दशन्

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
Jump to navigation Jump to search


यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


दशन्¦ त्रि॰ दत्श बा॰--कनिन्। संख्याविशेषे

१ द्विगुणितपञ्चके

२ तत्संख्यान्विते च। तत्संख्यावाचकाश्च एकादिशब्देउक्ताः
“दिशा दशोक्ताः पुरुषस्य लोके सहस्रमाहुर्दशपूर्णंशतानि। दशैव मासान् विभ्रति गर्भवत्यो दशैरेकादश दाशा दशार्हाः” भा॰ व॰

१३

४ अ॰। आसमन्तादीरयन्ति उपदिशन्ति एरका उपदेष्टारः दशोप-निषदां प्राधान्येन दशत्वात् तत्प्रतिपाद्योपदेशकत्बेनतेषां दशत्वम्।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


दशन्¦ mfn. plu. (-श) Ten. E. दश् to bite, Unadi affix अन्, the nasal rejected.

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


दशन् [daśan], Num. a. (pl.) Ten; स भूमिं विश्वतो वृत्वा अत्य- तिष्ठद्दशाङ्गुलम् Rv.1.9.1. -Comp. -अङ्गुल a. ten fingers long; Ms.8.271.

(लम्) a length of 1 fingers; Rv.1.9.1.

a water-melon. -अधिपतिः a commander of ten men. Mb.12. -अर्ध a. five, (-र्धम्) five; अण्व्यो मात्रा विनाशिन्यो दशार्धानां तु याः स्मृताः Ms.1.27. (-र्धः) an epithet of Buddha.

अर्हः an epithet of Krisna or Visnu.

Buddha. -अवताराः m. (pl.) the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu; see under अवतार. -अवर a. consisting of at least ten; दशावरा वा परिषद्यं धर्मं परिकल्पयेत् Ms.12.11. -अश्वः the moon. -आननः, -आस्यः epithets of Rāvaṇā; दशाननकिरीटेभ्यस्तत्क्षणं राक्षसप्रियः R.1.75.-आमयः an epithet of Rudra. -इन्द्रियाणि The five कर्मेन्द्रियs and five ज्ञानेन्द्रियs. -ईशः a superintendent of 1 villages; Ms.7.116. -एकादशिक a. who lends 1 and receives 11 in return; i. e. who lends money at ten per cent.-कण्ठः, -कन्धरः epithets of Rāvaṇa; सप्तलोकैकवीरस्य दशकण्ठ- कुलद्विषः U.4.27. ˚अरिः, ˚जित् m., ˚रिपुः epithets of Rāma; दशकण्ठारिगुरुं विदुर्बुधाः R.8.29. -कर्मन् n. the ten ceremonies prescribed to the three twice-born classes. -कुमार- चरितम् a prose work by Dandin. -क्षीर a. mixed with 1 parts of milk. -गुण a. ten-fold, ten times larger.-गुणित a. multiplied by 1; दशगुणितमिव प्राप्तवान् वीरधर्मम B. R.9.53. -ग्रन्थाः (pl.) संहिता, ब्राह्मण, आरण्यक, शिक्षा, कल्प, व्याकरण, निघण्टु, छन्द and निरुक्त; hence दशग्रन्थिन् = A person who has learnt by heart all these ten books.-ग्रामपतिः, -ग्रामिकः, -ग्रामिन् m., -पः a superintendent of ten villages. -ग्रामी a collection or corporation of ten villages. -ग्रीवः = दशकण्ठ q.v. -चतुष्कम् N. of a sport; Sinhās.27. -धर्मः unfavourable condition, distress; अभ्यस्तो बहुभिर्बाणैर्दशधर्मगतेन वै Mb.7.147.2. (see com.). -पारमिताध्वरः 'possessing the ten perfections', an epithet of Buddha. -पुरम् N. of an ancient city, capital of king Rantideva; पात्रीकुर्वन्दशपुरवधूनेत्रकौतू- हलानाम् Me.49. -बन्धः a tenth part; Ms.8.17; also˚बन्धक; Y.2.76. -बलः, -भूमिगः epithets of Buddha.-बाहुः an epithet of Śiva. -भुजा, -महाविद्या N. of Durgā. -मालिकाः (pl.)

N. of a country.

the people or rulers of this country. -मास्य a.

ten months old; एवा ते गर्भ एजतु निरैतु दशमास्यः Rv.5.78.7-8.

ten months in the womb (as a child before birth). -मुखः an epithet of Rāvaṇa. ˚रिपुः an epithet of Rāma; सीतां हित्वा दशमुखरिपुर्नोपयेमे यदन्याम् R.14.87. -मूत्रकम् The urine of 1 (elephant, buffalo, camel, cow, goat, sheep, horse, donkey, man and woman). -मूलम् a tonic medicine prepared from the roots of ten plants; (Mar. सालवण, पिटवण (पृष्टिपर्णी), रिंगणी, डोरली, गोखरूं, बेल, ऐरण, टेंटू, पहाडमूळ, शिवण). -योजनम् a distance of 1 Yojanas; पादाङ्गुष्ठेन चिक्षेप संपूर्णं दशयोजनम् Rām.1.1.65; also दशयोजनी; मोहितेन्द्रियवृत्तिं तं व्यतीत्य दशयोजनीम् Ks.94.14.-रथः N. of a celebrated king of Ayodhyā, son of Aja, and father of Rāma and his three brothers. [He had three wives Kausalyā, Sumitrā, and Kaikeyī, but was for several years without issue. He was therefore recommended by Vasiṣṭha to perform a sacrifice which he successfully did with the assistance of Ṛiṣyaśṛiṅga. On the completion of this sacrifice Kausalyā bore to him Rāma, Sumitrā Laksmana and Śatrughna, and Kaikeyī Bharata. Daśaratha was extremely fond of his sons, but Rāma was his greatest favourite- 'his life, his very soul.' Thus when Kaikeyī at the instigation of Mantharā demanded the fulfilment of the two boons he had previously promised to her, the king tried to dissuade her mind from her wicked resolve by threats, and, failing these, by the most servile supplications. But Kaikeyī remained inexorable, and the poor monarch was obliged to send his beloved son into exile. He soon afterwards died of a broken heart]. Bhāg.9.1.1 ˚ललिता The fourth day of the dark fortnight of Āśvina.-रश्मिशतः the sun; दशरश्मिशतोपमद्युतिम् R.8.29. -रात्रम् a period of ten nights. (-त्रः) a particular sacrifice lasting for ten days. -रूपकम् the 1 kinds of drama. -रूपभृत्m. an epithet of Viṣṇu. -लक्षण a. relating to 1 objects; इदं भागवतं पुराणं दक्षलक्षणम् Bhāg.2.9.43. -णम् ten marks or attributes. -लक्षणकः religion; cf. धृतिः क्षमा दमो$स्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रहः । धीर्विद्या सत्यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम् ॥ Ms.7. 92. -वक्त्रः, -वदनः see दशमुख; Bk.9.137. -वर्गः the double five classes of अमात्य, राष्ट्र, दुर्ग, कोश and दण्ड; वेत्ता च दशवर्गस्य स्थानवृद्धिक्षयात्मनः Mb.12.57.18 (com. 'अमात्यराष्ट्रदुर्गाणि कोशो दण्डश्च पञ्चमः' इति प्रकृतिपञ्चकं स्वपक्षे परपक्षे चेति दशको वर्गः). -वाजिन् m. the moon. -वार्षिक a. happening after, or lasting for, ten years; Y.2.24.-विध a. of ten kinds.

शतम् a thousand; ये सहस्रम- राजन्नासन् दशशता उत Av.5.18.1.

one hundred and ten. ˚रश्मिः the sun. ˚अक्षः, ˚नयनः Indra; दशशताक्षककुब्दरि- निःसृतः Mb 7.184.47. -शती a thousand. -स (सा)- हस्रम् ten thousand.

हरा an epithet of the Ganges (taking away the 1 sins).

a festival in honour of the Ganges held on the 1th day of Jyeṣṭha.

a festival in honour of Durgā held on the tenth of Āśvina.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


दशन् pl. ( g. स्वस्र्-आदिGan2ar. 42 ) ten( nom. acc. दशRV. etc. ; instr. [ दश, x , 101 , 10 and ] दशभिस्loc. ससुRV. etc. ; both forms and शभ्यस्in Class. also oxyt. Pa1n2. 6-1 , 177ff. )

दशन् See. अ-? , ?.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

Attention yellow.png

पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Daśan, ‘ten,’ forms the basis of the numerical system of the Vedic Indians, as it does of the Āryan people generally. But it is characteristic of India[१] that there should be found at a very early period long series of names for very high numerals, whereas the Āryan knowledge did not go beyond 1,000. In the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā[२] the list is 1; 10; 100; 1,000; 10,000 (ayuta); 100,000 (niyuta); 1,000,000 (prayuta); 10,000,000 (arbuda); 100,000,000 (nyarbuda); 1,000,000,000 (samudra); 10,000,000,000 (madhya); 100,000,000,000 (anta); 1,000,000,000,000 (parārdha). In the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā[३] the list is the same, but niyuta and prayuta exchange places, and after nyarbuda a new figure (badva) intervenes, thus increasing samudra to 10,000,000,000, and so on. The Taittirīya Saṃhitā has in two places[४] exactly the same list as the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā. The Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā[५] has the list ayuta, prayuta, then ayuta again, arbuda, nyarbuda, samudra, madhya, anta, parārdha. The Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa[६] has the Vājasaneyi list up to nyarbuda inclusive, then follow nikharvaka, badva, akṣita, and apparently go = 1,000,000,000,000. The Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa[७] list replaces nikharvaka by nikharva, badva by padma, and ends with akṣitir vyomāntaḥ. The Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra[८] continues the series after nyarbuda with nikharvāda, samudra, salila, antya, ananta (= 10 billions).

But beyond ayuta[९] none of these numbers has any vitality. Badva, indeed, occurs in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa,[१०] but it cannot there have any precise numerical sense;[११] and later on the names of these high numerals are very much confused.

An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa,[१२] where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one. It begins with dvādaśa-mānaṃ hiraṇyam, ‘gold to the value of 12’ (the unit being uncertain, but probably the Kṛṣṇala),[१३] followed by ‘to the value of 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1,536, 3072,’ then dve aṣṭāviṃśati-śata-māne, which must mean 2×128×24 (the last unit being not a single māna, but a number of 24 mānas) = 6,144, then 12,288, 24,576, 49,152, 98,304, 196,608, 393, 216. With these large numbers may be compared the minute theoretical subdivision of time found in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,[१४] where a day is divided into 15 muhūrtas--1 muhūrta = 15 kṣipras, 1 kṣipra = 15 etarhis, 1 etarhi = 15 idānis, 1 idāni = 15 prāṇas. The Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra[१५] has a decimal division of the day into 15 muhūrtas-1 muhūrta = 10 nimeṣas, 1 nimeṣa = 10 dhvaṃsis.

Few fractions are mentioned in Vedic literature. Ardha, pāda, śapha, and kalā denote (1/2), (1/4), (1/8), (1/16) respectively, but only the first two are common. Tṛtīya denotes the third part.[१६] In the Rigveda[१७] Indra and Viṣṇu are said to have divided 1,000 by 3, though how they did so is uncertain. Tri-pād denotes ‘three-fourths.’[१८]

There is no clear evidence that the Indians of the Vedic period had any knowledge of numerical figures, though it is perfectly possible.[१९]

  1. Thibaut, Astronomie, Astrologie und Mathematik, 70.
  2. xvii. 2 et seq. Cf. xxii. 34;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ix. 1, 2, 16.
  3. xxxix. 6. In xvii. 10 the number badva disappears, and the list corresponds with that of the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, except for the fact that niyuta and prayuta change places.
  4. iv. 4, 11, 4;
    vii. 2, 20, 1.
  5. ii. 8, 14.
  6. xvii. 14, 2.
  7. i. 10, 28, 29. Cf. Aitareya Āraṇyaka, v. 3, 2;
    Hopkins, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 30, n. 2;
    Keith, Aitareya Āraṇyaka 293, 294.
  8. xv. 11, 7.
  9. Cf. Rv. iii. 6, 15;
    viii. 1, 5;
    2, 41, 21, 18;
    34, 15;
    46, 22;
    Av. viii. 2, 21;
    8, 7;
    x. 8, 24;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xix. 13, 6;
    xxi. 18, 3, etc. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 348, considers that it has not any definite sense in the Rigveda;
    this cannot be either proved or disproved. The Rv. has the phrase śatā sahasrāṇi several times (iv. 32, 18;
    viii. 32, 18, etc.) = 100,000;
    and ayuta may easily have been already specialized, though it may also have retained a vague sense.
  10. vii. 21. 23.
  11. Weber, Indische Streifen, 1, 96.
  12. xviii. 3. Cf. Lāṭyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, viii. 10, 1 et seq.;
    Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xxii. 9, 1-6.
  13. Cf. Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xxii. 9, 1;
    Weber, op. cit., 102, 103.
  14. xii. 3, 2, 1 et seq. Cf. also Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 10, 1, 1, where a series of names of the divisions of the muhūrta is given, apparently as alternatives, not as successive stages (idānīm, tadānīm, etarhi, kṣipram, ajiram, āśuḥ (? āśu), nimeṣaḥ, phaṇaḥ, dravan, atidravan, tvaran, tvaramāṇaḥ, āśuḥ, āśīyān, javaḥ). See Weber, op. cit., 92-94.
  15. xiv. 75 et seq. Cf. Śāṅkhāyana Araṇyaka, vii. 20.
  16. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ii. 5, 1, 4;
    v. 2, 6, 2;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, i. 1, 6, 1;
    7, 1, 2;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 8, 4, 4, etc.
  17. vi. 69, 8 = Av. vii. 44, 1 = Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 2, 11, 2;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, vi. 15;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 3, 1, 13.
  18. Rv. x. 90, 4.
  19. If aṣṭa-karṇī means in Rv. x. 62, 7, having the figure 8 marked on the ears' of cattle, then the mention of numerical signs would be certain. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 234, 235, 348. But this is doubtful. See Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, p. 309, n. 10.

    Cf. Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, p. 308;
    Weber, Indische Streifen, 1, 90-103;
    Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 349;
    Kaegi, Rigveda, n. 65;
    Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 16, 275 et seq.
"https://sa.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=दशन्&oldid=473613" इत्यस्माद् प्रतिप्राप्तम्