जन

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


जन, ई म य ङ जनौ । इति कविकल्पद्रुमः ॥ (दिवां-आत्मं-अकं-सेट् ।) ई, जातः । म, जनयति । य ङ, जायते जन्यते । जनिर्ज्जन्म । प्रादुर्भावे इति प्राञ्चः । प्रादुर्भावः स्फुटीभावः । प्राकाश्ये प्रादुराविः स्यादित्यमरः । बीजा- दङ्कुरो जायते पत्रकाण्डादिभेदेन प्रकाशते इत्यर्थः । प्रादुर्भावोऽसदुत्पत्तिरिति केचित् । घटो जायते । इति दुर्गादासः ॥

जन, म लि र जनौ । इति कविकल्पद्रुमः ॥ (ह्वां-परं-अकं-सेट् ।) म, जनयति । लि, जजन्ति । रवैदिकः । इति दुर्गादासः ॥

जनः, पुं, (जायते इति । जन + अच् ।) लोकः । (यथा, महाभारते । १ । १४९ । ९ । “अथ प्रवाते तुमुले निशि सुप्ते जने तथा । तदुपादीपयत् भीमः शेते यत्र पुरोचनः ॥”) महर्लोकादूर्द्ध्वलोकः । पामरः । इति मेदिनी । ने, ६ ॥ (असुरविशेषः । जनार्द्दन इति शब्द- दर्शनात् ॥)

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


जन¦ जनने जुहो॰ पर॰ अक॰ सेट् घटा॰। जजन्ति। अजनीत् अजानीत् घटा॰। जनयति जनितःवि--अति परस्परजनने आत्म॰। व्यतिजजन्ते। सार्वधातु-कसधोरिट् व्यतिजज्ञिपे व्यतिजज्ञिध्वे

जन¦ जनने दि॰ आ॰ अक॰ सेट् जायते अजनि अजनिष्ट। जजान जज्ञतुः ईदित्। जातः। घटा॰। जनयति। उभयोरपि उपसर्गात् परयोस्तत्तदुपसर्गद्योत्यार्थयुक्त-जनने तत्र। अति--अतिक्रम्य जनने सक॰। अधि + आधिक्येन जनने। आधिपत्येन जनने च
“तेजसएव तदध्यापोजायन्ते।
“व्राह्मणोजायमानोऽपि पृथि-व्यामधिजायते” मनुः। अनु + पश्चाज्जनने अक॰।
“पुत्रिकायां कृतायां च यदिपुत्रोऽनुजायते” मनुः। पश्चादुत्पत्त्या सादृश्य करणेसक॰।
“असौ कुमारस्तमतोऽनुजातस्त्रिविष्टपस्येवपतिं जयन्तः” रघु॰। सम् + अनु + सम्यगनुजनमे सक॰
“पितॄन् समनुजायन्तेनरा मातरमङ्गनाः” रामा॰ अयो॰

३५ ।

२६ । अभि + अभिलक्ष्यीकृत्य जनने सक॰
“भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभि-जातस्य भारत!”।
“अज्ञानञ्चाभिजातस्य पार्थ! सम्पदमासुरीम्” गीता। सम्यग्जनने आभिमुख्येनजनने अक॰
“शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योगभ्रष्टोऽसिजायते”
“कामात् क्रोधोऽभिजायते” गीता। प्रति + प्रतिरूपजनने अक॰।
“प्रजापतिश्चरसि गर्भे त्वमेवप्रतिजायसे प्रश्नो॰। वि + विशेषेण जनने विरुद्धजनने विकारे च
“पतिनारहिता तस्मात् पुत्रं देवी व्यजायत” रामा॰ आदि॰

७० अ॰। गर्भमोचने सक॰
“यूनां मत्ता प्रथमं विजज्ञतुः” ऋ॰

९ ।

६८ ।

५ ।
“पशुस्तिष्ठन् गर्भं धृत्वानुप विश्यविजायते” शत॰ ब्रा॰

७ ।

४ ।

१ ।

१ ।
“काममाविज-नितीः सम्भवेम” तै॰ स॰

३ ।

५ ।

१ ।


“तस्मात् व्यजायत” रामा॰ बा॰

१ ।

७० ।
“यक्षी पुत्रं व्यजायत” बा

२७ ।

८ ।

जन¦ पु॰ जन--अच्।

१ लोके
“जनस्तुषाराञ्जनपर्वताविव” [Page3018-b+ 38] मावः

२ महर्लोकादूर्द्धलोके

३ असुरभेदे च जनार्द्दनः। तल्लोकप्राप्तिहेतुकथनं भूमेरुच्चतोक्तिश्च
“इत्थं कथांकथयतोर्भगवद्गणयोः प्रिये!। क्षणार्द्धेन विमानं तज्जन-लोक निनाय तान्। निवसन्त्यमलायत्र मानसाः ब्रह्मणःसुताः। सनन्दनाद्या योगीन्द्रा सर्वे तेह्यूर्द्धरेतसः। अन्येतु योगिनोये वै ह्यस्खलद्ब्रह्मचारिणः। सर्व्वद्वन्द्व-विनिर्मुक्तास्ते वसन्त्यत्र निर्मलाः। महर्लोकः क्षितेरूर्द्ध-मेककोटिप्रमाणतः। कोटिद्वये तु संख्यातो जनो मूलो-कतोजनैः” काशी॰ ख॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


जन¦ m. (-नः)
1. Man, individually or collectively, a man, mankind.
2. The universe.
3. A division of the universe or Loka, the resi- dence of deified mortals: see जनलोक।
3. A low man, a wretch. f. (-नी) A mother, &c. see जनि। f. (-ना) Birth, production. E. जन् to be born, affix अच्।

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


जनः [janḥ], [जन्-अच्]

A creature, living being, man.

An individual or person (whether male or female); क्व वयं क्व परोक्षमन्मथो मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः Ś.2.18; तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः U.2.19; so सखीजनः a female friend; दासजनः a slave, अबलाजनः &c. (In this sense जनः or अयं जनः is often used by the speakerwhether male or female, in the sing. or pl. instead of the first personal pronoun to speak of himself in the third person); अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने Ku.5.4 (male); भगवन् परवानयं जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे R.8.81 (female); पश्यानङ्गशरातुरं जनमिमं त्रातापि नो रक्षसि Nag.1.1. (female and pl.).

Men collectively, the people, the world (in sing. or pl.); एवं जनो गृह्णाति M.1; सतीमपि ज्ञातिकुलैक- संश्रयां जनो$न्यथा भर्तृमतीं विशङ्कते Ś.5.17.

Race, nation, tribe.

The world beyond Maharloka, the heaven of deified mortals.

A low man, the mob; L. D. B. -ना Birth, production. -Comp. -अतिग a. extraordinary, uncommon, superhuman.

अधिपः, अधिनाथः a king

N. of Viṣṇu.

अन्तः a place removed from men, an uninhabited place.

a region.

an epithet of Yama.

personal proximity. -अन्तिकम् secret communication, whispering or speaking aside (to another). (-ind.) aside to another (in dramas); the S. D. thus defines this stage direction: त्रिपताककरेणान्यानप- वार्यान्तरा कथाम् । अन्योन्यामन्त्रणं यत् स्याज्जनान्ते तज्जनान्तिकम् ॥ 425. -अर्णवः a large concourse of people, caravan.-अर्थशब्दः a family appellation. -अर्दनः an epithet of Visnu or Krisna. -अशनः a. wolf. -आकीर्ण a. thronged or crowded with people; Ś.5.1.

आचारः a popular usage or custom.

propriety, decorum. -आश्रमः an asylum for people, an inn, caravansary. -आश्रयः a pavilion. -इन्द्रः, -ईशः, -ईश्वरः a king. -इष्ट a. desired or liked by the people. (-ष्टः) a kind of jasmine. (-ष्टा) turmeric. -उदाहरणम् glory, fame. -ओघः a concourse of people, crowd, mob. -कारिन् m. lac.-चक्षुस् n. 'the people's eye', the sun. -जन्मादिः the the Supreme Being. -जल्पः A rumour. -त्रा an umbrella, a parasol. -देवः a king.

पदः a community, race, nation; Y.1.361 v. l.

A kingdom, an empire, an inhabited country; जनपदे न गदः पदभादधौ R.9.4; दाक्षि- णात्ये जनपदे Pt.1; Me.48.

the country (opp. the town पुर, नगर); जनपदवधूलोचनैः पीयमानः Me.16.

the people, subjects (opp. the sovereign); जनपदहितकर्ता त्यज्यते पार्थिवेन Pt.1.131.

mankind.

a. considering his subjects as authority; आपौरप्रकृतिजनपदो राजा Bhāg.5.4.5. -पदिन् m. the ruler of a country or community.

प्रवादः rumour, report.

scandal, calumny. -प्रिय a.

philanthropic.

liked by the people, popular.

(यः) an epithet of Śiva.

coriander-seed. -मरकः an epidemic disease. -मर्यादा established custom or usage, popular custom. -मारः an epidemic; Av. Pariś.72.84. -योपन a. perplexing or vexing men; कमगञ्जनयोपनः Rv.1.86.22. -रञ्जनम् gratifying the people, courting popular favour.

रवः rumour.

calumny, scandal. -लोकः one (i. e. the fifth) of the seven divisions of the universe situated above Maharloka; यो ब्रह्मवादः पूर्वेषां जनलोकनिवासिनाम् Bhāg.1.87.8. -वादः (also जनेवादः)

news, rumour.

a scandal; द्यूतं च जनवादं च Ms.2.179. -व्यवहारः popular usage. -श्चुत a. well-known among people, famous -श्रुतिः f. a rumour, report; अभिचारं चकारास्येत्य- विगाना जनश्रुतिः Rāj. T.7.133. (-नं) सह a. subduing men; सत्रासाहो जनभक्षो जनंसहः Rv.2.21.3. -संबाध a. densely crowded with people. -स्थानम् N. of a part of the Daṇḍakā forest; R.12.42;13.22; U.1.28;2.17.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


जन mf( ई)n. " generating "See. पुरं-

जन m. ( g. वृषा-दि)creature , living being , man , person , race( पञ्च जनास्, " the five races " = प् कृष्टयस्RV. iii , viii ff. MBh. iii , 14160 ), people , subjects (the sg. used collectively e.g. दैव्यor दिव्या ज्, " divine race " , the gods collectively RV. ; महत् ज्, many people R. vi , 101 , 2 ; often ifc. denoting one person or a number of persons collectively , e.g. प्रेष्य-, बन्धु-, सखी-etc. , qq. vv. Page410,2 ; with names of peoples VarBr2S. iv , 22 and v , 74 ; अयंजनः, " this person , these persons " , I , we MBh. viii , 709 Hariv. 7110 R. ii , 41 , 2 S3ak. etc. ; एष ज्, id . Ka1vya7d. ii , 75 ) RV. etc.

जन m. the person nearest to the speaker (also with अयम्or असौ, " this my lover " Ka1vya7d. ii , 271 Ratna7v. i , 24/25 ) Nal. x , 10 S3ak. Ma1lav.

जन m. a common person , one of the people Kir. ii , 42 and 47

जन m. the world beyond the महर्-लोकBhP. iii , 11 , 29 SkandaP.

जन ( न) m. ( g. अश्वा-दि)N. of a man (with the patr. शार्करा-क्ष्य) S3Br. x ChUp.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


--the fifth लोक from where are born people; from root जनन; फलकम्:F1: Br. II. १९. १५६; २१. २२; ३५. १५३ and २०६; III. 1. १५-16; M. ६१. 1; १८४. २३; वा. १००. १२७; १०१. १७.फलकम्:/F two crores of yojanas from Maharloka. फलकम्:F2: वा. १०१. १४०, २०८.फलकम्:/F

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Jana, besides meaning ‘man’ as an individual, with a tendency to the collective sense, commonly denotes a ‘people’ or ‘tribe’ in the Rigveda and later. Thus, the ‘five tribes’ (Panca Janāḥ or Janāsaḥ) are frequently referred to, and in one hymn of the Rigveda[१] the ‘people of Yadu’ (yādva jana) and the Yadus (yādvāḥ) are synonymous. Again, the king (rājan) is described as ‘protector (gopā) of the people (janasya),’[२] and there are other references to king and Jana.[३] The people of the Bharatas (bhārata jana) is also mentioned;[४] there is no ground to assume with Hopkins[५] that Jana in this case means a clan or horde (Grāma), as distinguished from a people.

It is difficult to say exactly how a people was divided. Zimmer[६] argues from a passage in the Rigveda[७] that a people was divided into cantons (Viś), cantons into joint families or clans, or village communities (Grāma, Vṛjana), and these again into single families. He thinks that the four divisions are reflected in the passage in question. by Jana, Viś, Janman, and Putrāḥ, or sons, and argues that each village community was originally founded on relationship. But it is very doubtful whether this precise division of the people can be pressed. The division of the Jana into several Viś may be regarded as probable, for it is supported by the evidence of another passage of the Rigveda,[८] which mentions the Viś as a unit of the fighting men, and thus shows that, as in Homeric times and in ancient Germany, relationship was deemed a good principle of military arrangement. But the subdivision of the Viś into several Grāmas is very doubtful. Zimmer[९] admits that neither Grāma[१०] nor Vṛjana[११] has the special sense of a subdivision of the Viś when used for war, for both words only denote generally an armed host. He finds other designations of the village host in Vrā[१२] and in Vrāja,[१३] but it is sufficient to say that the former passage is of extremely doubtful import,[१४] and that the latter has no reference to war at all. It is therefore impossible to state in what exact relation the Grāma in Vedic times stood to the Viś or to the family (Kula or Gotra). The confusion is increased by the vagueness of the sense of both Grāma and Viś. If the latter be regarded as a local division, then no doubt the Grāma must have been a part of a district; but if a Viś was a unit of relationship, then a Grāma may have contained families of different Viśes, or may have sometimes coincided with a Viś, or have contained only a part of a Viś. But in any case the original state of affairs must have been greatly modified by the rise of the system of caste, and the substitution of a hierarchical for a political point of view. The elements of the people were represented by the family--either as an individual family inhabiting one home (Kula), and consisting often, no doubt, of a joint family of brothers, or as a patriarchal family of sons who still lived with their father--and by the clan, the later Gotra, which included all those who claimed a common ancestor. The Gotra may be regarded as roughly corresponding to the Latin gens and the Greek , and possibly the Viś may be the equivalent of the curia and, and the Jana of the tribus and or .[१५] These three divisions may also be seen in the Viś, Zantu, and Daqyu of the Iranian world, where the use of Viś suggests that in the Indian Viś a relationship based on blood rather than locality is meant--and perhaps even in the vicus, pagus, and civitas of the old German polity described in the Germania[१६] of Tacitus. The family in some form appears as the third element of the Jana in a passage of the Rigveda,[१७] where the house (gṛha) is contrasted with the Jana and the Viś. Possibly, too, another passage[१८] contrasts the adhvara, or family sacrifice, with that of the Jana or Viś, rather than, as Zimmer[१९] thinks, the village with the two larger units. But it is significant of the particularism of the Vedic Indians that while the king maintained a fire which might be regarded as the sacred fire of the tribe, there is no sure trace[२०] of any intermediate cult between that of the king and that of the individual householder. The real elements in the state are the Gotra and the Jana, just as ultimately the gens and tribus, the and are alone important. It may be that Viś sometimes represents in the older texts what later was known as the Gotra. See Viś.

This appears clearly when the constitution of society in the Brāhmaṇa period is considered. The tribe or people still exists, and is presupposed, but the division into Viś disappears. The real division is now the separate castes (Varṇa), but the numerous sections into which each of them is divided appear to be based in part on the ancient Gotra.

Vedic Rituals Hindi[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


जन पु.
अधिसंख्य (लोग), लोग जहाँ बसे हो, वह स्थान, का.श्रौ.सू. 22.1.27, 29; तुल.ला.श्रौ.सू. 8.2.1०-12।

  1. viii. 6, 46. 48.
  2. Rv. iii. 43, 5. So Soma is called gopati janasya, ‘protector of the people,’ Rv. ix. 35, 5.
  3. Rv. v. 58, 4.
  4. Rv. iii. 53, 12. See also Bharata.

    Cf. also x. 174, 5 = Av. i. 29, 6.
  5. Religions of India, 26, 27. It is true that the Bharatas are called a gavyan grāmaḥ, ‘a horde eager for booty,’ in Rv. iii. 33, 11;
    but Grāma has there merely a general application. Seen. 10.
  6. Altindisches Leben, 159, 160.
  7. ii. 26, 3.
  8. x. 84, 4. Viśaḥ may have the same sense in several other passages--iv. 24, 4;
    v. 61, 1;
    vi. 26, 1;
    vii. 79, 2;
    viii. 12, 29--but it need not necessarily bear this sense. But in x. 91, 2, there is a clear contrast between Viś and Jana.
  9. Op. cit., 161. He also relies on Rv. v. 53, 11, where the Maruts are divided into śardha, vrāta, and gaṇa;
    but these words are vague.
  10. Rv. iii. 33. 11. See n. 5.
  11. Rv. vii. 32, 27;
    x. 42, 10.
  12. Rv. i. 126, 5 (viśyā iva vrāḥ).
  13. Rv. x. 179, 2=Av. vii. 72, 2.
  14. Cf. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 2, 121, 319.
  15. Cf. Iliad, 2, 362.
  16. Chap. vii. Zimmer gives other equations, for which cf. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities, 393 et seq. The exact parallelism cannot in any case be pressed.
  17. x. 91, 2, where janaṃ janam and viśaṃ viśam occur, and where a contrast must be meant.
  18. Rv. vii. 82, 1.
  19. Altindisches Leben, 435.
  20. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 2, 126.

    Cf. Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 158;
    von Schroeder, Indiens Literatur und Cultur, 32, 33;
    Jolly, Zeitschrift der Dcutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 50, 512 et seq.
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