ग्राम

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
अत्र गम्यताम् : सञ्चरणम्, अन्वेषणम्

यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


ग्रामः, पुं, (ग्रस् + “ग्रसेरात् ।” उणां । १ । १४२ । इति मन् धातोराकारान्तादेशश्च ।) विप्रादि- वर्णप्राया प्राकारपरिखादिरहिता बहुजन- वसतिः । इति भरतः ॥ तत्पर्य्यायः । संवसथः २ । इत्यमरः । २ । ३ । १९ ॥ हट्टादिशून्यवसतिः । इति श्रीधरस्वामी ॥ यथा, मार्कण्डेयपुराणे । “तथा शूद्रजनप्राया सुसमृद्धकृषीबला । क्षेत्रोपयोगभूमध्ये वसतिर्ग्रामसंज्ञिका ॥” (तथा च मनुः । १० । ५४ । “अन्नमेषां पराधीनं देयं स्याद्भिन्नभाजने । रात्रौ न विचरेयुस्ते ग्रामेषु नगरेषु च ॥”) शब्दादिपूर्ब्बकश्चेत् समूहार्थः । इति विश्वः ॥ यथा शब्दग्रामः भूतग्रामः गुणग्रामः । इत्यादि ॥ (यथा, मनुः । २ । २१५ । “बलवानिन्द्रियग्रामो विद्बांसमपि कर्षति ॥” शिवः । यथा, महाभारते । १३ । १७ । ११३ । “गोपालिर्गोपतिर्ग्रामो गोचर्म्मवसनो हरिः ॥”) स्वरभेदः । यथा, -- “षड्जमध्यमगान्धारास्त्रयो ग्रामा मता इह । षडजग्रामो भवेदत्र मध्यमग्राम एव च । सुरलोके च गान्धारो ग्रामः प्रचरति स्वयम् ॥” इदानीं षड्जग्रामस्य मूर्च्छनाः क्रियन्ते । मूर्च्छना प्रस्तार इत्यर्थः । ष ऋ ग म प ध निश्च । इति षड्जस्य । म-पौ ध-नी ष ऋ च गः । इति मध्यमस्य । ऋ-गौ म-पौ ध नी षोऽन्ते । इति गान्धारस्य मूर्च्छनाः । ष ऋ ग म प ध निश्च । नि-षौ ऋ-ग-म-पाश्च धः । ध नि ष ऋ ग म पोऽन्ते । प-धौ नि-षौ ऋ-गौ त्त मः । म-पौ ध-नी च ष ऋ ग । ग म प ध नि षश्च ऋः । ऋ-गौ म-पौ ध-नी गोऽन्ते । मूर्च्छनाः सप्त षड्जाः ॥ “आदि द्वित्रिचतुःपञ्चषट्सप्तस्वपि समे मता । मध्यमो मो यदा तेषु मध्यमग्राममूर्च्छना ॥ आदौ गकारो यत्रास्ति गान्धारग्राममूर्च्छना ॥” तत्र षड्जग्रामप्रस्तारस्यायं क्रमः । “षड्जान्निषधान्तं नेर्धान्तं धात् पान्तमिष्यत । पान्मान्तं मध्यमाद्गान्तं गादृषभान्तमिष्यते ॥ ऋषभात् षान्तमित्याहुः षड्जग्रामस्य मूर्च्छनाः । मध्यमग्रामजास्त्वेवं मूर्च्छनाः परिकीर्त्तिताः ॥ मकारादिक्रमेणैव गकारान्तास्तु ता मताः । तारो मन्द्रश्च आवश्च इति ग्रामनिरूपणाः ॥ षड्जग्राममूर्च्छनायाः सप्त कोष्ठानि । ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवैरुक्तास्त्रयो ग्रामा मनोहराः ॥” इति सङ्गीतदामोदरः ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


ग्राम पुं।

ग्रामः

समानार्थक:संवसथ,ग्राम,खेटक

2।2।19।2।2

क्षिप्ते मुखं निःसरणं संनिवेशो निकर्षणम्. समौ संवसथग्रामौ वेश्मभूर्वास्तुरस्त्रियाम्.।

अवयव : ग्राममध्यमार्गः,सीमा

स्वामी : ग्रामाधिपः

 : गोपग्रामः, भिल्लग्रामः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, अचलनिर्जीवः, स्थानम्, मानवनिर्मितिः

ग्राम पुं।

ग्रामशब्दादिः

समानार्थक:ग्राम

3।3।141।1।1

शब्दादिपूर्वो वृन्देऽपि ग्रामः क्रान्तौ च विक्रमः। स्तोमः स्तोत्रेऽध्वरे वृन्दे जिह्मास्तु कुटिलेऽलसे॥

पदार्थ-विभागः : समूहः

ग्राम पुं।

समूहः

समानार्थक:समूह,निवह,व्यूह,सन्दोह,विसर,व्रज,स्तोम,ओघ,निकर,व्रात,वार,सङ्घात,सञ्चय,समुदाय,समुदय,समवाय,चय,गण,संहति,वृन्द,निकुरम्ब,कदम्बक,पेटक,वार्धक,पूग,ग्राम,सन्नय,संस्त्याय,जाल,पटल,राशि

3।3।141।1।1

शब्दादिपूर्वो वृन्देऽपि ग्रामः क्रान्तौ च विक्रमः। स्तोमः स्तोत्रेऽध्वरे वृन्दे जिह्मास्तु कुटिलेऽलसे॥

 : रात्रिसमूहः, पद्मसङ्घातः, अब्जादीनाम्_समूहः, क्रय्यवस्तुशालापङ्क्तिः, पङ्क्तिः, वनसमूहः, तृणसमूहः, नडसमूहः, सजातीयैः_प्राणिभिरप्राणिभिर्वा_समूहः, जन्तुसमूहः, सजातीयसमूहः, सजातीयतिरश्चां_समूहः, पशुसङ्घः, पशुभिन्नसङ्घः, एकधर्मवतां_समूहः, धान्यादिराशिः, कपोतगणः, शुकगणः, मयूरगणः, तित्तिरिगणः, गणिकासमूहः, गर्भिणीसमूहः, युवतीसमूहः, बन्धूनां_समूहः, वृद्धसमूहः, केशवृन्दम्, राजसमूहः, क्षत्रियसमूहः, हस्तिवृन्दम्, गजमुखादिस्थबिन्दुसमूहः, गजशृङ्खला, निर्बलहस्त्यश्वसमूहः, अश्वसमूहः, रथसमूहः, धृतकवचगणः, हस्तिसङ्घः, वृषभसङ्घः, गोसमूहः, वत्ससमूहः, धेनुसमूहः, उष्ट्रसमूहः, मेषसमूहः, अजसमूहः, सजातीयशिल्पिसङ्घः, औपगवानां_समूहः, अपूपानां_समूहः, शष्कुलीनां_समूहः, माणवानां_समूहः, सहायानां_समूहः, हलानां_समूहः, ब्राह्मणानां_समूहः, वाडवानां_समूहः, पर्शुकानां_समूहः, पृष्ठानां_समूहः, खलानां_समूहः, ग्रामाणां_समूहः, जनानां_समूहः, धूमानां_समूहः, पाशानां_समूहः, गलानां_समूहः, सहस्राणां_समूहः, कारीषाणां_समूहः, चर्मणां_समूहः, अथर्वणां_समूहः, मेघपङ्क्तिः, सङ्घातः, समूहः

पदार्थ-विभागः : समूहः, द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्येतरः, जन्तुः

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


ग्राम¦ पु॰ ग्रस--मन् आदन्तादेशः।
“विप्राश्च विप्रभृत्याश्च यत्रचेव वसन्ति हि। स तु ग्राम इति प्रोक्तः शूद्राणां वासएव वा इति”
“तथा शूद्रजनप्रायाः सुसमृद्धकृषी-वलाः। क्षेत्रोपयोगभूमध्ये वसतिर्ग्रामसंज्ञिका” इति-चोक्तलजणे विप्रादीनां

१ बासस्थाने,
“धनुः शत परि-णाहोग्रामात् क्षेत्रान्तरं भवेत्” याज्ञ॰।
“ग्रामेष्वा-त्मविसृष्टेषु” रघुः।
“त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थेकुलं त्यजेत्। ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे आत्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्य-जेत्” हितोप॰
“यथा कुटुम्बिनः सर्व्वेप्येकीभूताभवन्ति हि। तथा स्वराणां सन्दोहो ग्राम इत्यभिधी-यते” इत्युक्ते

२ स्वरसंघभेदे,
“षड्जग्रामो भवेदादौमव्यमग्रामएव च। गान्धारग्राम इत्येतत् ग्रामत्रय-मुदाहृतम्”
“नन्द्यावर्त्तोऽथ जीमूतः सुभदो ग्रामका-स्त्रयः। षडजमध्यमगान्धरास्त्रयाणां जन्महेतवः” मल्लिनाथधृतवाक्यम् तेषाञ्च सप्तस्वरविशेषयोगात् एकविं-शतिमूर्च्छनाहेतुत्वं यथोक्तं तत्रैव
“क्रमात् खराणांसप्तानामारोहश्चावरोहणम्। सा मूर्च्छनोच्यते ग्रामस्थाएताः सप्त सप्त च”।
“ग्रामत्रयेऽपि प्रत्येकं सप्त सप्त मू-र्च्छनाइत्येकविंशतिमूर्च्छना भवन्तीति” मल्लि॰। अधिकंसंगीतदामोदरे दृश्यम्।
“स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छनाम्” माघः। किञ्चिच्छब्दपूर्वकसः

३ तदर्थसंघाते च यथा शब्दग्रामःअर्थग्राम इत्यादि।
“शब्दाकरकरग्रामः” कविकल्पद्रुमः।

४ जनपदे च
“यस्याश्वासः प्रदिशि यस्य गावो यस्यग्रामा यस्य विश्वे रथासः” ऋ॰

१ ।

१२ ।

७ ।
“ग्रसन्तेऽत्रग्रामाजनपदाः” भा॰। स्वार्थे क तेष्बर्थे
“दीयन्तांग्रामकाः कचित्” भा॰ उद्यो॰

१४

६६ श्लो॰। स्वल्पार्थेटी ततः स्वार्थे क ग्रामटिका स्वल्पग्रामे स्त्री
“स्वर्गग्रामटिकाविलुण्ठनवृथोच्छूनैः किमेभिर्भुजैः” सा॰ द॰।

५ गामवासि कषकादिजने

६ ग्रामसहशे संहते ग्रामस्ये-दमण्।

७ तत्सम्बन्धिनि

८ ग्राम्यधर्म्म च।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


ग्राम¦ m. (-मः)
1. A village, a hamlet, an inhabited and unfortified place in the midst of fields and meadow land, where men of the servile class mostly reside, and where agriculture thrives.
2. A scale in music.
3. (In composition,) A multitude. E. गम् to go, affix घञ्, and deriv. irr. or ग्रस् to eat, Unadi affix मन् and आच् substituted for the radical final. ग्रस-मन् आदन्तादेशः |

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


ग्रामः [grāmḥ], [ग्रस्-मन् आदन्तादेशः]

A village, hamlet; पत्तने विद्यमाने$पि ग्रामे रत्नपरीक्षा M.1; त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् । ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे स्वात्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ॥ H.1.129; R.1.44; Me.3.

A race, community; कथा ग्रामं न पृच्छसि Rv.1.146.1.

A multitude, collection (of anything); e. g. गुणग्राम, इन्द्रियग्राम; Bg.8.19;9.8. शस्त्रास्त्र- ग्रामकोविदः Bm.1.611,613.

A gamut, scale in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छनाम् Śi.1.1. -Comp. -अक्षपटलिकः a village archioist; Hch.7.23. -अधिकृतः, -अधिपः, -अधिपतिः, -अध्यक्षः, -ईशः, -ईश्वरः superintendent, head, chief of a village; ग्रामाधिपस्य तरुणीमहं भार्यां सदा भजे Ks.64.115; Ms.7.115. -अन्तः the border of a village, space near a village; Ms.4.116;11.78. -अन्तरम् another village. -अन्तिकम् the neighbourhood of a village.-अन्तीय a. situated in the neighbourhood of a village; Ms.8.24. -यम् space near a village. -आचारः a village custom. -आधानम् hunting. -उपाध्यायः the village priest.

कण्टकः 'the village-pest', one who is a source of trouble to the village.

a tale-bearer.-काम a.

one wishing to take possession of a village.

fond of living in villages. -कायस्थ a village scribe.-कुक्कुटः a domestic cock; Ms.5.12,19.

कुमारः one beautiful in a village.

a village-boy.

कूटः the noblest man in a village.

a Śūdra. -गृह्य a. being outside a village. -गृह्यकः a village-carpenter.-गोदुहः the herdsman of a village. -घातः plundering a village; Ms.9.274. -घोषिन् a. sounding among men or armies (as a drum); प्रवेदकृद् बहुधा ग्रामघोषी Av. 5.2.9. -m. an epithet of Indra. -चर्या sexual intercourse; (स्त्रीसंभोग). -चैत्यः a sacred fig-tree of a village; नीडारम्भैर्गृहबलिभुजामाकुलग्रामचैत्याः Me.23. -ज, -जात a.

village-born, rustic.

grown in cultivated ground; Ms.6.16. -जालम् a number of villages, a district.

णीः the leader or chief of a village or community; तयोर्युद्धं समभवद्रक्षोग्रामणिमुख्ययोः Mb.7.19.3.

a leader or chief in general.

a barber.

an epithet of Viṣṇu.

a libidinous man.

a yakṣa; उन्नह्यन्ति रथं नागा ग्रामण्यो रथयोजकाः Mb.12.11.48. (-f.)

a whore, harlot.

the indigo plant. ˚पुत्रः a bastard, the son of a harlot. -तक्षः a village-carpenter; P.V.4.95.-देवता the tutelary deity of a village. -द्रुमः a sacred tree in a village.

धर्मः the observances or customs of a village.

sexual intercourse. -धान्यम् a cultivated grain (like rice); ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः Mb.12.36.48. See ग्राम्यधान्यम्.

पालः the guardian of a village.

army for the protection of a village. -पुरुषः the chief of a village. -प्रेष्यः the messenger or servant of a community or village.

मद्गुरिका a riot, fray, village tumult.

N. of a fish (or a plant) -मुखम् a market. -मृगः a dog. -याजकः, -याजिन् m.

'the village priest,' a priest who conducts the religious ceremonies for all classes and is consequently considered as a degraded Brāhmaṇa; Ms.4.25.

the attendant of an idol. -युद्धम् a riot, fray.-लुण्ठनम् plundering a village. -वासः (ग्रामेवासः also)

residence in a village. -विशेषः a variety of scales in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छना Śi.-वृद्धः an old villager; प्राप्यावन्तीनुदयनकथाकोविदग्रामवृद्धान् Me.3. -षण्डः an impotent man (क्लीब). -संकरः the common sewer or drain of a village. -संघः a villagecorporation. -सिंहः a dog; व्यमुञ्चन्विविधा वाचो ग्रामसिंहास्त- तस्ततः Bhāg.3.17.1. -स्थः a.

a covillager. -हासकः a sister's husband.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


ग्राम m. an inhabited place , village , hamlet RV. i , x AV. VS. etc.

ग्राम m. the collective inhabitants of a place , community , race RV. x , 146 , 1 AV. etc.

ग्राम m. any number of men associated together , multitude , troop ( esp. of soldiers) RV. i , iii , x AV. iv , 7 , 5 S3Br. vi , xii

ग्राम m. the old women of a family Pa1rGr2. i , 9 , 3 Sch.

ग्राम m. ifc. (See. Pa1n2. 6-2 , 84 )a multitude , class , collection or number (in general)See. इन्द्रिय-, गुण-, भूत-, etc.

ग्राम m. a number of tones , scale , gamut Pan5cat. v , 43 Ma1rkP. xxiii , 52

ग्राम m. = इन्द्रिय-Jain.

ग्राम m. pl. inhabitants , people RV. ii , 12 , 7 ; x , 127 , 5

ग्राम n. a village R. ii , 57 , 4 Hcat. i , 7 , 721/722

ग्राम n. ([ cf. अरिष्ट-, महा-, शूर-, सं-; cf. Hib. gramaisg , " the mob " ; gramasgar , " a flock. "])

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--a village; outside the खेट; between the village and खेट is (1/2) yojana; the limits of boundary are two क्रोशस् and of क्षेत्र (fields) four धनुस्; the roads of twenty धनुस् leading to twenty directions and also roads to ग्रामस् and roads on the limits, १० धनुस्; also राजपथ; four धनुस् for branch streets; two धनुस् between the houses. Br. II. 7. ९४ and १०५; वा. 8. १००; ६२. १७१; ७८. ५७; ८७. २८; ९४. ४०; ९८. ११९; १०६. ७३-75; Vi. 2. १३; ३६. 6.
(II)--as a present to learned men, as distinct from towns at the time of पृथु. ग्राम behind the forest and the forest behind the ग्राम explained by ययाति to अष्टक; reference to ascetics and sages who, as residents of village should not use forest produce, and as residents of forests should not use village produce; deserted during the time of anarchy. ^1 Br. II. ३४. ३९; ३६. १९७; III. 7. ३०८; M. १४३. 3; २४६. ४५. ^2 M. १०. ३२; ४०. 9-१३; ४१. 2; ४७. २५७.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Grāma.--The primitive sense of this word, which occurs frequently from the Rigveda[१] onwards, appears to have been ‘village.’ The Vedic Indians must have dwelt in villages which were scattered over the country, some close together,[२] some far apart, and were connected by roads.[३] The village is regularly contrasted with the forest (araṇya), and its animals and plants with those that lived or grew wild in the woods.[४] The villages contained cattle, horses, and other domestic animals, as well as men.[५] Grain was also stored in them.[६] In the evening the cattle regularly returned thither from the forest.[७] The villages were probably open, though perhaps a fort (Pur) might on occasion be built inside.[८] Presumably they consisted of detached houses with enclosures, but no details are to be found in Vedic literature. Large villages (mahāgrāmāḥ) were known.[९]

The relation of the villagers is difficult to ascertain with precision. In several passages[१०] the word occurs with what appears to be the derivative sense of ‘body of men.’ This sense presumably started from the use of the word to denote the ‘village folk,’ as when Śaryāta Mānava is said in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[११] to have wandered about with his ‘village’ (grāmeṇa); but, as Zimmer[१२] observes, this restricted sense nowhere appears clearly in the Rigveda,[१३] where indeed the ‘folk’ (jana)[१४] of the Bharatas is in one passage[१५] called the ‘horde seeking cows’ (gavyan grāmaḥ). Zimmer[१६] tends to regard the Grāma as a clan, and as standing midway between the family and the tribe (Viś). The Grāma may, however, perhaps be regarded more correctly[१७] as an aggregate of several families, not necessarily forming a clan, but only part of a clan (Viś), as is often the case at the present day.[१८]

Vedic literature tells us very little about the social economy of the village. There is nothing to show that the community as such held land. What little evidence there is indicates that individual tenure of land was known (see Urvarā, Kṣetra), but this, in effect though not in law, presumably meant tenure by a family rather than by an individual person. The expression ‘desirous of a village’ (grāma-kāma), which occurs frequently in the later Saṃhitās,[१९] points, however, to the practice of the king's granting to his favourites his royal prerogatives over villages so far as fiscal matters were concerned. Later[२०] the idea developed that the king was owner of all the land, and parallel with that idea the view that the holders of such grants were landlords. But of either idea there is no vestige in Vedic literature beyond the word grāma-kāma, which much more probably refers to the grant of regalia than to the grant of land, as Teutonic parallels show.[२१] Such grants probably tended to depress the position of the actual cultivators, and to turn them into tenants, but they can hardly have had this effect to any appreciable extent in early times.

The village does not appear to have been a unit for legal purposes in early days,[२२] and it can hardly be said to have been a political unit. The village no doubt, as later, included in its members various menials, besides the cultivating owners, and also the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas who might hold interest in it by royal grant or usage without actually cultivating land, such as chariot-makers (Ratha-kāra), carpenters (Takṣan), smiths (Karmāra), and others, but they did not presumably, in any sense, form part of the brotherhood.[२३] All alike were politically subject to the king, and bound to render him food or service or other tribute, unless he had transferred his rights to others of the royal family or household, as was no doubt often the case, either in whole or part. The king's share in a village is referred to as early as the Atharvaveda.[२४]

At the head of the village was the Grāma-ṇī, or ‘leader of the village,’ who is referred to in the Rigveda,[२५] and often in the later Saṃhitās and in the Brāhmaṇas.[२६] The exact meaning of the title is not certain. By Zimmer[२७] the Grāmaṇī is regarded as having had military functions only, and he is certainly often connected with the Senānī, or ‘leader of an army.’ But there is no reason so to restrict the sense: presumably the Grāmaṇī was the head of the village both for civil purposes and for military operations. He is ranked in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[२८] as inferior to the Sūta, or ‘charioteer,’ with whom, however, he is associated[२९] as one of the Ratnins, the ‘jewels’ of the royal establishment. The post was especially valuable to a Vaiśya, who, if he attained it, was at the summit of prosperity (gataśrī).[३०] The Grāmaṇī's connexion with the royal person seems to point to his having been a nominee of the king rather than a popularly elected officer. But the post may have been sometimes hereditary, and sometimes nominated or elective: there is no decisive evidence available. The use of the singular presents difficulties: possibly the Grāmaṇī of the village or city where the royal residence was situated was specially honoured and influential.[३१]

Grāma.--The phrase Grāmin, ‘possessing a village,’ occurs often in the Taittirīya Saṃhitā (ii. 1, 3, 2; 6, 7; 2, 8, 1; 11, 1; 3, 3, 5; 9, 2), usually in connexion with various rites for acquiring a village. Since in these cases repeated mention is made of obtaining pre-eminence over Sajātas and Samānas, ‘equals,’ it is probable that allowance must also be made for the control over his fellow-villagers which an ambitious man could obtain (e.g., by loans), and which might end by giving him the position of a great landlord, even without the intervention of the king.
==Foot Notes==

  1. i. 44, 10;
    114, 1;
    ii. 12, 7 (perhaps to be taken as in n. 10);
    x. 146, 1;
    149, 4, etc.;
    Av. iv. 36, 7, 8;
    v. 17, 4;
    vi. 40, 2, etc.;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, iii. 45;
    xx. 17, etc.
  2. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 2, 4, 2;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 44.
  3. Chāndogya Upaniṣad, viii. 6, 2.
  4. Animals: Rv. x. 90, 8;
    Av. ii. 34, 4;
    iii. 10, 6;
    31, 3;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 2, 2, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, vii. 7;
    xiii. 1;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, ix. 32;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xvi. 1, 9;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 8. 4, 16, etc. Plants: Taittirīya Saṃhitā, v. 2, 5, 5;
    vii. 3, 4, 1, etc.
  5. Av. iv. 22, 2;
    viii. 7, 11, etc.
  6. Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, vi. 3, 13 (Kāṇva = 22, Mādhyaṃdina).
  7. Rv. x. 149, 4;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 1, 1.
  8. As nowadays. See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 144, citing Hügel, Kashmir, 2, 45.
  9. Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, iii. 13. 4.
  10. Rv. i. 100, 10;
    iii. 33, 11;
    x. 27, 1;
    127, 5;
    Av. iv. 7, 5;
    v. 20, 3 (where, however, ‘villages’ is quite probable);
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iv. 1, 5, 2;
    vi. 7, 4, 9;
    xii. 4, 1, 3. Cf. n. 1.
  11. iv. 1, 5, 2. 7.
  12. Altindisches Leben, 161.
  13. See passages cited in n. 10.
  14. Rv. iii. 53, 12.
  15. Rv. iii. 33, 11.
  16. Op. cit., 159, 160, where, however, his language is not very clear. Cf. Hopkins, Religions of India, 27, who points out that Zimmer is inaccurate in identifying the tribe with Viś. It is the clan, a division below that of the tribe (Jana).
  17. A village might contain a whole clan, but probably it contained at most a section of a clan. By family is meant a Hindu joint family;
    but the extent to which such families existed, and the number of persons included, cannot even be conjectured from the avail able evidence. Cf. Schrader, Prchistoric Antiquities, 393;
    Leist, Altarisches Jos Gentium, 34.
  18. Cf. Baden Powell, Village Communities in India, 85 et seq.
  19. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 1, 1, 2;
    3, 2;
    3, 9, 2;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 1, 9;
    2, 3;
    iv. 2, 7, etc.;
    Hopkins, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 32, thinks that grāma here means ‘herd’ (of cattle).
  20. Cf. Baden Powell, Indian Village Community, 207 et seq. Whether or not the idea is already found in Manu, ix. 34, is disputed and uncertain. See Rājan. The germ of it lies in a different sphere--the right of the Kṣatriya, with the consent of the clan, to apportion land (Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, vii. 1, 1, 8).
  21. Cf. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2, 237 et seq.;
    Baden Powell, Village Communities in India, 83;
    Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 48. It may be mentioned that we have no Vedic evidence as to the non-sale of land by the members of a family, except the indications mentioned under Urvarā. The later evidence is overwhelming for grāma, meaning ‘village.’

    Cf. Chāndogya Upaniṣad, iv. 2, 4;
    Śāṅkhāyana Gṛhya Sūtra, i. 14;
    Kauśika Sūtra, 94.
  22. Cf. Foy, Die ko7nigliche Gewalt, 20, n.;
    Jolly, Recht und Sitte, 93;
    Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 78, 128.
  23. Cf. Baden Powell, Indian Village Community, 17, 18.
  24. iv. 22, 2. Cf. n. 20.
  25. x. 62, 11;
    107, 5.
  26. Av. iii. 5, 7;
    xix. 31, 12;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 5, 4, 4;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 6, 5 (grāma-ṇīthya, ‘the rank of Grāmaṇī’: cf. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 4, 5, 2);
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, viii. 4;
    x. 3;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xv. 15;
    xxx. 20;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, i. 1, 4, 8;
    7, 3, 4;
    ii. 7, 18, 4;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 4, 1, 7;
    v. 4, 4, 8;
    viii. 6, 2, 1 (grāmaṇīthya);
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, iv. 3, 37. 38, etc.
  27. Altindisches Leben, 171.
  28. v. 4, 4, 18.
  29. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 3, 1, 5.
  30. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 5, 4, 4;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 6, 5. Cf. Weber, Indische Studien, 10, 20, n. 2.
  31. Presumably, there must have been many Grāmaṇīs in a kingdom, but the texts seem to contemplate only one as in the royal entourage. Cf. also Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 41, 60, n.;
    Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 96;
    Rhys Davids, op. cit., 48, thinks that he was elected by the village council or a hereditary officer, because the appointment is only claimed for the king in late authorities like Manu, vii. 115. But there is not even so much authority for election or heredity, and we really cannot say how far the power of the early princes extended: it probably varied very much. Cf. Rājan and Citraratha.
"https://sa.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=ग्राम&oldid=473379" इत्यस्माद् पुनः प्राप्तिः