सूर्य

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अत्र गम्यताम् : सञ्चरणम्, अन्वेषणम्
दिनेशः
दिनेशः

मराठी[सम्पाद्यताम्]

नामः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

दिनेशः, अर्कः,रविहः

पर्यायपदानि[सम्पाद्यताम्]

अनुवादाः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

फलकम्:തർജ്ജമ-മേലഗ്രം

फलकम्:തർജ്ജമ-മധ്യം

फलकम्:തർജ്ജമ-അടിഭാഗം

फलकम्:വൃത്തിയാക്കേണ്ടവ

फलकम्:അപൂർണ്ണം

यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सूर्य पुं।

सूर्यः

समानार्थक:सूर,सूर्य,अर्यमन्,आदित्य,द्वादशात्मन्,दिवाकर,भास्कर,अहस्कर,ब्रध्न,प्रभाकर,विभाकर,भास्वत्,विवस्वत्,सप्ताश्व,हरिदश्व,उष्णरश्मि,विकर्तन,अर्क,मार्तण्ड,मिहिर,अरुण,पूषन्,द्युमणि,तरणि,मित्र,चित्रभानु,विरोचन,विभावसु,ग्रहपति,त्विषाम्पति,अहर्पति,भानु,हंस,सहस्रांशु,तपन,सवितृ,रवि,पद्माक्ष,तेजसांराशि,छायानाथ,तमिस्रहन्,कर्मसाक्षिन्,जगच्चक्षुस्,लोकबन्धु,त्रयीतनु,प्रद्योतन,दिनमणि,खद्योत,लोकबान्धव,इन,भग,धामनिधि,अंशुमालिन्,अब्जिनीपति,चण्डांशु,क,खग,पतङ्ग,तमोनुद्,विश्वकर्मन्,अद्रि,हरि,हेलि,अवि,अंशु,तमोपह

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सूरसूर्यार्यमादित्यद्वादशात्मदिवाकराः। भास्कराहस्करब्रध्नः प्रभाकरविभाकराः॥

अवयव : किरणः

पत्नी : सूर्यपत्नी

सम्बन्धि2 : सूर्यपार्श्वस्थः

वैशिष्ट्यवत् : प्रभा

सेवक : सूर्यपार्श्वस्थः,सूर्यसारथिः

पदार्थ-विभागः : नाम, द्रव्यम्, तेजः, ग्रहः

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सूर्यः [sūryḥ], [सरति आकाशे सूर्यः, यद्वा सुवति कर्मणि लोकं प्रेरयति; cf. Sk. on P.III.1.114]

The sun; सूर्ये तपत्यावरणाय दृष्टेः कल्पेत लोकस्य कथं तमिस्रा R.5.13. [In mythology, the sun is regarded as a son of Kaśyapa and Aditi. He is represented as moving in a chariot drawn by seven horses, with Aruṇa for his charioteer. He is also represented as all-seeing, the constant beholder of the good and bad deeds of mortals. Samjñā (or Chhāyā or Aśvinī) was his principal wife, by whom he had Yama and Yamunā, the two Aśvins and Saturn. He is also described as having been the father of Manu Vaivasvata, the founder of the solar race of kings.]

The tree called Arka.

The number 'twelve' (derived from the twelve forms of the sun).

The swallow-wort.

N. of Śiva. -Comp. -अपायः sunset; सूर्यापाये न खलु कमलं पुष्यति स्वामभिख्याम् Me.82. -अर्ष्यम् the presentation of an offering to the sun. -अश्मन् m. the sun-stone. -अश्वः a horse of the sun. -अस्तम् sunset. -आतपः heat or glare of the sun, sunshine. -आलोकः sunshine.

आवर्तः a kind of sun-flower.

a head-ache which increases or diminishes according to the course of the sun (Mar. अर्धशिशी). -आह्व a. named after the sun. (-ह्वः) the gigantic swallow-wort. (-ह्वम्) copper. -इन्दुसंगमः the day of the new moon (the conjunction of the sun and moon); दर्शः सूर्येन्दुसंगमः Ak. -उत्थानम्, -उदयः sunrise.

ऊढः 'brought by the sun', an evening guest; संप्राप्तो यो$तिथिः सायं सूर्योढो गृहमेधिनाम् । पूजया तस्य देवत्वं लभन्ते गृहमेधिनः ॥ Pt.1.17.

the time of sunset. -उपस्थानम्, -उपासना attendance upon or worship of the sun; V.1. -कमलम् the sun-flower, a heliotrope.

कान्तः the sun-stone, sun-crystal; स्पर्शानुकूला इव सूर्यकान्तास्तदन्यतेजो$भिभवाद्वमन्ति । Ś.2.7.

a crystal. -कान्ति f.

sun-light.

a particular flower.

the flower of sesamum. -कालः day-time, day. ˚अनलचक्रम् a particular astrological diagram for indicating good and bad fortune.

ग्रहः the sun.

an eclipse of the sun.

an epithet of Rāhu and Ketu.

the bottom of a water-jar. -ग्रहणम् a solar eclipse. -चन्द्रौ (also सूर्याचन्द्रमसौ) m. du. the sun and moon.

जः, तनयः, पुत्रः epithets of Sugrīva; यो$हं सूर्यसुतः स एष भवतां यो$यं स वत्सो$ङ्गदः Mv. 5.55.

of Karṇa.

of the planet Saturn.

of Yama. -जा, -तनया the river Yamunā. -तेजस् n. the radiance or heat of the sun. -द्वारम् the way of the sun; उत्तरायण q. v.; सूर्यद्वारेण ते विरजाः प्रयान्ति यत्रामृतः स पुरुषो ह्याव्ययात्मा Muṇḍ.1.2.11. -नक्षत्रम् that constellation (out of the 27) in which the sun happens to be.-पर्वन् n. a solar festival, (on the days of the solstices, equinoxes, eclipses &c.). -पादः a sun-beam.

पुत्री lightning.

the river Yamunā. -प्रभव a. sprung or descended from the sun; क्व सूर्यप्रभवो वंशः क्व चाल्पविषया मतिः R.1.2. -फणिचक्रम् = सूर्यकालानलचक्रम् q. v. above. -बिम्बः the disc of the sun. -भक्त a. one who worships the sun. (-क्तः) the tree Bandhūka or its flower. -मणिः the sunstone. -मण्डलम् the orb of the sun. -मासः the solar month.

यन्त्रम् a representation of the sun (used in worshipping him).

an instrument used in taking solar observations. -रश्मिः a ray of the sun, sun-beam; Ms.5.133. -लोकः the heaven of the sun. -वंशः the solar race of kings (who ruled at Ayodhyā). -वर्चस् a. resplendent as the sun. -वारः Sunday. -विलोकनम् the ceremony of taking a child out to see the sun when four months old; cf. उपनिष्क्रमणम्. -संक्रमः, -संक्रातिः f. the sun's passage from one zodiacal sign to another.-संज्ञम् saffron. -सारथिः an epithet of Aruṇa. -सिद्धान्तः a celebrated astronomical work (supposed to have been revealed by the god Sun). -स्तुतिः f., -स्तोत्रम् a hymn addressed to the sun. -हृदयम् N. of a hymn to the sun.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


सूर्य m. the sun or its deity (in the वेदthe name सूर्यis generally distinguished from सवितृ[q.v.] , and denotes the most concrete of the solar gods , whose connection with the luminary is always present to the poet's mind Page1243,2 ; in Nir. vii , 5 he is regarded as one of the original Vedic triad , his place being in the sky , while that of अग्निis on the earth , and that of इन्द्रis in the atmosphere ; ten hymns in the RV. are entirely in praise of सूर्यe.g. i , 50 , i , 115 etc. , also AV. xiii , 2 ; he moves through the sky in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares [see सप्ता-श्व, हरित्, हरिद्-अश्व] ; in the later mythology सूर्यis identified with सवितृas one of the 12 आदित्यs or emblems of the Sun in the 12 months of the year , and his seven-horsed chariot is said to be driven by अरुणor the Dawn as its charioteer , who is represented without legs ; the Sun , whether named सूर्यor विवस्वत्, has several wives See. सूर्याbelow) RV. etc. (See. IW. 11 ; 16 etc. RTL. 341 )

सूर्य m. a symbolical expression for the number " twelve " (in allusion to the sun in the 12 signs of the zodiac) Jyot. Hcat.

सूर्य m. the swallow-wort (either Calotropis or Asclepias Gigantea , = अर्क) L.

सूर्य m. N. of the son of बलिL.

सूर्य m. of a दानवVahniP.

सूर्य m. of an astronomer(= सूर्य-दास) Cat.

सूर्य m. epithet of शिवMBh.

सूर्य m. the daughter of सूर्यor the Sun(See. RV. i , 116 , 17 ; also described as daughter of प्रजापतिor of सवितृand wife of the अश्विन्s , and in other places as married to सोम; in RV. i , 119 , 2 she is called ऊर्जानी, and in vi , 55 , 4 , vi , 58 , 4 the sister of पूषन्[See. ] , who is described as loving her , and receiving her as a gift from the gods ; accord. to some she represents a weak manifestation of the Sun ; सूर्यासावित्रीis regarded as the authoress of the सूर्या-सूक्तRV. x , 85 ) RV. AV. AitBr. Kaus3.

सूर्य m. = वाच्Naigh. i , 11

सूर्य m. = सूर्या-सू-क्ता(See. ) S3a1n3khGr2.

सूर्य m. a new bride

सूर्य m. a drug L.

सूर्य m. the colocynth or bitter gourd L.

सूर्य mfn. solar (perhaps w.r. for सौर्य) Jyot. [For cognate words See. under 2. स्वर्.]

सूर्य etc. See. p.1243 , col , 1.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--is मार्ताण्ड as he occupies the inanimate globe; is हिरण्यगर्भ being born of the Golden Egg. By his course are divided all the worlds: the Lord of all, animate and inanimate: His movement among the राशीस् in the sky. Traversing the signs of मेष and तुला (the Goat and Balance) he makes days and nights of equal length: travers- ing the five signs commencing with वृषभ (Bull) he makes days longer and nights shorter in a month by २४ minutes: traversing the five signs commencing with वृश्चिक, he reverses the process. Rides in a chariot of one wheel with अरुण as charioteer. Sixtythousand वालखिल्यस् go in front of him singing the Vedas: is also served by other sages, Gan- dharvas, Apsaras, नागस्, यक्षस्, यातुधानस्, and Gods; फलकम्:F1:  भा. V. २०. ४३-6; २१ (whole).फलकम्:/F the sun moves with Meru and Dhruva on his right and marches towards the signs of the Zodiac. The twelve signs are the twelve months of a year. If he traverses one-sixth of the orbit, it is ऋतु, and if he completes one-half of his heavenly path it is ayana. Sometimes the velocity is slow, sometimes rapid and moderate: the name of the year differs accord- [page३-684+ ६०] ingly. फलकम्:F2:  Ib. २२. 1-7.फलकम्:/F also known as Divaspati and दिवाकर; १०० thousand yojanas from the earth, and the same distance from moon; फलकम्:F3:  Br. IV. 2. २०, २९.फलकम्:/F does not shine in इलावृतम्; फलकम्:F4:  Ib. II. १७. १०.फलकम्:/F protects the earth and hence Ravi; फलकम्:F5:  Ib. II. २०. ५८; Ch. २१.फलकम्:/F cosmology of; sunrise at Samyamana, midday at Ama- रावती; evening for विभा and midnight for सुखा. His rays enter fire during nights and come back during mornings; hence waters are warm during nights and cool during days; in a मुहूर्त सूर्य spreads over a lakh and ८१,000 yojanas; फलकम्:F6:  Ib. II. Ch. २२-3; M. Ch. १२८.फलकम्:/F chariot of one wheel with vedic metres as horses; colour of the sun in six seasons different; parent of the worlds, all birth and devastation due to him. फलकम्:F7:  Br. II. Ch. २४.फलकम्:/F Twelve-fold आत्म; instructed याज्ञवल्क्य in the form of a horse the यजुस्; फलकम्:F8:  Ib. II. ३५. २३-5.फलकम्:/F father of the Yuvati class of Apsaras; a friend of king सत्राजित्. फलकम्:F9:  Ib. III. 7. २१, २१५; ७१. २१, २९.फलकम्:/F Relative size of sun, moon, etc.; relative splendours, motions and qualities; different classes of rays named; फलकम्:F१०:  M. Ch. १२८. १३-74.फलकम्:/F survives antara pralaya; came after ब्रह्मा in the order of creation; फलकम्:F११:  Ib. 2. १२ and ३१.फलकम्:/F श्राद्ध deva; फलकम्:F१२:  Ib. १३. 1.फलकम्:/F Sunday sacred to: फलकम्:F१३:  Ib. ७०. ३३.फलकम्:/F fight with कालनेमि. फलकम्:F१४:  Ib. १५०. १५१-179; २६८. ११.फलकम्:/F
(II)--a son of कश्यप and Aditi; wives सम्ज्ञा and छाया; father of Manu, श्राद्धदेव and Yama and Yami; see Vivasvan. फलकम्:F1:  भा. VI. 6. ३९-41; IX. 1. १०-11.फलकम्:/F Presented पृथु with arrows from h{??} rays; worship of: in प्लक्षद्वीप, फलकम्:F2:  Ib. V. १५. १८; २०. 4-5.फलकम्:/F begot a son on पृथा, still a maiden; फलकम्:F3:  Ib. IX. २४. ३२. 5.फलकम्:/F presented his friend सत्राजित with Syamantaka (s.v.); फलकम्:F4:  Ib. X. ५६. 3.फलकम्:/F propitiated by याज्ञवल्क्य, imparted to him वाजस- म्यष्ट यजुस् in the form of a horse. फलकम्:F5:  Ib. XII. 6. ६६-74.फलकम्:/F Pointed out with Soma, राहु in deva's disguise. Hence राहु chases him in parvas. Fought with बाण in देवासुर war; फलकम्:F6:  Ib. VIII. 9; २४-6; १० 30.फलकम्:/F बडवा was another wife, and Tapati daughter; फलकम्:F7:  Ib. VIII. १३. 8-१०; IX. २२. 4.फलकम्:/F is विभावसु ten Kalas of; फलकम्:F8:  Br. I. २१. ८३.फलकम्:/F gives life to Agni. फलकम्:F9:  Ib. IV. ३५. ८१-3.फलकम्:/F (आदित्य): came to कार्तवीर्य Arjuna in Brah- man's disguise and asked for a gift of all स्थावर for his food and offered in turn bows ever effulgent to help in burning [page३-685+ २७] down all स्थावरस्; फलकम्:F१०:  M. 2. ३१; ४४. 3-११.फलकम्:/F माहात्म्य of, in the भविष्य; फलकम्:F११:  Ib. ५३. ३१.फलकम्:/F the day sacred to the sun is the one when Hastam and Saptami fall on the same day; फलकम्:F१२:  Ib. 5. 4.फलकम्:/F is राहु's abode; फलकम्:F१३:  Ib. १२७. १०.फलकम्:/F knows what शिव did to पूष and Bhaga; फलकम्:F१४:  Ib. १५५. 7.फलकम्:/F through सरस्वती, got his two sons (not named); फलकम्:F१५:  Ib. १७१. ५७-8.फलकम्:/F worship of, by Brahmans. फलकम्:F१६:  Ib. १८४. ३१.फलकम्:/F
(III)--a son of Bali; a दानव. M. 6. ११; Br. III. 6. 8.

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Sūrya  : m.: Name of the planet Sun, referred to also as Āditya and by its other synonyms like Arka, Ravi, Bhāskara, Bhānu, Pataṁga.


A. Origin and activity: According to Bhīṣma, Āditya, along with Candra, other planets, constellations and stars were born from Viṣvaksena (i. e. Kṛṣṇa) (candrādityau grahanakṣatratārāḥ…viṣvaksenāt sarvam etat prasūtam) 13. 143. 31; Purusottama (Nārāyaṇa) told the seven sages, Marīci and others, that Sūrya, Candramas, all constellations act in their own prescribed way in their respective spheres and are considered an authority (suryācandramasau …sarve ca nakṣatragaṇāḥ…adhikāreṣu vartante yathāsvam…sarve pramāṇaṁ hi 12. 322. 39-40.


B. Description: Radiant (gabhastimant) 2. 11. 17; (aṁśumant) 6. 32. 21; rich in light (vibhārasu) 6. 13. 44; very generous (paramodāra) 6. 13. 44.


C. Extent: Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya to tell him everything about the extent (sarvaṁ pramāṇam) of Arka, to which Saṁjaya agreed 6. 12. 3-4; according to Saṁjaya's information the diameter (viṣkambha) of Sūrya was 1000 yojanas and the circumference (maṇḍala) was 30000 yojanas; (according to the learned Pauraṇīkas) Sūrya's expanse (? vipulatva) was 5800 yojanas (sūryas tv aṣṭau sahasrāṇi dve cānye kurunadana/ viṣkambheṇa, tato rājan maṇḍalaṁ triṁśataṁ samam//aṣṭapañcāśataṁ rājan vipulatvena cānagha/śrūyate paramodāraḥ pataṁgo 'sau vibhāvasuḥ/etat pramāṇam arkasya nirḍiṣṭam iha bhārata) 6. 13. 4344 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 12. 41 interprets vipulatvena as tato 'py ādhikeyena; in that case the circumference of Sūrya will be 30000 + 5800 = 35800 yojanas; see also the Editor's note on the stanza 6. 13. 41, Vol. 7, p. 765); on account of the larger extent of Rāhu, it covers Candra and Āditya at proper times (sa rāhuś chādayaty etau yathākālaṁ mahattayā/candrādityau) 6. 13. 45.


D. Importance:

(1) Upamanyu while praising Śiva said that he (Śiva) was Sūrya among the planets (grahāṇāṁ sūrya ucyase) 13. 14. 156; Sūrya appears in a complex name of Śiva (candrasūryagatiḥ) 13. 17. 37;

(2) Śiva made Bhāskara the chief of the luminous bodies (tejasāṁ bhāskaraṁ cakre (īśam)) 12. 122. 31; Brahmā told the sages that Sūrya was the chief of the planets (sūryo grahāṇām adhipaḥ) 14. 43. 6; Arka was known as the chief of the hot luminaries (arko 'dhipatir uṣṇānām) 14. 43. 7; also cf. ādityo jyotiṣām patiḥ 6. 7. 14; khecarāṇāṁ pravaro yathārkaḥ 1. 83. 7;

(3) Bhagavān, while narrating his vibhūtis, said that he was Ravi among the luminous bodies (jyotiṣāṁ ravir aṁśumān) 6. 32. 21;

(4) The divine sages, the Siddhas, and the great sages saw Candra, Āditya and Budha, among others, in the abode of Brahman 1. 203. 4; Āditya, along with Candra and constellations, wait on Brahmadeva in his sabhā 2. 11. 17;


E. Advent of the Kṛtayuga: Mārkaṇḍeya told the Pāṇḍavas that when Candra, Sūrya, the constellation Tiṣya (Puṣya) and Bṛhaspati will come together in one rāśi, the Kṛtayuga will set in 3. 188. 87 (for citation and Nī.'s commentary on it, see above Puṣya^1, p. 257. 1).


F. Mythological events:

(1) Candra, Āditya, the planets, the stars, the constellations and the denizens of the heaven felt dejected due to the destruction caused by Sunda and Upasunda (candrādityau grahās tārā nakṣatrāṇi divaukasaḥ/jagmur viṣādam) 1. 202. 26;

(2) when the gods made ready a chariot for Śiva's fight with the Tripuras, Sūrya and Candramas were made the two wheels of the excellent chariot (sūryācandramasau kṛtvā cakre rathavarottame) 8. 24. 71.


G. Auspicious:

(1) Bhīṣma told Yudhiṣṭhira that in war the side which had wind, Sūrya and Śukra favourable to it became victorious; if they were simultaneously present, the former of the two proved stronger (yato vāyur yataḥ sūryō yataḥ śukras tato jayaḥ/ pūrvaṁ pūrvaṁ jyāya eṣāṁ saṁnipāte yudhiṣṭhira//) 12. 101. 17;

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra told Saṁjaya that when he heard that both Śukra and Sūrya were favourable to Pāṇḍavas indicating their victory, he lost all hopes of winning the war (yadā śrauṣam śukrasūryau ca yuktau kaunteyānām anukūlau jayāya/…tadā nāśaṁse vijayāya saṁjaya//) 1. 1. 129.


H. Omens:

(1) According to an astronomical event which took place before the war and which was noticed by Vyāsa, amāvāsyā occurred on the thirteenth day of the month which was very unusual; on that occasion Candra and Sūrya were untimely swallowed the same month by Rāhu which indicated destruction of the subjects (caturdaśīṁ pañcadaśīm bhūtapūrvāṁ ca ṣoḍaśīm/imāṁ tu nābhijānāmi amāvāsyāṁ trayodaśīm//candrasūryāv ubhau grastāv ekamāse trayodaśīm/ aparvaṇi grahāv etau prajāḥ saṁkṣapayiṣyataḥ//) 6. 3. 28-29 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 3. 28: parva darśākhyaṁ pañcadaśe 'hni bhavati/ekatithivṛddhau ṣoḍaṡe vā ekatithikṣaye caturdaśe vāhni bhavati/ tithidvayakṣayas tu loke 'tyantam aprasiddha ity aparvaṇity uktam/grahaṁ yātau rāhuṇā grahaṇaṁ prāptau etad eva prajāsaṁkṣayahetutvena śāstre dṛṣṭam/); a similar event--Rāhu swallowing both Āditya and Soma simultaneously--also occurred when the Sindhu heroes fought Arjuna and at that time the meteors struck Sūrya and were scattered (ulkāś ca jaghnire sūryaṁ vikīryantyaḥ samantataḥ) 14. 76. 15-16; for Rāhu's swallowing Āditya out of time (aparvaṇi) also cf. 2. 71. 26, and 9. 55. 10; also cf. 5. 141. 10; and 6. 3. 11 (in the last two references aparvaṇi does not occur); (for Nī.'s comment on Bom. Ed. 5. 143. 11 see Rāhu above p. 267. 1 and on Bom. Ed. 6. 3. 11 he says: tatra tulāstham arkaṁ rāhur upaiti);

(2) According to another omen noticed by Vyāsa, Arka, Indu and the constellations were blazing day and night irrespective of the fact whether it was day time or night time; that also indicated desstruction (jvalitārkendunakṣatram nirviśeṣadinakṣapam/ahorātraṁ mayā dṛṣtaṁ tat kṣayāya bhaviṣyati) 6. 2. 22;

(3) According to an omen noticed by Karṇa, a line of black clouds covered Bhānu at dawn and dusk which foretold great danger (kṛṣṇaś ca parighas tatra bhānum āvṛtya tiṣṭhati/ udayāstamye saṁdhye vedayāno mahad bhayam//) 5. 141. 22 (but Nī. on Bom. Ed 5. 143. 23: parighaḥ pariveśaḥ);

(4) According to the omens noticed by Saṁjaya, when the two armies faced each other at Kurukṣetra, Āditya at its rise appeared as though split into two (dvidhābhūta ivāditya udaye pratyadṛśyata) 6. 17. 3;

(5) When Karṇa marched out for war many unusual happenings (utpātas) occurred, one of them being that seven major planets were seen issuing out of Sūrya (niścaranto vyadṛśyanta sūryāt sapta mahāgrahāḥ) 8. 26. 34 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 8. 37. 4: niścaranto yuddhārtham iti śeṣaḥ/suāryāt sūryam ārabhya sūryādayo 'nyonyam yudhyantīty arthaḥ);

(6) Yājñavalkya told Janaka that if one saw the moon (Soma) or the sun (Sahasrāṁśu) with a hole (in the middle) like a wheel with a broken nave he had only a week to live (śīrṇanābhi yathā cākraṁ chidraṁ somaṁ prapaśyati/tathaiva ca sahasrāṁśuṁ saptarātreṇa mṛtyubhāk) 12. 305. 13.


I. Similes:

(1) Draupadī's five sons rushed at the demon Ārśyaśṛṅgi (Alambusa) as five planets rush at Ravi (grahāḥ pañca yathā ravim) 6. 96. 35;

(2) Bhīmasena, encircled by the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, looked like Sūrya encircled by fierce planets at the time of the destruction of the people (prajāsaṁharaṇe sūryaḥ krūrair iva mahāgrahaiḥ) 6. 73. 10;

(3) Lakṣmaṇa and Rāma, surrounded by the monkey-chiefs, looked like Candra and Sūrya surrounded by the planets (candrasūryau grahair vṛtau) 3. 267. 17. [For Sūrya also see Section 1. 7 where other references to the sun's eclipse can be found]


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Sūrya  : m.: Name of the planet Sun, referred to also as Āditya and by its other synonyms like Arka, Ravi, Bhāskara, Bhānu, Pataṁga.


A. Origin and activity: According to Bhīṣma, Āditya, along with Candra, other planets, constellations and stars were born from Viṣvaksena (i. e. Kṛṣṇa) (candrādityau grahanakṣatratārāḥ…viṣvaksenāt sarvam etat prasūtam) 13. 143. 31; Purusottama (Nārāyaṇa) told the seven sages, Marīci and others, that Sūrya, Candramas, all constellations act in their own prescribed way in their respective spheres and are considered an authority (suryācandramasau …sarve ca nakṣatragaṇāḥ…adhikāreṣu vartante yathāsvam…sarve pramāṇaṁ hi 12. 322. 39-40.


B. Description: Radiant (gabhastimant) 2. 11. 17; (aṁśumant) 6. 32. 21; rich in light (vibhārasu) 6. 13. 44; very generous (paramodāra) 6. 13. 44.


C. Extent: Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya to tell him everything about the extent (sarvaṁ pramāṇam) of Arka, to which Saṁjaya agreed 6. 12. 3-4; according to Saṁjaya's information the diameter (viṣkambha) of Sūrya was 1000 yojanas and the circumference (maṇḍala) was 30000 yojanas; (according to the learned Pauraṇīkas) Sūrya's expanse (? vipulatva) was 5800 yojanas (sūryas tv aṣṭau sahasrāṇi dve cānye kurunadana/ viṣkambheṇa, tato rājan maṇḍalaṁ triṁśataṁ samam//aṣṭapañcāśataṁ rājan vipulatvena cānagha/śrūyate paramodāraḥ pataṁgo 'sau vibhāvasuḥ/etat pramāṇam arkasya nirḍiṣṭam iha bhārata) 6. 13. 4344 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 12. 41 interprets vipulatvena as tato 'py ādhikeyena; in that case the circumference of Sūrya will be 30000 + 5800 = 35800 yojanas; see also the Editor's note on the stanza 6. 13. 41, Vol. 7, p. 765); on account of the larger extent of Rāhu, it covers Candra and Āditya at proper times (sa rāhuś chādayaty etau yathākālaṁ mahattayā/candrādityau) 6. 13. 45.


D. Importance:

(1) Upamanyu while praising Śiva said that he (Śiva) was Sūrya among the planets (grahāṇāṁ sūrya ucyase) 13. 14. 156; Sūrya appears in a complex name of Śiva (candrasūryagatiḥ) 13. 17. 37;

(2) Śiva made Bhāskara the chief of the luminous bodies (tejasāṁ bhāskaraṁ cakre (īśam)) 12. 122. 31; Brahmā told the sages that Sūrya was the chief of the planets (sūryo grahāṇām adhipaḥ) 14. 43. 6; Arka was known as the chief of the hot luminaries (arko 'dhipatir uṣṇānām) 14. 43. 7; also cf. ādityo jyotiṣām patiḥ 6. 7. 14; khecarāṇāṁ pravaro yathārkaḥ 1. 83. 7;

(3) Bhagavān, while narrating his vibhūtis, said that he was Ravi among the luminous bodies (jyotiṣāṁ ravir aṁśumān) 6. 32. 21;

(4) The divine sages, the Siddhas, and the great sages saw Candra, Āditya and Budha, among others, in the abode of Brahman 1. 203. 4; Āditya, along with Candra and constellations, wait on Brahmadeva in his sabhā 2. 11. 17;


E. Advent of the Kṛtayuga: Mārkaṇḍeya told the Pāṇḍavas that when Candra, Sūrya, the constellation Tiṣya (Puṣya) and Bṛhaspati will come together in one rāśi, the Kṛtayuga will set in 3. 188. 87 (for citation and Nī.'s commentary on it, see above Puṣya^1, p. 257. 1).


F. Mythological events:

(1) Candra, Āditya, the planets, the stars, the constellations and the denizens of the heaven felt dejected due to the destruction caused by Sunda and Upasunda (candrādityau grahās tārā nakṣatrāṇi divaukasaḥ/jagmur viṣādam) 1. 202. 26;

(2) when the gods made ready a chariot for Śiva's fight with the Tripuras, Sūrya and Candramas were made the two wheels of the excellent chariot (sūryācandramasau kṛtvā cakre rathavarottame) 8. 24. 71.


G. Auspicious:

(1) Bhīṣma told Yudhiṣṭhira that in war the side which had wind, Sūrya and Śukra favourable to it became victorious; if they were simultaneously present, the former of the two proved stronger (yato vāyur yataḥ sūryō yataḥ śukras tato jayaḥ/ pūrvaṁ pūrvaṁ jyāya eṣāṁ saṁnipāte yudhiṣṭhira//) 12. 101. 17;

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra told Saṁjaya that when he heard that both Śukra and Sūrya were favourable to Pāṇḍavas indicating their victory, he lost all hopes of winning the war (yadā śrauṣam śukrasūryau ca yuktau kaunteyānām anukūlau jayāya/…tadā nāśaṁse vijayāya saṁjaya//) 1. 1. 129.


H. Omens:

(1) According to an astronomical event which took place before the war and which was noticed by Vyāsa, amāvāsyā occurred on the thirteenth day of the month which was very unusual; on that occasion Candra and Sūrya were untimely swallowed the same month by Rāhu which indicated destruction of the subjects (caturdaśīṁ pañcadaśīm bhūtapūrvāṁ ca ṣoḍaśīm/imāṁ tu nābhijānāmi amāvāsyāṁ trayodaśīm//candrasūryāv ubhau grastāv ekamāse trayodaśīm/ aparvaṇi grahāv etau prajāḥ saṁkṣapayiṣyataḥ//) 6. 3. 28-29 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 6. 3. 28: parva darśākhyaṁ pañcadaśe 'hni bhavati/ekatithivṛddhau ṣoḍaṡe vā ekatithikṣaye caturdaśe vāhni bhavati/ tithidvayakṣayas tu loke 'tyantam aprasiddha ity aparvaṇity uktam/grahaṁ yātau rāhuṇā grahaṇaṁ prāptau etad eva prajāsaṁkṣayahetutvena śāstre dṛṣṭam/); a similar event--Rāhu swallowing both Āditya and Soma simultaneously--also occurred when the Sindhu heroes fought Arjuna and at that time the meteors struck Sūrya and were scattered (ulkāś ca jaghnire sūryaṁ vikīryantyaḥ samantataḥ) 14. 76. 15-16; for Rāhu's swallowing Āditya out of time (aparvaṇi) also cf. 2. 71. 26, and 9. 55. 10; also cf. 5. 141. 10; and 6. 3. 11 (in the last two references aparvaṇi does not occur); (for Nī.'s comment on Bom. Ed. 5. 143. 11 see Rāhu above p. 267. 1 and on Bom. Ed. 6. 3. 11 he says: tatra tulāstham arkaṁ rāhur upaiti);

(2) According to another omen noticed by Vyāsa, Arka, Indu and the constellations were blazing day and night irrespective of the fact whether it was day time or night time; that also indicated desstruction (jvalitārkendunakṣatram nirviśeṣadinakṣapam/ahorātraṁ mayā dṛṣtaṁ tat kṣayāya bhaviṣyati) 6. 2. 22;

(3) According to an omen noticed by Karṇa, a line of black clouds covered Bhānu at dawn and dusk which foretold great danger (kṛṣṇaś ca parighas tatra bhānum āvṛtya tiṣṭhati/ udayāstamye saṁdhye vedayāno mahad bhayam//) 5. 141. 22 (but Nī. on Bom. Ed 5. 143. 23: parighaḥ pariveśaḥ);

(4) According to the omens noticed by Saṁjaya, when the two armies faced each other at Kurukṣetra, Āditya at its rise appeared as though split into two (dvidhābhūta ivāditya udaye pratyadṛśyata) 6. 17. 3;

(5) When Karṇa marched out for war many unusual happenings (utpātas) occurred, one of them being that seven major planets were seen issuing out of Sūrya (niścaranto vyadṛśyanta sūryāt sapta mahāgrahāḥ) 8. 26. 34 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 8. 37. 4: niścaranto yuddhārtham iti śeṣaḥ/suāryāt sūryam ārabhya sūryādayo 'nyonyam yudhyantīty arthaḥ);

(6) Yājñavalkya told Janaka that if one saw the moon (Soma) or the sun (Sahasrāṁśu) with a hole (in the middle) like a wheel with a broken nave he had only a week to live (śīrṇanābhi yathā cākraṁ chidraṁ somaṁ prapaśyati/tathaiva ca sahasrāṁśuṁ saptarātreṇa mṛtyubhāk) 12. 305. 13.


I. Similes:

(1) Draupadī's five sons rushed at the demon Ārśyaśṛṅgi (Alambusa) as five planets rush at Ravi (grahāḥ pañca yathā ravim) 6. 96. 35;

(2) Bhīmasena, encircled by the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, looked like Sūrya encircled by fierce planets at the time of the destruction of the people (prajāsaṁharaṇe sūryaḥ krūrair iva mahāgrahaiḥ) 6. 73. 10;

(3) Lakṣmaṇa and Rāma, surrounded by the monkey-chiefs, looked like Candra and Sūrya surrounded by the planets (candrasūryau grahair vṛtau) 3. 267. 17. [For Sūrya also see Section 1. 7 where other references to the sun's eclipse can be found]


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