घनो मेघे मूर्तिगुणे त्रिषु मूर्ते निरन्तरे॥ इनः सूर्ये प्रभौ राजा मृगाङ्के क्षत्रिये नृपे॥
अवयव : चन्द्रस्य_षोडशांशः,खण्डमात्रम्,समाम्शः,ज्योत्स्ना,चिह्नम्
वैशिष्ट्यवत् : ज्योत्स्ना,नैर्मल्यम्
पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, तेजः, ग्रहः
घनो मेघे मूर्तिगुणे त्रिषु मूर्ते निरन्तरे॥ इनः सूर्ये प्रभौ राजा मृगाङ्के क्षत्रिये नृपे॥
पत्नी : क्षत्रियपत्नी
पदार्थ-विभागः : समूहः, द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्यः
घनो मेघे मूर्तिगुणे त्रिषु मूर्ते निरन्तरे॥ इनः सूर्ये प्रभौ राजा मृगाङ्के क्षत्रिये नृपे॥
पत्नी : बद्धपट्टा_राज्ञी,राज्ञी,पट्टमहिषी,राजभार्या
स्वामी : चक्रवर्ती
सम्बन्धि2 : राज्ञः_रक्षिगणम्,सेवकः,चामरम्,राजासनम्,छत्रम्
वैशिष्ट्यवत् : राज्यगुणः,राजशक्तिः,राज्ञां_छत्रचामरादिव्यापारः,चामरम्,राजासनम्,छत्रम्,नृपच्छत्रम्
जन्य : राजपुत्री,राज्ञः_बाला
सेवक : राजगृहम्,राजगृहसामान्यम्,राज्ञां_स्त्रीगृहम्,मन्त्री,धर्माध्यक्षः,न्यायाधीशः,द्वारपालकः,राज्ञः_रक्षिगणम्,अधिकारी,एकग्रामाधिकारी,बहुग्रामाधिकृतः,सुवर्णाधिकृतः,रूप्याधिकृतः,अन्तःपुराधिकृतः,अन्तःपुरस्य_रक्षाधिकारी,अन्तःपुरचारिणनपुंसकाः,सेवकः,चारपुरुषः,ज्यौतिषिकः,लेखकः,दूतः,राज्याङ्गाः,चामरम्,राजासनम्,सुवर्णकृतराजासनम्,छत्रम्,हस्तिपकः,सारथिः,रथारूढयोद्धा,योद्धा,सेनारक्षकः,सहस्रभटनेता,सेनानियन्तः,सैन्याधिपतिः,राजादिस्तुतिपाठकः
: सम्राट्, स्वदेशाव्यवहितदेशराजा, शत्रुराज्याव्यवहितराजा, शत्रुमित्राभ्यां_परतरः_राजा, पृष्ठतो_वर्तमानः_राजा
पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, पृथ्वी, चलसजीवः, मनुष्यः
राजन्¦ पु॰ राज--कनिन् रञ्जयति रन्ज--कनिन् नि॰ वा।
“राजा प्रकृतिरञ्जनात्” रघुः।
६ इन्द्रे, च मेदि॰। उत्तरस्थपदः पूर्व-पदस्थश्च सममिव्याहृतपदार्थश्रेष्ठवाचकः। यथा राजमाषःमुनिराज इत्यादि।
७ पृथुनृपे च।
“पित्रा न रञ्जि-तास्तस्य प्रजास्तेनानुरञ्जिताः। अनुरागात्ततस्तस्य नामराजेत्यभाषत” विष्णुपु॰।
राजन्¦ m. (-जा)
1. A king, a prince, a sovereign.
2. A soldier by birth, a man of the regal and military tribe.
3. A master.
4. The moon.
5. A Yaksha.
7. (In com.) Royal, denoting eminence or excellence. f. (-ज्ञी)
1. A queen, the wife of a king.
2. The wife of the sun.
3. Deep coloured brass, consisting of three parts of copper to one of zinc or tin. E. राज् to shine, Una4di aff. कनिन् |
राजन् [rājan], m. [राज्-कनिन् रञ्जयति रञ्ज्-कनिन् नि ˚ वा Uṇ.1.145] A king, ruler, prince, chief (changed to राजः at the end of Tat. comp.); वङ्गराजः, महाराजः &c.; तथैव सो$भूदन्वर्थो राजा प्रकृतिरञ्जनात् R.4.12; पित्रा न रञ्जितास्तस्य प्रजास्तेनानु- रञ्जिताः । अनुरागात्ततस्तस्य नाम राजेत्यभाषत ॥ V. P.
A man of the military casts; a Kṣatriya; Śi 14.14.
N. of Yudhiṣṭhira.
N. of Indra.
The moon; राजप्रियाः कैरविण्यो रमन्ते मधुपैःसह Bv.1.126.
N. of Pṛithu.
A Yakṣa; तं राजराजानु- चरो$स्य साक्षात् Ki.3.3.
The Soma plant; ऐन्द्रश्च विधिवद्दत्तो राजा चाभिषुतो$नघः Rām.1.14.6; Bṛi. Up.1.3. 24. -Comp. -अग्निः wrath of a king. -अङ्गनम् a royal court, the court-yard of a palace.
अदनः the Piyāla tree.
The seed of the tree Chirongia Sapida; राजादनं कन्दरालम् Śiva B.3.15.
अधिकारिन्, अधिकृतः a government officer or official.
a judge. -अधिराजः, -इन्द्रः a king of kings, a supreme king, paramount sovereign, an emperor. -अधिष्ठानम् the capital of a king, metropolis. -अध्वन् m. a principal or royal road, main street, highway.
अनकः an inferior king, a petty prince.
a title of respect formerly given to distinguished scholars and poets.
अन्नम् rice grown in Āndhra.
food obtained from a king; राजान्नं तेज आदत्ते Ms.4.218.-अपसदः an unworthy or degraded king. -अभिषेकः coronation of a king. -अम्लः a kind of vegetable plant; Rumex Vesicarius (Mar. चुका). -अर्कः Calotropis Gigantea (मन्दार; Mar. रुई).
अर्हम् aloewood, a species of sandal.
a kind of rice (राजान्न). -अर्हणम् a royal gift of honour. -अहिः a large snake (having two mouths). -आज्ञा a king's edict, an ordinance, a royal decree. -आभरणम् a king's ornament. -आम्रः a superior kind of mango. -आवर्तः a diamond of an inferior quality.
a diamond from Virāṭa country.-आवलिः, -ली a royal dynasty or genealogy. -आसनम् a throne. -आसन्दी Ved. a stand on which the Soma is placed. -इन्दुः an excellent king; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुरिन्दुः क्षीरनिधाविव R.1.12. -इष्टः a kind of onion. (-ष्टम्) = राजान्न q. v. -उपकरणम् (pl.) the paraphernalia of a king, the insignia of royalty. -उपसेवा royal service; Ms.3.64. -ऋषिः (राजऋषिः or राजर्षिः) a royal sage, a saint-like prince, a man of the Kṣatriya caste who, by his pious life and austere devotion, comes to be regarded as a sage or riṣi; e. g. पुरूरवस्, जनक, विश्वामित्र.-कन्या, -कन्यका a princess. -करः a tax or tribute paid to the king. -करणम् a law-court. -कर्णः an elephant's tusk. -कर्तृ m. a person who assists at a coronation; समेत्य राजकर्तारः सभामीयुर्द्विजातयः Rām.2.67.2.-कर्मन् n.
the duty of a king.
royal service; cf. Ms.7.125. -कला a crescent of the moon (the 16th part of the moon's disc). -कलिः a bad king; cf. अशरण्यः प्रजानां यः स राजा कलिरुच्यते Mb.12.12.29.
कार्यम्, कृत्यम् state-affairs.
royal command.-कुमारः a prince.
कुलम् a royal family, a king's family; अग्निरापः स्त्रियो मूर्खः सर्पो राजकुलानि च H.; नदीनां शस्त्रपाणीनां नखिनां शृङ्गिणां तथा । विश्वासो नैव कर्तव्यः स्त्रीषु राजकुलेषु च ॥ ibid.
the court of a king; आ दास्याः पुत्रि राजकुलंल्येतत् Nāg.3.12/13.
a court of justice; (राजकुले कथ् or निविद् caus. means 'to sue one in a court of law, lodge a complaint against).
a royal palace.
a king, master (as a respectful mode of speaking).
a royal servant; बध्नन्ति घ्नन्ति लुम्पन्ति दृप्तं राजकुलानि वै Bhāg. 1.41.36. -कोशनिघण्टुः also -व्यवहारकोशः N. of a dictionary in Shivaji's time compiled by his minister Raghunātha Paṇḍita. -क्षवकः a kind of mustard.
गामिन् a. escheating to the sovereign (as the property of a person having no heir).
brought before the king (as slander); Ms.11.55. -गिरिः N. of a mountain in Magadha. -गुरुः a royal counsellor. -गुह्यम् a royal mystery; राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् Bg.9.2.
गृहम् a royal dwelling, royal palace.
N. of a chief city in Magadha (about 75 or 8 miles from Pāṭaliputra). -ग्रीवः a kind of fish. -घ a. sharp, hot. (-घः) a king-killer, regicide.
चिह्नम् insignia of royalty, regalia.
the stamp on a coin. -चिह्नकम् the organ of generation (उपस्थ). -जक्ष्मन् = राजयक्ष्मन् q. v.-तरङ्गिणी N. of a celebrated historical poem treating of the kings of Kāśmīra by Kalhaṇa. -तरुः the कर्णि- कार tree, -तालः, ताली the betel-nut tree; राजतालीवनध्वनिः R.
दण्डः a king's sceptre.
punishment inflicted by a king.
fine payable to a king. -दन्तः (for दन्तानां राजा) the front tooth; राजौ द्विजानामिह राजदन्ताः N.7.46; 'राजन्ते सुतनोर्मनोरमतमास्ते राज- दन्ताः पुरः' (शृङ्गारधनदशतकम् 67). -दूतः a king's ambassador, an envoy. -दृशद् f. the larger or lower millstone. -देयम्, -भागम् the royal claim, tax; न वृत्त्या परितुष्यन्ति राजदेयं हरन्ति च Mb.12.56.59.
दौवारिकः 1 = राजद्वारिकः q. v.
a royal messenger; Hch.4. -द्रोहः high treason, sedition, rebellion. -द्रोहिन् m. a traitor.-द्वार् f., -द्वारम् the gate of royal palace; राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः Subhāṣ. -द्वारिकः a royal porter.
धर्मः a king's duty.
a law or rule relating to kings (oft. in pl.). -धानम्, -धानकम्, -धानिका, -धानी the king's residence, the capital, metropolis, the seat of government; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं (प्रस्थापयामास) R.2.7. -धान्यम् Panicum Frumentaceum (Mar. सांवा).-धामन् n. a royal palace. -धुर् f., -धुरा the burden or responsibility of government. -नयः, -नीतिः f. administration of a state, administration of government, politics, statesmanship. -नामन् m. Trichosanthes Dioeca (Mar. पडवळ). -नारायणः (in music) a kind of measure. -निघण्टुः N. of a dictionary of Materia Medica. -नीलम् an emerald.
पट्टः a diamond of inferior quality.
a royal fillet. -पट्टिका f. the Chātaka bird.-पदम् royalty, sovereignty. -पथः, -पद्धतिः f. = राजमार्ग q. v. -पिण्डः the maintenance given by a king; अवश्यं राजपिण्डस्तैर्निवेश्य इति मे मतिः Mb.3.36.16. -पिण्डा a species of date. -पुंस् m. a royal servant.
पुत्रः a prince.
a Kṣatriya, a man of the military tribe.
the planet Mercury.
N. of a mixed caste.
A kind of mango.
पुत्रिका a kind of bird.
पुत्री a princess.
a female of the Rajpoota tribe.
N. of several plants: जाती, मालती, कटुतुम्बी &c.
a kind of perfume (रेणुका).
a musk rat.
a kind of metal; also राजपत्नी. -पुरम् a royal city.
पुरुषः a king's servant.
a minister. -पुष्पः the नागकेसर tree.-पूगः a kind of Areca-nut palm; Bhāg.4.6.17.-पौरुषिकः a royal servant; Mb.13.126.24. -प्रकृतिः a king's minister. -प्रसादः royal favour. -प्रेष्यः a king's servant. (-ष्यम्) royal service (more correctly राजप्रैष्य).-फणिञ्झकः an orange tree. -वदरम् salt. -बीजिन्, -वंश्य a. a scion of royalty, of royal descent. -भट्टिका a species of water-fowl. -भृतः a king's soldier.
भृत्यः a royal servant or minister.
any public or government officer. -भोगः a king's meal, royal repast.-भोग्यम् nutmeg. -भौतः a king's fool or jester. -मणिः a royal gem. -मन्त्रधरः, -मन्त्रिन् m. a king's counsellor.-महिषी the chief queen.
मार्गः a highway, high road, a royal or main road, principal street.
the way, method or procedure of kings. -मार्तण्डः, -मृगाङ्कः (in music) a kind of measure. -माषः a kind of bean. -मुद्रा the royal seal. -यक्ष्मः, -यक्ष्मन् m. 'consumption of the moon', pulmonary consumption, consumption in general; राजयक्ष्मपरिहानिराययौ कामयानसमवस्थया तुलाम् R.19.5; राजयक्ष्मेव रोगाणां समूहः स महीभृताम् Śi.2.96; (for explanation of the word see Malli. thereon, as well as on Śi. 13.29). -यानम् a royal vehicle, a palanouin. -युध्वन्m.
a king's soldier.
one who fights with a king; P.III.2.95.
योगः a configuration of planets, asterisms &c. at the birth of a man which indicates that he is destined to be a king.
an easy mode of religious meditation (fit for kings to practise), as distinguished form the more rigorous one called हठयोग q. v. -रङ्गम् silver. -राक्षसः a bad king. -राज् m.
a supreme king.
राजः a supreme king, sovereign lord, an emperor.
N. of Kubera; अन्तर्बाष्प- श्चिरमनुचरो राजराजस्य दध्यौ Me.3.
the moon. -राज्यम् the state or dignity of Kubera; स्वर्लोके राजराज्येन सो$भि- षिच्येत भार्गव Mb.13.85.53. -रीतिः f. bell-metal.
लक्षणम् any mark on a man's body indicating future royalty. royal insignia, regalia. -लक्ष्मन् n. royal insignia. (-m.) N. of Yudhiṣṭhira. -लक्ष्मीः, -श्रीः f. the fortune or prosperity of a king (personified as a goddess), the glory or majesty of a king; स न्यस्तचिह्नामपि राजलक्ष्मीम् R.2.7.-लिङ्गम् a kingly mark. -लेखः a royal edict. -लोकःa. collection of princes or kings. -वंशः a dynasty of kings. -वंशावली genealogy of kings, royal pedigree.-वर्चसम् kingly rank or dignity. -वर्तः cloth of various colours.
वल्लभः a king's favourite.
a kind of mango.
a kind of Jujube.
वसतिः dwelling in a king's court.
a royal palace. -वाहः a horse. -वाह्यः a royal elephant. -विः the bluy jay. -विजयः (in music) a kind of Rāga. -विद्या 'royal policy', kingcraft, state-policy, statesmanship; Bg.9.2; (cf. राजनय); so -राजशास्त्रम्; वीराश्च नियतोत्साहा राजशास्त्रमनुष्ठिताः Rām.1. 7.12. -विहारः a royal convent. -वृक्षः the tree Cassia Fistula; गुच्छैः कृतच्छविरराजत राजवृक्षः Rām. Ch.5.9.-वृत्तम् the conduct or occupation of a king; (कच्चित्) प्रजाः पालयसे राजन् राजवृत्तेन धार्मिक Rām.1.52.7. -वृत्तिः the works of a king; प्रत्यक्षाप्रत्यक्षानुमेया हि राजवृत्तिः Kau. A.1.9. -शफरः a Hilsā fish; L. D. B. -शासनम् a royal edict; दिवा चरेयुः कार्यार्थं चिह्निता राजशासनैः Ms.1.55.-शृङ्गम् a royal umbrella with a golden handle. -शेखरः N. of a poet. -संसद् f., -सभा f. a court of justice.-सदनम् a palace. -सर्पः a kind of snake-devouring snake. -सर्षपः black mustard (the seed used as a weight; त्रसरेणवो$ष्टौ विज्ञेया लिक्षैका परिमाणतः । ता राजसर्षपस्तिस्रस्ते त्रयो गौरसर्षपः ॥ Ms.8.133). -सायुज्यम् sovereignty. -सारसः a peacock.
सूयः, यम् a great sacrifice performed by a universal monarch (in which the tributary princes also took part) at the time of his coronation as a mark of his undisputed sovereignty; राजा वै राजसूयेनेष्ट्वा भवति Śat Br.; cf. सम्राट् also; राजा तत्र सूयते तस्माद् राजसूयः । राज्ञो वा यज्ञो राजसूयः ŚB. on MS.4.4.1.
a mountain. - सौधः a king's palace. -स्कन्धः a horse.-स्थानाधिकारः Viceroyalty. -स्थानीयः a viceroy, governor.
स्वम् royal property; राजस्वं श्रोत्रियस्वं च न भोगेन प्रणश्यति Ms.8.149.
tribute, revenue. -स्वर्णः a kind of thorn-apple. -स्वामिन् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -हंसः a flamingo (a sort of white goose with red legs and bill); संपत्स्यन्ते नभसि भवतो राजहंसाः सहायाः Me.11; कूजितं राजहंसानां नेदं नूपुरशिञ्जितम् V. -हत्या regicide. -हस्तिन् m. a royal elephant, i. e. a lordly and handsome elephant.-हासकः a kind of fish; L. D. B.
राजन् m. ( ifc. mostly m( -राज) , esp. in तत्-पुरुषs ; f( -राजन्, जाor ज्ञी). ; See. Pa1n2. 4-1 , 28 Sch. )a king , sovereign , prince , chief (often applied to gods e.g. to वरुणand the other आदित्यs , to इन्द्र, यमetc. , but esp. to सोम[also the plant and juice] and the Moon) RV. etc.
राजन् m. a man of the royal tribe or the military caste , a क्षत्रियA1s3vS3r. ChUp. Mn. etc. (See. राजन्य)
राजन् m. a यक्षL.
राजन् m. N. of one of the 18 attendants on सूर्य(identified with a form of गुह) L.
राजन् m. of युधि-ष्ठिरMBh. ( राज्ञाम् इन्द्र-महो-त्सवःand -राज्ञाम्प्रतिबोधःN. of works.)Page875,1 ; ( राज्ञी) f. See. s.v. ([ cf. Lat. rex ; Kelt. ri7g , fr. which Old Germ. ri7k ; Goth. reiks ; Angl.Sax. ri7ce ; Eng. rich.])
राजन् (only in loc. राजनि)government , guidance RV. x , 49 , 4.
--ety. दण्डधारिन्; crimes escaping his notice are dealt with by Yama. In Kali the king is mostly of the fourth caste and takes the profession of robbery rather than protection. Earth loses its fertility. The wealth and wives of others are coveted; म्लेच्छस् are patronised. Duties-- salutation to cows and Brahmanas, sandhya worship and gifts to the deserving; not to deprive forcibly a Brahmana of his property; फलकम्:F1: Br. II. २९. ६३-64; ३१. ४१-156; ३६. १५६; III. २८. १०-74.फलकम्:/F renowned kings get the title of राजऋषि, gene- rally of the family of Manu, Aila, इक्ष्वाकु. फलकम्:F2: Ib. II. ३५. ९०, ९६-102; III. ७१. १९४.फलकम्:/F
Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]
1. Rājan, ‘king,’ is a term repeatedly occurring in the Rigveda and the later literature. It is quite clear that the normal, though not universal form of government, in early India was that by kings, as might be expected in view of the fact that the Āryan Indians were invaders in a hostile territory: a situation which, as in the case of the Āryan invaders of Greece and of the German invaders of England, resulted almost necessarily in strengthening the monarchic element of the constitution. The mere patriarchal organization of society is not sufficient, as Zimmer assumes, to explain the Vedic kingship.
Tenure of Monarchy.--Zimmer is of opinion that while the Vedic monarchy was sometimes hereditary, as is indeed shown by several cases where the descent can be traced, yet in others the monarchy was elective, though it is not clear whether the selection by the people was between the members of the royal family only or extended to members of all the noble clans. It must, however, be admitted that the evidence for the elective monarchy is not strong. As Geldner argues, all the passages cited can be regarded not as choice by the cantons (Viś), but as acceptance by the subjects (viś): this seems the more probable sense. Of course this is no proof that the monarchy was not sometimes elective: the practice of selecting one member of the family to the exclusion of another less well qualified is exemplified by the legend in Yāska of the Kuru brothers, Devāpi and Śantanu, the value of which, as evidence of contemporary views, is not seriously affected by the legend itself being of dubious character and validity.
Royal power was clearly insecure: there are several references to kings being expelled from their realms, and their efforts to recover their sovereignty, and the Atharvaveda contains spells in the interest of royalty.
The King in War.--Naturally the Vedic texts, after the Rigveda, contain few notices of the warlike adventures that no doubt formed a very considerable proportion of the royal functions. But the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa contains the statement that the Kuru-Pañcāla kings, who, like the Brahmins of those tribes, stand as representatives of good form, used to make their raids in the dewy season. The word Udāja, too, with its variant Nirāja, records that kings took a share of the booty of war. The Rigveda has many references to Vedic wars: it is clear that the Kṣatriyas were at least as intent on fulfilling their duty of war as the Brahmins on sacrificing and their other functions. Moreover, beside offensive war, defence was a chief duty of the king: he is emphatically the ‘protector of the tribe’ (gopā janasya), or, as is said in the Rājasūya (‘royal consecration’), ‘protector of the Brahmin.’ His Purohita was expected to use his spells and charms to secure the success of his king's arms. The king no doubt fought in person: so Pratardana met death in war according to the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad; and in the Rājasūya the king is invoked as ‘sacker of cities’ (purāṃ bhettā).
The King in Peace.--In return for his warlike services the king received the obedience --sometimes forced --of the people, and in particular their contributions for the maintenance of royalty. The king is regularly regarded as ‘devouring the people,’ but this phrase must not be explained as meaning that he necessarily oppressed them. It obviously has its origin in a custom by which the king and his retinue were fed by the people's contributions, a plan with many parallels. It is also probable that the king could assign the royal right of maintenance to a Kṣatriya, thus developing a nobility supported by the people. Taxation would not normally fall on Kṣatriya or Brahmin; the texts contam emphatic assertions of the exemption of the goods of the latter from the royal bounty.In the people, however, lay the strength of the king. See also Bali.
In return the king performed the duties of judge. Himself immune from punishment (a-daṇḍya), he wields the rod of punishment (Daṇḍa). It is probable that criminal justice remained largely in his actual administration, for the Sūtras preserve clear traces of the personal exercise of royal criminal jurisdiction. Possibly the jurisdiction could be exercised by a royal officer, or even by a delegate, for a Rājanya is mentioned as an overseer (adhyakṣa) of the punishment of a Śūdra in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā. In civil justice it may be that the king played a much less prominent part, save as a court of final appeal, but evidence is lacking on this head. The Madhyamaśī of the Rigveda was probably not a royal, but a private judge or arbitrator. A wide criminal jurisdiction is, however, to some extent supported by the frequent mention of Varuṇa's spies, for Varuṇa is the divine counterpart of the human king. Possibly such spies could be used in war also.
There is no reference in early Vedic literature to the exercise of legislative activitv by the king, though later it is an essential part of his duties. Nor can we say exactly what executive functions devolved on the king.
In all his acts the king was regularly advised by his Purohita; he also had the advantage of the advice of the royal ministers and attendants (see Ratnin). The local administration was entrusted to the Grāmaṇī, or village chief, who may have been selected or appointed by the king. The outward signs of the king's rank were his palace and his brilliant dress.
The King as Landowner.--The position of the king with regard to the land is somewhat obscure. The Greek notices, in which, unhappily, it would be dangerous to put much trust, since they were collected by observers who were probably little used to accurate investigations of such matters, and whose statements were based on inadequate information, vary in their statements. In part they speak of rent being paid, and declare that only the king and no private person could own land, while in part they refer to the taxation of land. Hopkins is strongly of opinion that the payments made were paid for protection-i.e., in modern terminology as a tax, but that the king was recognized as the owner of all the land, while yet the individual or the joint family also owned the land. As against BadenPowell, who asserted that the idea of the king as a landowner was later, he urges for the Vedic period that the king, as we have seen, is described as devouring the people, and that, according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Vaiśya can be devoured at will and maltreated (but, unlike the Śūdra, not killed); and for the period of the legal Sūtras and Śāstras he cites Bṛhaspati and Nārada as clearly recognizing the king's overlordship, besides a passage of the Mānava Dharma Śāstra which describes the king as ‘lord of all,’ a phrase which Bühler was inclined to interpret as a proof of landowning. The evidence is, however, inadequate to prove what is sought. It is not denied that gradually the king came to be vaguely conceived--as the English king still is--as lord of all the land in a proprietorial sense, but it is far more probable that such an idea was only a gradual development than that it was primitive. The power of devouring the people is a political power, not a right of ownership; precisely the same feature can be traced in South Africa, where the chief can deprive a man arbitrarily of his land, though the land is really owned by the native. The matter is ultimately to some extent one of terminology, but the parallel cases are in favour of distinguishing between the political rights of the crown, which can be transferred by way of a grant, and the rights of ownership. Hopkins thinks that the gifts of land to priests, which seems to be the first sign of land transactions in the Brāhmaṇas, was an actual gift of land; it may have been so in many cases, but it may easily also have been the grant of a superiority: the Epic grants are hardly decisive one way or the other.
For the relations of the king with the assembly, see Sabhā; for his consecration, see Rājasūya. A-rāja-tā, ‘lack of a king,’ means ‘anarchy.’
2. Rājan in several passages-means no more than a ‘noble of the ruling house,’ or perhaps even merely a ‘noble,’ there being(** 1 Cf. Rv. i. 40, 8; 108, 7; x. 42, 10; 97, 6; Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iv. 6, 8, 3; v. 7, 6, 4; Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xl. 13; Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xviii. 48; xxvi. 2; Av. xix. 62, 1, and possibly ii. 6, 4, etc.; Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 236, 237. Possibly rājñaḥ in Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, i. 4, 5, may be taken in this sense. The king there is said to be a non-Āryan, but the reading is corrupt, and Oertel's conjecture is not probable. Cf. Rājya, n. 2. no decisive passage. Zimmer sees traces in one passage of the Rigveda that in times of peace there was no king in some states, the members of the royal family holding equal rights. He compares this with the state of affairs in early Germany. But the passage merely shows that the nobles could be called Rājan, and is not decisive for the sense ascribed to it by Zimmer. Of course this state of affairs is perfectly possible, and is exemplified later in Buddhist times.
- iii. 43, 5;
v. 54, 7, etc.
- Av. iv. 22, 3. 5;
viii. 7, 16, etc.
- Cf. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, 59 et seq.
- Altindisches Leben, 162.
- Op. cit., 162 et seq. So Weber, Indische Studien, 17, 188;
Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 336.
- E.g., Vadhryaśva, Divodāsa, Pijavana, Sudās;
or Purukutsa, Trasadasyu, Mitrātithi, Kuruśravaṇa Upamaśravas, etc.;
Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, 386. So a ‘kingdom of ten generations’ (Daśapuruṣaṃrājya) is mentioned in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xii. 9, 3, 3;
and cf. v. 4, 2, 8;
Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, viii. 12. 17.
- Vedische Studien, 2, 303.
- Rv. x. 124, 8;
Av. i. 9;
- Nirukta, ii. 10.
- The technical term is apa-ruddha. Cf. Av. iii. 3, 4;
Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxviii. 1;
Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 3, 1;
Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 2, 1;
Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xii. 12, 6;
Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xii. 9, 3, 3, etc.;
Kauśika Sūtra, xvi. 30;
Caland, Altindisches Zauberritual, 37 et seq.
- Especially iii. 3. Cf. Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, 111 et seq.
- i. 8, 4, 1.
- E.g., the Dāśarājña, Rv. vii. 18. 33, 83, and cf. Rv. iii. 33, 53.
- Rv. iii. 43, 5. References to attacks on aborigines are common in the Rigveda--e.g., ii. 12, 11;
iv. 26, 3;
vi. 26, 5;
33, 4, etc. For later references to war, cf. Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, ix. 17;
Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vi. 4, 8, 3;
Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, v. 5;
Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ii. 6, 4, 2 et seq.;
and Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 187, 215. In the Rājasūya the protection of the Brahmin is compensated with the ‘eating’ of the Viś, the latter interesting the king more than the older duty of protection. See Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, viii. 12. 17.
- iii. 1.
- See, e.g., Janaka's offer of the Videhas as slaves to Yājñavalkya, Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, iv. 4, 30, and see ibid., ii. 1, 20;
Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 6, 10, etc.;
Rv. i. 67, 1;
iv. 50, 8.
- Rv. ix. 7, 5. Cf. vii. 6, 5, etc.;
Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 7, 18, 2.
- See Bali, and cf. Rv. i. 65, 4;
Av. iv. 22, 7;
Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 29;
viii. 12. 17;
Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, iv. 12;
Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 8, 2, 17;
iv. 2, 1, 3, 17;
v. 3, 3, 12;
4, 2, 3;
x. 6, 2, 1;
xiii. 2, 9, 6, 8, etc.;
Weber, Indische Studien, 18, 93, n.;
Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 246;
Pischel and Geldner, Vedische Stadien, 1, xvi;
Winternitz, Geschichte der indischen Litteratur, 1, 173, 174;
Keith, Aitareya Āraṇyaka, 161. It is to this form of taxation that the share of village (grāme), horses (aśveṣu), and kine (goṣu) of Av. iv. 22, 2, is to be referred. It is significant that the village and cattle are put on the same footing, as tending to refute the argument that the king was supreme landowner. See n. 31 below. For the rate of taxation, which later was one sixth, cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 85, 86;
India, Old and New, 238 et seq.;
Mrs. Rhys Davids, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1901, 860.
- Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xiii. 6, 2, 18;
7, 1, 13. See also Brāhmaṇa (above, 2, 83) for the claim of the Brahmins to serve only king Soma, not the temporal king.
- Cf., e.g., Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 1, 8;
iii. 11, 8;
iv. 4, 3;
Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 4, 4, 11;
Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 6, 5.
- Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 4, 4, 7.
- E.g., Gautama Dharma Sūtra, xii. 43 et seq.
- xxvii. 4. Cf. Kṣatriya, n. 18.
- Cf. Rv. i. 25, 13;
iv. 4, 3;
vi. 67, 5;
vii. 61, 3;
x. 10, 8 (= Av. xviii. 1, 9);
Av. iv. 16, 4.
- See Foy, Die kōnigliche Gewalt, 80 et seq.
- Cf. Rv. viii. 47, 11;
Foy, op. cit., 84. The reference is not certain.
- See Foy, op. cit., chap. iii.
- Cf. Varuṇa's palace, Rv. ii. 41, 5;
vii. 88, 5. The throne, Āsandī, is used to form the name of Janamejaya's royal city, Asandīvant. Cf. also Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 4, 4, 1 et seq.;
Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, viii. 12, 3-5.
- See, e.g., Rv. i. 85, 8;
viii. 5, 38;
x. 78, 1, etc. So the king is the great lord of riches (dhana-patir dhanānām), Av. iv. 22, 3, and in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vii. 31, he is likened to the Nyagrodha tree.
- See Diodorus, ii. 40;
Arrian, Indica, 11;
Strabo, p. 703, and Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 87 et seq.
- India, Old and New, 221 et seq.
- Village Communities in India, 145;
Indian Village Community, 207 et seq.
- vii. 29, 3.
- viii. 39.
- In his note on Manu, loc. cit., Sacred Books of the East, 25, 259.
- See Keith, Journal of the African Society, 6, 202 et seq. The evidence, so far as it goes, of other Āryan peoples does not support the theory of original kingly ownership. Such ownership did not exist, as far as can be seen, in Anglo-Saxon times (English Historical Review, viii. 1-7). nor in Homeric Greece (Lang, Homer and His Age, 236 et seq.), nor at Rome.
- Loc. cit.
- Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, i. 5, 9, 1;
Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, i. 14, 6;
Lévi, La Doctrine du Sacrifice, 74.
Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 162 et seq.;
Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 84 et seq.;
Foy, Die ko7nigliche Gewalt nach den Dharmasūtren (Leipzig, 1895);
Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 46 et seq.;
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1901, 860, 861.
- Altindisches Leben, 176, 177.
- x. 97, 6. He also compares Av. i. 9;
iv. 22, where the king is referred to as superior to the other royal personages.
- The case of the Cherusci and Arminius' attempt to make himself king, which his relatives, the royal family, foiled (see Tacitus, Annals, ii. 88).
- Cf. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 19.