविचारेण शूद्रश्चा॰ण्डालतां व्रजेत्” इति शूद्रकमलाकरधृतपराशरवाक्यम्। ब्राह्मणस्य तदन्नभोजननिषेधो यथा
“शूद्रान्नं ब्राह्मणो-ऽश्नन् वै मामं भासार्द्धमेव वा। तद्योनावभिजायेतसत्यमेतद्विदुर्बुधाः। अथोदरस्थशूद्राम्नो मृतः श्वा चैवजायते। द्धादश दश चाष्टौ च गृध्रशूकरपुष्कराः। उदरस्थितशूद्रान्नो ह्यधीयानोऽपि नित्यशः। जुह्वन्वापि जपन् वापि गतिमूर्द्ध्वां न विन्दति। अमृतं ब्रा-ह्मणस्यान्नं क्षत्रियान्नं पयः स्मृतम्। वैश्यस्य चान्नमे-वान्नं शूद्रान्नं रुधिरं स्मृतम्। तस्मात् शूद्रं न भिक्षेयु-र्यज्ञार्थं सद्द्विजातयः। श्मशानमिव यच्छूद्रस्तस्मात्तंपरिवर्जयेत्। कणानामथ वा भिक्षां कुर्य्याच्चातिविक-र्षितः। सच्छूद्राणां गृहे कुर्वन् तत्पापेन न लिप्यते। विशुद्धान्वयसंजातो निवृत्तो सद्यमांसतः। द्विजभक्तोबणिग्वृत्तिः शूद्रः सन् परिकीर्त्तितः” वृहत्पराशरः। शूद्रकृत्यविचारणतत्त्वे मत्स्यपुराणम्
“एवं शूद्रोऽपि सामान्यं वृद्धिश्राद्धन्तु सर्वदा। नभरशारेण गन्त्रेण कुर्य्यादामान्नवद्बुधः। दानप्रधामः शूद्रः[Page5132-b+ 38] स्यादित्याह भगवान् प्रभुः। दानेन सर्वकामाप्तिरस्कसंजायते यतः”। ततो दानमेवापेक्षित न तु मोजन-मपि। सामान्यं सर्वजनकर्त्तव्यत्वेन प्रतिमासकृष्णपक्षा-दिविहितश्राद्धम् आभ्युदयिकश्राद्धञ्च एवं द्विजातिवत्शूद्रोऽपि कुर्य्यादित्यन्वयः। नमस्कारेण मन्त्रेण न तुपठितमन्त्रेण। आमान्नवदित्यनेन जलसेकसिद्धान्नव्यावृत्तिः
“स्मिन्नमन्नमुदाहृतम्” इति वशिष्ठेन स्यिन्नस्यैवाद्भत्वस्या-भिधानात् कन्दुपक्वस्य भ्रष्टत्वं न तु स्विन्नत्वं हारीतेनस्वेदनभर्जनयोः पृथक्त्वमुक्तं यथा
“आदीपनताषनस्वे-दनभर्जनपचनादिभिः पञ्चमीति”। अस्यार्थः आदीपनंकाष्ठानां, तापनं तोयादेः, स्वेदनं धान्यादेर्भर्जनं यवादेः,पचनं तण्डुलादेः इति पञ्चमी सूना इति कल्पतरुः। अतएव स्विन्नधान्येन व्यवह्रियते।
“कन्दुपक्वानि तैलेनपायसं दधिसक्तवः। द्विजैरेतानि भोज्यानि शूदूगेह-कृतान्यपि” इति कूर्मपुराणवचने शूद्रकर्तृक कन्दुपक्वा-देर्ब्राह्मणभक्ष्यत्वेन श्राद्धे देयत्वमुक्तम्। कन्दुपक्वं ज-लोपसेकं विना केवलपात्रेण यद्वह्निना पक्वम्। पायसंपाकेन काठिन्यविकारापन्नं दुग्धं परमान्नपरत्वे पुंलि-ङ्गनिर्देशापत्तेः तथा चामरः
“परमान्नन्तु पायसः” इति।
“दिने त्रयोदशे प्राप्ते पाकेन भोजयेद्घिजान्। अयं विधिः प्रयोक्तव्यः शूद्राणां मन्त्रवर्जितः” इतिश्राद्धचिन्ताभणिधृतवराहपुराणवचनमपि कन्दुपक्वपरम्एवन्तु एतद्वचनं{??}च्छूद्रपरं मैथिलोक्तं हेयम्। एवम्आममांसस्यापि श्राद्धे देयत्वं सामगश्राद्धतत्त्वेऽनुसन्धे-यम्। तत्र द्गव्यदेवताप्रकाशार्थं ब्राह्मणेन मन्त्राः पाठ्याः
“अयमेव विधिः प्रोक्तः शूद्राणां मन्त्रवर्जितः। अम-न्त्रस्य तु शूद्रस्य विप्रोमन्त्रेण गृह्यते” इति वराहपुरा-णात् अयं श्राद्धेतिकर्त्तव्यताकोविधिः शद्रकर्तृकमन्त्र-पाठरहितः शूद्रस्य मन्त्रपाठानधिकारसिद्धौ यदमन्त्र-स्येति पुनर्वचनं तत्स्त्रियाग्रहणार्थं परिभाषार्थञ्च ततश्चतत्कर्मसम्बन्धिमन्त्रेण विप्रस्तदीयकर्मकारयितृब्राह्मणोगृह्यते तेन ब्रह्मणेन तत्र मन्त्रः पठनीय इति तात्पर्य्यंतत्र यजुर्वेदिको मन्त्रः तथा च स्मृतिः
“आर्षक्रमेणसर्वत्र शूद्रा वाजसनेयिनः। तस्माच्छूद्रः स्वयं कर्म यजु-र्वेदीव कारयेत्”। आर्षक्रमेण श्रुत्युक्तक्रमेण यजुर्वेदि-सम्बन्धिगृह्यादिना
“चतुर्णामपि वर्णानां यानि प्रो-क्तानि वेधसा। धभशास्त्राणि राजेन्द्र! शृणु तानिगप्रोत्तम!। विशेषतस्तु शूद्राणां पावनामि मनीपिभिः। [Page5133-a+ 38] अष्टादश पुराणानि चरितं राघवस्य च। रामस्य कुरु-शार्दूल धर्मकामार्थसिद्धये। तथोक्तं भारतं बीर! पारा-शर्य्येण धीमता। वेदार्थं सकलं योज्य धर्मशास्त्राणि चप्रभो!” इति भविष्यपुराणवचनात्तेषां पौराणिकादि-बिधिः। योज्य योजयित्वा। अत्र च
“श्राद्धं वेदमन्त्रवर्जंशूद्रस्य इति वचने वेदेत्युपादानात् श्राद्धे पुराणमन्त्रःशूद्रेण पठनीय इति मैथिलोक्तं तन्न वराहपुराणे शूद्राणांमन्त्रवर्जित इत्यनेन मन्त्रमात्रनिषेधात् मत्स्यपुराणे नम-स्कारेण मन्त्रेण इत्युपादानाच्च पौराणिकस्यापि श्राद्धेनिषेषः प्रतीयते। एवं स्नानेऽपि
“ब्रह्मक्षत्रविशामेवमन्त्रवत् स्नानमिष्यते। तूष्णामेव हि शूद्रस्य सनमस्का-रकं मतम्” इत्थनेन नमस्कारविधानात् पञ्चयज्ञेऽपि।
“शूद्रस्य द्विजशुश्रूपा तया जीवनवान् भवेत्। शिल्पैवांविविधैर्जीवेत् द्विजातिहितमाचरन्। भार्य्यारतिः शुचि-र्भृत्यभर्त्ता श्राद्धक्रियारतः। नमस्कारेण मन्त्रेण पञ्चयज्ञान्न हापयेत्” इति नमस्कारमात्रविधानात् श्राद्धा-दिषु पौराणिकमन्त्रनिषेधः। ततश्च स्नानश्राद्धतर्पणपञ्चयज्ञेतरत्र शूद्रस्य पौराणिकमन्त्रपाठः प्रतीयते। अत्र
“षष्ठेऽन्नप्राशनं मासि यद्वेष्टं मङ्गलं कुले” इतिमनुवचनात्
“चूडा कार्य्या यथाकुलम्” इति याज्ञवल्क्य-वचनाच्च संस्कारमात्रे कुलधर्मानुरोधेन कालान्तरस्यनामविशेषोच्चारणस्याभिधानाच्च शूद्रादीनां नामकरणेवसुघोषादिकपद्धतियुक्तनामकरणस्य च प्रतीतेर्वैदिकक-र्मणि शूद्राणां पद्धतियुक्तानामाभिधानं क्रियते इति”। शूद्रस्त्वाचमने दैवतीर्थेन ओष्ठे जलं सकृत्क्षिपेत् नपिबेत् तथा च याज्ञवल्क्यः
“हृत्कण्ठतालुगाद्भिस्तु यथा-संख्यं द्विजातयः। शुन्धरन् स्त्री च शूद्रश्च सकृत् स्पृ-ष्टाभिरन्ततः”। अन्ततो हृदयादिसमीपेन ओष्ठेन उत्त-रात्तरमपकर्षात् अतएव स्पृष्टाभिरित्युक्तं न तु भक्षि-ताभिरिति
“स्त्रीशूद्रः शुध्यते नित्यं क्षालनाच्च करो-थयोः” इति ब्रह्मपुराणवचनाच्च। याज्ञवल्क्यः
“प्राग्वाब्राह्मेण तीर्थेन द्विजो नित्यमुपस्पृशेत्” अत्र द्विजस्यै-वाचमने ब्राह्मतीर्थोपादानात् स्त्रीशूद्रयोर्न तेनाचमनम्एवमेव मिताक्षरायां व्यक्तमुक्तं मरीचिना
“स्त्रियास्त्रै-दशिकं तीर्थं शूद्रजातेस्तथैव च। सकृदाचमनाच्छुद्धि-रेतयोरेव चोभयोः” इति। एतदनन्तरम् इन्द्रियादि-स्पशनन्तु ब्राह्मणवदेव प्रमाणान्तरन्तु वाजसनेयिसामग-श्राद्धाह्निकतत्त्वर्योरनुसन्धेयम्” आ॰ त॰ रघु॰। [Page5133-b+ 38]

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


शूद्र¦ m. (-द्रः) A man of the fourth or servile tribe, said to have sprung from the feet of BRAHMA
4. f. (-द्रा) A woman of the S4u4dra tribe. f. (-द्री or द्राणी) The wife of S4u4dra. E. शुच् to purify or cleanse, Un4adi aff. रक्, the vowel made long, and च changed to द |

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


शूद्रः [śūdrḥ], [शुच्-रक् पृषो˚ चस्य दः दीर्घः Uṇ.2.19] A man of the fourth or the last of the four principal tribes of the Hindus; he is said to have been born from the feet of Puruṣa; पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत Ṛv.1.9.12; or of Brahman; Ms.1.87; and his principal business was to serve the three higher castes; एकमेव तु शूद्रस्य प्रभुः कर्म समादिशत् । एतेषामेव वर्णानां शुश्रुषामनसूयया ॥ Ms.1.9.-Comp. -आर्ता the Priyaṅgu plant. -आह्निकम् the daily ceremonies or observances of a Śūdra. -उदकम् water polluted by the touch of a Śūdra. -कृत्यम्, -धर्मः the duties of a Śūdra. -घ्न, -हन् a.

killing a Śūdra.

the slayer of a Śūdra; एतदेव व्रतं कृत्स्नं षण्मासान् शूद्रहा चरेत् Ms.11.13. -प्रियः an onion. -प्रेष्यः a man of any of the three higher castes who has become a servant to a Śūdra. -भूयिष्ठ a. consisting mostly of Śūdra; यद्राष्ट्रं शूद्रभूयिष्ठम् (विनश्यति) Ms.8.22. -याजकः one who conducts a sacrifice for a Śūdra. -राज्यम् a country of which a Śūdra is a king; न शूद्रराज्ये निवसेत् Ms.4.61.-वर्गः the Śūdra or servile class. -वृत्तिः the occupation of a Śūdra; वैश्यो$जीवन् स्वधर्मेण शूद्रवृत्त्यापि वर्तयेत् Ms.1.98,

शासनम् dominion of a Śūdra.

a written bond of a Śūdra; L. D. B.

an edict addressed to Śūdras.-संस्पर्शः the touch of a Śūdra; अस्वर्ग्या ह्याहुतिः सा स्याच्छूद्रसंस्पर्शदूषिता Ms.5.14. -सेवनम् serving a Śūdra, being the servant of a Śūdra; Ms.11.69.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


शूद्र m. (of doubtful derivation) a शूद्र, a man of the fourth or lowest of the four original classes or castes (whose only business accord. to Mn. i , 91 , was to serve the three higher classes ; in RV. ix , 20 , 12 , the शूद्रis said to have been born from the feet of पुरुषSee. ; in Mn. i , 87 he is fabled to have sprung from the same part of the body of ब्रह्मा, and he is regarded as of higher rank than the present low and mixed castes so numerous throughout India ; केवल-श्, a pure -S3 शूद्र) RV. etc. ( IW. 212 etc. )

शूद्र m. a man of mixed origin L.

शूद्र m. N. of a Brahman Buddh.

शूद्र m. pl. N. of a people MBh. Pur.

शूद्र f( आand ई). See. below.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Śūdra : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya, first, among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37, 5. (aparandhrāś ca śūdrāś ca) 6. 10. 46; listed by him a second time among the northern Mleccha people (uttarāś cāpare mlecchā janā…śūdrābhīrātha daradāḥ) 6. 10. 63, 66; some Śūdras lived also in the west near the river Sarasvatī (śūdrābhīragaṇāś caiva ye cāśritya sarasvatīm) 2. 29. 9 (see the Epic event No. 1 below).


B. Their nature and way of living: They were harsh and were counted among Mleccha people (dāruṇā mlecchajātayaḥ) 6. 10. 64; (also cf. A. Location above and E. Future event below) they lived on fish, since they lived near the river Sarasvatī (vartayanti ca matsyair…) 2. 29. 9.


C. Epic events:

(1) Nakula in his expedition to the west of Khāṇḍavaprastha (niryāya khāṇḍavaprasthāt pratīcīm abhito diśam) 2. 29. 2; 2. 23. 10) brought them under control (śūdrābhīragaṇāś caiva…vaśe cakre) 2. 29. 9-10;

(2) On the eleventh day of war, Śūdras were among those who guarded at the extreme end (prapakṣāḥ) of the left side of the Śakaṭavyūha (7. 6. 15) of Kauravas (savyaṁ pārśvam apālayan) 7. 6. 4, 6.


D. Past event: The river Sarasvatī formerly disappeared at the Vinaśana tīrtha due to her hatred of Śūdras and Ābhīras (vinaśanaṁ nāma…śūdrābhīrān prati dveṣād yatra naṣṭā sarasvatī) 9. 36. 1.


E. Future event: Mārkaṇḍeya predicted that in the Kali age there would be many Mleccha kings among whom some would be Śūdras: these kings would be sinful, given to lies and ruling the wrong way (bahavo mleccharājānaḥ pṛthivyāṁ…/ mithyānuśāsinaḥ pāpā mṛṣāvādaparāyaṇāḥ// …śūdrās tathābhīrā…) 3. 186. 29-30.


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Śūdra : m. (pl.): Name of a Janapada and its people.


A. Location: Listed by Saṁjaya, first, among the northern Janapadas (also called Deśas 6. 10. 68) of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha) 6. 10. 37, 5. (aparandhrāś ca śūdrāś ca) 6. 10. 46; listed by him a second time among the northern Mleccha people (uttarāś cāpare mlecchā janā…śūdrābhīrātha daradāḥ) 6. 10. 63, 66; some Śūdras lived also in the west near the river Sarasvatī (śūdrābhīragaṇāś caiva ye cāśritya sarasvatīm) 2. 29. 9 (see the Epic event No. 1 below).


B. Their nature and way of living: They were harsh and were counted among Mleccha people (dāruṇā mlecchajātayaḥ) 6. 10. 64; (also cf. A. Location above and E. Future event below) they lived on fish, since they lived near the river Sarasvatī (vartayanti ca matsyair…) 2. 29. 9.


C. Epic events:

(1) Nakula in his expedition to the west of Khāṇḍavaprastha (niryāya khāṇḍavaprasthāt pratīcīm abhito diśam) 2. 29. 2; 2. 23. 10) brought them under control (śūdrābhīragaṇāś caiva…vaśe cakre) 2. 29. 9-10;

(2) On the eleventh day of war, Śūdras were among those who guarded at the extreme end (prapakṣāḥ) of the left side of the Śakaṭavyūha (7. 6. 15) of Kauravas (savyaṁ pārśvam apālayan) 7. 6. 4, 6.


D. Past event: The river Sarasvatī formerly disappeared at the Vinaśana tīrtha due to her hatred of Śūdras and Ābhīras (vinaśanaṁ nāma…śūdrābhīrān prati dveṣād yatra naṣṭā sarasvatī) 9. 36. 1.


E. Future event: Mārkaṇḍeya predicted that in the Kali age there would be many Mleccha kings among whom some would be Śūdras: these kings would be sinful, given to lies and ruling the wrong way (bahavo mleccharājānaḥ pṛthivyāṁ…/ mithyānuśāsinaḥ pāpā mṛṣāvādaparāyaṇāḥ// …śūdrās tathābhīrā…) 3. 186. 29-30.


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*1st word in left half of page p889_mci (+offset) in original book.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Śūdra is the designation of the fourth caste in the Vedic state (see Varṇa). It is quite unknown in the Rigveda except in the Puruṣasūkta[१] (‘hymn of man’) in the tenth Maṇḍla, where is the earliest version of the origin of the castes the Śudra for the first time appears. The Rigveda, on the other hand, knows Dasyu and Dāsa, both as aborigines independent of Āryan control and as subjugated slaves: it is reasonable to reckon the Śūdra of the later texts as belonging to the aborigines who had been reduced to subjection by the Āryans. Strictly speaking, the defeated aborigines must have been regarded as slaves, but it is obvious that, except on occasions when most of the men were slain, which may have occurred quite often, there must have remained too many of them to be used as slaves of individual owners. The villages of the aborigines must have continued to subsist, but under Āryan lordship and control: there may be this amount of truth in Baden Powell's theory, which practically traced all the early cultivating villages in India to Dravidian origin. On the other hand, the term Śūdra would also cover the wild hill tribes which lived by hunting and fishing, and many of which would acknowledge the superiority of their Āryan neighbours: it could, in fact, be applied to all beyond the pale of the Āryan state.

This view of the Śūdra suits adequately the Vedic references to his condition, which would not apply adequately to domestic slaves only. The Śūdra is continually opposed to the Āryan,[२] and the colour of the Śūdra is compared with that of the Āryan,[३] just as his ways are so contrasted.[४] The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa,[५] in its account of the castes, declares that the Śūdra is anyasya preṣya, ‘the servant of another’; kāmotthāpya, ‘to be expelled at will’; and yathākāmavadhya, ‘to be slain at will.’ All these terms well enough describe the position of the serf as the result of a conquest: the epithets might have been applied to the English serf after the Norman Conquest with but slight inaccuracy, especially if his master had received a grant of jurisdiction from the Crown. The Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa[६] explains that even if prosperous (bahu-paśu, ‘having many cows’) a Śūdra could not be other than a servant: his business was pādāvanejya, ‘the washing of the feet’ of his superiors. The Mahābhārata[७] says out and out that a Śūdra has no property (na hi svam asti śūdrasya, ‘the Śūdra has nothing he can call his own’). On the other hand, just as in England the royal justice would protect the serf in life and limb,[८] so it appears that the slaying of a Śūdra involved a wergeld of ten cows according to both Baudhāyana[९] and Āpastamba.[१०] It may, indeed, be held that this wergeld was only due in case of murder by another than the master, but such limitation is nowhere stated.

In sacred matters the distinction between Āryan and Śūdra was, of course, specially marked. The texts[११] do not hesitate to declare that the upper castes were ‘all,’ ignoring the Śūdras; the Śūdra is prohibited[१२] from milking the cow for the milk required at the Agnihotra (‘oblation to Agni’); and the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[१३] forbids a man who has been consecrated (dīkṣita) for a sacrifice to speak to a Śūdra at all for the time, though the Śāṭyāyanaka[१४] seems to have relaxed this rule by confining it to cases in which the Śūdra was guilty of some sin. At the sacrifice itself the Śūdra could not be present in the śālā, ‘hall’; he is definitely classed in the Śatapatha Brāhmáṇa[१५] and the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa[१६] as unfit for ‘sacrifice’ (ayajñiya); and declared in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā[१७] not to be admitted to drink Soma. At the Pravargya (introductory Soma) rite the performer is not allowed to come in contact with a Śūdra,[१८] who here, as in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā,[१७] is reckoned as excluded from a share in the Soma-draught. On the other hand, the Śūdra is one of the victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda,[१९] and a fight between an Āryan and a Śūdra, in which, of course, the former wins, forms a part of the Mahāvrata rite, being perhaps a precursor of the Indian drama.[२०]

Other indications, however, exist, showing that it would be undesirable to ignore the real importance of the Śūdra, which again reminds us of the condition of the serf, who, though legally restrained, still gradually won his way to the rank of a free man. Rich Śūdras are mentioned in the early texts,[२१] just as Śūdra gahapatis, ‘householders,’ occur in the Buddhist texts, and Śūdra kings in the legal literature.[२२] Sin against Śūdra and Āryan is mentioned;[२३] prayers for glory on behalf of Śūdras, as well as of the other castes[२४] occur; and the desire to be dear to Śūdra as well as to Āryan is expressed.[२५]

The Sūtras also, while they emphasize as general rules points earlier not insisted on, such as their inferiority in sitting, etc.,[२६] their exclusion from the study of the Vedas,[२७] the danger of contact with them[२८] or their food,[२९] still recognize that Śūdras can be merchants,[३०] or even exercise any trade.[३१]

Moreover, the Sūtras[३२] permit the marriage of a Śūdrā woman with members of all castes. Though it was a reproach to Vatsa[३३] and to Kavaṣa[३४] that they were the sons of a Śūdrā and a Dāsī respectively, still the possibility of such a reproach shows that marriages of this kind did take place. Moreover, illicit unions of Ārya and Śūdrā, or Śūdra and Āryā, are referred to in the Saṃhitās of the Yajurveda.[३५]

The origin of the term Śūdra is quite obscure, but Zimmer[३६] points out that Ptolemy[३७] mentions as a people, and he thinks that the Brāhui may be meant. Without laying any stress on this identification,[३८] it is reasonable to accept the view[३९] that the term was originally the name of a large tribe opposed to the Āryan invasion. See also Niṣāda.

Vedic Rituals Hindi[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


शूद्र पु.
भारतीय समाज के चतुर्थ वर्ण का व्यक्ति, आप.श्रौ.सू. 1०.12.12-13 (दीक्षित यजमान को शूद्र से वार्तालाप नहीं करना चाहिए। इन सब के बावज़ूद भी यदि बात करना चाहे तो वाजसनेय परम्परानुसार ऐसे व्यक्ति के माध्यम से बात करना चाहिए जो ब्राह्मण, राजन्य अथवा वैश्य वर्ण का हो; शाट्यायन फिलहाल यजमान को शूद्र से इस स्थिति में सीधे बातचीत की अनुमति देते हैं, यदि शूद्र अच्छे बर्ताव (कुशल व्यवहार) वाला हो); तुल. अगिन्होत्री गाय को दुहने के लिए अनर्ह घोषित, का.श्रौ.सू. 4.14.1, तु. ‘अहविरेव तद् यच्छूद्रो दोग्धीति’ किन्तु आप.श्रौ.सू. 6.3.11-14 द्वारा ऐच्छिक रूप से ऐसा करने के लिए अनुमत (अर्थात् दोहन करने के लिए अनुमत)।

  1. x. 90, 12. See Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 1^2, 8 et seq.
  2. Av. iv. 20, 4;
    xix. 32, 8;
    62, 1;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xiv. 30;
    xxiii. 30. 31;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iv. 2, 10, 2;
    vii. 4, 19, 3;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, Aśvamedha, iv. 7;
    xvii. 5;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 8, 6;
    iii. 13, 1, etc. See also Ārya and Arya. In Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 8, 3, 1;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xx. 17;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxviii. 5, Sūdra is opposed to Arya.
  3. Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxiv. 5;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, v. 5, 17. Cf. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, vi. 4, 4, 9;
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, i. 4, 25;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, viii. 4, 5;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, i. 2, 6, 7;
    Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 4;
    Muir, op. cit., 1^2, 140;
    Mahābhārata, xii. 188, 5.
  4. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 17, 3. 4;
    Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xv. 24.
  5. vii. 29, 4;
    Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 1^2, 439.
  6. vi. 1. 11.
  7. xii. 30, 7 (Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 73). The same text, xii. 294, 21 (ibid., 74, n.). insists on his duty of service.
  8. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 1, 350, 355, etc.
  9. Dharma Sūtra, i. 10, 19, 1.
  10. Dharma Sūtra, i. 9, 24, 3.
  11. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ii. 1, 4, 2;
    iv. 2, 2, 14, etc. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 12, xvi. et seq.;
    26, 292. Cf. Hopkins, op, cit., 13, 73, 75, n.
  12. Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxi. 2;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 1, 3. So the sthālī, ‘cooking vessel,’ is to be prepared by an Āryan, Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 8, 3.
  13. iii. 1, 1. 10. Cf. v. 3, 2, 2.
  14. Quoted by Āpastamba, cited in the scholiast on Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, vii. 5, 7. The sense is not quite certain, but that given in the text seems reasonable. Cf. Weber, op. cit., 10, 11.
  15. iii. 1, 1, 10. See also Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, vii. 1, 1, 6;
    Lévi La Doctrine du Sacrifice, 82.
  16. vi. 1, 11.
  17. १७.० १७.१ xi. 10, where he therefore does not receive Karīras.
  18. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiv. 1, 1, 34.
  19. Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 5;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 4, 1, 1;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 6, 2, 10. He is also present at the Rājasūya, Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxvii. 1.
  20. Keith, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 64, 534.
  21. Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 2, 7, 10;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, vi. 1, 11. Some of the kings' ministers were Śūdras;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 3, 2, 2, with Sāyaṇa's note.
  22. Foy, Die ko7nigliche Gewalt, 8;
    Fick, Die sociale Gliederung, 83, 84. See Manu, iv. 61;
    Viṣṇu, lxxi. 64;
    perhaps Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, i. 4, 5. But see Roth's emendation, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 16, ccxliii.
  23. Kāṭhaka Saṃhiṭā, xxxviii. 5;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 8, 3, 1;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xx. 17.
  24. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, v. 7, 6, 4;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xl. 13;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 4, 8;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xviii. 48, On the other hand, the Śūdra uses magic just as an Ārya does, Av. x. 1, 3.
  25. Av. xix. 32, 8;
    62, 1;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxvi. 2, etc.
  26. Gautama Dharma Sūtra, xii. 7;
    Āpastamba Dharma Sūtra, ii. 10, 27, 15, So he can be insulted with impunity, Gautama, xii. 13, and is punished for insult by mutilation, ibid., xii. 1;
    Āpastamba, ii. 10, 27, 14.
  27. Gautama, xii. 4-6.
  28. Āpastamba, i. 5, 17, 1;
    ii. 2, 3, 4, etc.
  29. Āpastamba, i. 5, 16, 2, etc.
  30. Gautama, x. 60. Cf. x. 50-67 for an exhaustive account of the Śūdra's duties in theory. His relations to his master are those of mutual support.
  31. Viṣṇu, ii. 14.
  32. Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra, i. 4, 11. Rules to the contrary (e.g., Gobhila Gṛhya Sūtra, iii. 2, 52) are for special occasions. See Weber, op. cit., 10, 74. On the other hand, criminal intercourse of a Śūdra and an Āryan woman is severely punished in the Sūtras. See Āpastamba, i. 10, 26, 20;
    27, 9;
    Gautama, xii. 2. 3.
  33. Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xiv. 6, 6.
  34. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 19, 1.
  35. Ārya and Śūdrā: Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxiii. 30;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 4, 19, 3;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 13, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, Aśvamedha, iv. 8;
    Śūdra and Āryā: Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxii. 31. This verse the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa no doubt deliberately ignores.
  36. Altindisches Leben, 216, 435.
  37. vi. 20.
  38. The Brāhui are now held not to be Dravidian ethnologically, but TurcoIranian (Indian Empire, 1, 292, 310). It is suggested (ibid., 1, 382) that they represent the original Dravidian type, which in India has been merged in the Muṇḍā type;
    but this suggestion is invalidated by the fact that the Rigveda speaks of the Dasyus as anās, ‘noseless’ (cf. Dasyu, 1, 347, n. 7). a term admirably applicable to Dravidians, but ludicrous as applied to the TurcoIranian type. It is much more plausible to assume that the Brāhuis are a mixed race, which in course of time has lost most of its Dravidian features. On the relation of Dravidians and speakers of Muṇḍā tongues, the Vedic texts throw no light.
  39. See Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 85, 255;
    Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda. 3, 212;
    Fick, Die sociale Gliederung, 201, 202.

    Cf. von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 154, 155;
    Jolly, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 50, 515;
    Fick, Die sociale Gliederung, 201 et seq., Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 54;
    Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 73 et seq. (for the Śūdra in the Epic);
    Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 191, et seq.;
    Weber, Indian Literature, 18, 77, 111, 112, 276;
    Indische Studien, 10, 4 et seq.;
    Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 1^2, 8 et seq.
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