नक्षत्र

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
अत्र गम्यताम् : सञ्चरणम्, अन्वेषणम्


यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


नक्षत्रम्, क्ली, (नक्षति शोभां गच्छति स्थानात् स्थानान्तरं गच्छति वा । नक्ष गतौ + “अमि- “जन्माधाने निधनभे प्रत्यरौ च विपत्करे । यदि व्याधिः समुत्पन्नः क्लेशाय मरणाय वा ॥ कृत्तिकासु यदा व्याधिर्नृणाञ्च प्रतिपद्यते । नवरात्रं भवेत् पीडा त्रिरात्रं रोहिणीषु च ॥ मृगशीर्षे पञ्चरात्रमार्द्रायां मुच्यतेऽसुभिः ॥ पुनर्व्वसौ तथा पुष्ये सप्तरात्रं विधीयते । नवरात्रं तथाश्लेषे मासमेकं मघासु च ॥ द्बौ मासौ पूर्ब्बफल्गुन्यामुत्तरासु त्रिपञ्चकम् । हस्तेषु सप्तमे मोक्षश्चित्रायामर्द्धमासकम् ॥ मासद्बयं तथा स्वात्यां विशाखे दिनविंशतिम् । मैत्रे चैव दशाहानि ज्येष्ठायामर्द्धमासकम् ॥ मूले न जायते मोक्षः पूर्ब्बाषाढे त्रिपञ्चकम् । उत्तरा दिनविंशत्या श्रवणे द्वौ च मासकौ ॥ धनिष्ठायामर्द्धमासं वारुण्याञ्च दशाहकम् । न च भाद्रपदे मोक्ष उत्तरासु त्रिपञ्चकम् ॥ रेवत्यां दिनविंशत्या चाहोरात्रं तथाश्विनी । प्राणैर्व्विमुच्यते नित्यं भरण्यां नात्र संशयः ॥ कौशिकेन सदादिष्टा नक्षत्रव्याधिसम्भवाः । नक्षत्रे प्रतिकर्त्तव्यं नक्षत्रपथजानता ॥” नक्षत्रचतुर्भागबोधकानि चत्वारि नामाद्यक्ष- राणि यथा । अ इ उ ए ३ । ओ व वि वु ४ । वे वो क कि ५ । कु घ ङ छ ६ । के को ह हि ७ । हु हे हो ड ८ । डि डु डे डो ९ । म मि मु मे १० । मो ट टि टु ११ । टे टो प पि १२ । पु ष ण ठ १३ । पे पो र रि १४ । रु रे रो त १५ । ति तु ते तो १६ । न नि नु ने १७ । नो य यि यु १८ । ये यो भ भि १९ । भु ध फ ढ २० । भे भो ज जि २१ । जु जे जो ख । ० अभिजित् । खि खु खे खो २२ । ग गि गु गे २३ । गो श शि शु २४ । शे शो द दि २५ । दु थ झ ञ २६ । दे दो च चि २७ । चु चे चो ल १ । लि लु ले लो २ । ऋ ऌ युक्त- श्चाकारयुक्तेन ज्ञेयः । ह्नस्वेन दीर्घो ज्ञेयः । तालव्यशकारेण दन्त्यसकारो ज्ञेयः ।” इति ज्योतिस्तत्त्वम् ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


नक्षत्र नपुं।

नक्षत्रम्

समानार्थक:नक्षत्र,ऋक्ष,भ,तारा,तारका,उडु,धिष्ण्य,ज्योतिस्

1।3।21।1।1

नक्षत्रमृक्षं भं तारा तारकाप्युडु वा स्त्रियाम्. दाक्षायिण्योऽश्विनीत्यादि तारा अश्वयुगश्विनी॥

 : ध्रुवः, अश्विनीत्यादि-नक्षत्राणाम्_संज्ञा, अश्विनी-नक्षत्रम्, विशाखा-नक्षत्रम्, पुष्य-नक्षत्रम्, धनिष्ठा-नक्षत्रम्, पूर्वभाद्रपदा-नक्षत्रम्, उत्तरभाद्रपदा-नक्षत्रम्, मृगशिरा-नक्षत्रम्, मृगशीर्षनक्षत्रशिरोदेशस्थाः_पञ्चस्वल्पतारकाः, नक्षत्रनाम, नक्षत्रम्, मूलानक्षत्रम्, भभेदः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, तेजः, नक्षत्रम्

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


नक्षत्र¦ न॰ नक्ष--अत्रन् न क्षीयते क्षरते वा--बा॰ नि॰ नभ्राडि-त्यादि॰ निपा॰ नञः प्रभृतिभावः। अश्विन्यादिषु सप्तविंश-तितारासु नक्षत्राभिमानिदेवताश्च अश्विन्यादयः दक्षसुताःचन्द्रकलत्राणि च तत्कथा कालिकापु॰

२० अ॰ कालिकापु॰शब्दे

२०

१४ पृ॰ दृश्यम्। ताश्च
“अश्विनी भरणीचैव कृत्तिका रोहिणी तथा। मृगशीर्षा तथैवाद्रांतथा चैव पुनर्वसुः। पुष्याऽश्लेषामधा पूर्वफल्गुन्यु-त्तरफल्गुनी। हस्ताचित्रास्वातयश्च विशाखा अनुरा-धिका। ज्येष्ठा मूला तथा पूर्वोत्तराघाढे ततःपरम्। श्रवणा च धनिष्ठा च तथा शतभिषाह्वया। पूर्वोत्तरेभाद्रपदे रेवती च ससंज्ञकाः” ज्यो॰ उक्तानि अधिक-मृक्षशब्दे पृ॰ दृश्यम्।

२ मुक्तामयहारभेदे स च नक्ष-त्रसंख्यया सप्तविंशत्यारचितः।
“नक्षत्रमालामरणमिवमदनद्विपस्य” कादम्ब॰। नक्षत्रं च

२१

६०

० कलात्मकस्यराशिचक्रस्य अष्टशतकलात्मकम्
“भभोगोऽष्टशतीलिप्ता” सू॰ सि॰ उक्तेः युक्तञ्चैतत्

२१

६०

० कलात्मकस्यतस्य

२७ विंशत्या भागे

८०

० शतान्येन कला लभ्यन्वे। तेषां योगतारास्वरूपादिकमश्लेषाशब्दे

४९

७ पृ॰ उक्तम्विक्षेपादयश्च खगोलशब्दे

२४

२४ ।

२५ पृ॰ उक्ताः। तेषां प्रयोगे लिङ्गमेदश्च यथा
“हस्तास्वातिश्रवणा[Page3929-a+ 38] अक्लीवे मृगशिरा न पुंसि स्यात्। पुंसि पुनर्वसुपुष्यौमूलन्त्वस्त्रियां शेषाः स्त्रियां बोध्याः” इदं प्रायिकम्।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


नक्षत्र¦ n. (-त्र)
1. A star in general.
2. An asterism in the moon's path or lunar mansion, of which twenty-eight, distinct in name, figure, and number of stars, are enumerated; the Poura4nic and popular enumeration of those constellations is twenty-seven; Abhijit, the twenty-eighth, being considered as formed of portions of the two contiguous asterisms, and not distinct from them
2. A pearl. E. नक्ष् to go, Una4di, affix अत्रन् or क्षद Sautra root, to injure, or क्षर् to drop, or क्षी to waste or decay, with the negative prefix, and ष्ट्रन् affix; deriv. irr. न क्षीयते क्षरते वा |

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


नक्षत्रम् [nakṣatram], [न क्षरति; cf. Uṇ.3.15 also]

A star in general.

A constellation, an asterism in the moon's path, lunar mansion; नक्षत्राणामहं शशी Bg.1.21. नक्षत्र- ताराग्रहसंकुलापि R.6.22; (they are twenty-seven).

A pearl.

A necklace of 27 pearls. -Comp. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः, -नाथः, -पः, -पतिः, -राजः the moon; R.6.66. -उपजीविन् an astrologer. -कान्तिविस्तारः the white Yāvanāla flower.

चक्रम् the sphere of the fixed stars.

the lunar asterisms taken collectively.-जातम् birth when the moon is in a particular Nakṣatra. -दर्शः an astronomer or astrologer.

नेमिः the moon.

the pole-star.

an epithet of Viṣṇu. (-मिः f.) Revatī, the last asterism. -पथः the starry sky. -पाठकः an astrologer.

पुरुषः (in astr.) the figure of a man's body on the limbs of which are shown the various asterisms. -भोगः the diurnal period of a Nakṣatra; भभोगो$ष्टशती लिप्ता Sūrya-siddhānta.

माला a group of stars.

a necklace of twenty-seven pearls; 'सैव नक्षत्रमाला स्यात् सप्तविंशतिमौक्तिकैः' Ak.; Śi.18.35; नक्षत्रमालाभरणमिव मदनद्विपस्य; K.; Kau. A.2. 11.

the table of the asterisms in the moon's path.

a kind of neck-ornament of elephants; अनङ्गवारण- शिरोनक्षत्रमालायमानेन मेखलादाम्ना K.11. -मालिनी N. of a flowering creeper (Mar. जाई). -योगः the conjunction of the moon with the lunar mansions. -लोकः the starry region, the firmament. -वर्त्मन् n. the sky. -विद्या astronomy or astrology; Ch. Up.7.1.2. -वृष्टिः f. shooting of falling stars. -साधनम् calculation for the fixation of auspicious periods of Nakṣatras. -सूचकः a bad astrologer; तिथ्युत्पत्तिं न जानन्ति ग्रहाणां नैव साधनम् । परवाक्येन वर्तन्ते ते वै नक्षत्रसूचकाः ॥ or अविदित्वैव यः शास्त्रं दैवज्ञत्वं प्रपद्यते । स पङ्क्तिदूषकः पापो ज्ञेयो नक्षत्रसूचकः ॥ Bṛi. S.2.17,18.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


नक्षत्र n. ( m. only RV. vi , 67 , 6 ; prob. fr. नक्ष्See. नक्ष् द्याम्, i , 33 , 14 etc. ) a star or any heavenly body

नक्षत्र n. also applied to the sun

नक्षत्र n. sg. sometimes collectively " the stars " e.g. vii. 86 , 1 RV. etc.

नक्षत्र n. an asterism or constellation through which the moon passes , a lunar mansion AV. etc. etc. (27 , later 28 , viz. श्रविष्ठाor धनिष्ठा, शत-भिषज्, पूर्व-भद्रपदा, उत्तर--bh भद्रपदा, रेवती, अश्विनी, भरणी, कृत्तिका, रोहिणीor ब्राह्मी, मृग-शिरस्or आग्रहायणी, आर्द्रा, पुनर्वसूor यामकौ, पुष्यor सिध्य, आश्लेषा, मघा, पूर्व-फल्गुनी, उत्तर--ph फल्गुनी, हस्त, चित्रा, स्वाती, विशाखाor राधा, अनुराधा, ज्येष्ठ, मूल, पूर्वा-षाढा, -Uttara7sh उत्तराषाढा, अभिजित्, श्रवण; according to VarBr2S. रेवती, उत्तर-फल्गुनी, उत्तर-भाद्रपदाand उत्तराषाढाare called ध्रुवाणि, fixed ; in the वेदp the नक्षत्रs are considered as abodes of the gods or of pious persons after death Sa1y. on RV. i , 50 , 2 ; later as wives of the moon and daughters of दक्षMBh. Hariv. etc. ; according to जैनs the sun , moon , ग्रहs , नक्षत्रs and ताराs form the ज्योतिष्कs)

नक्षत्र n. a pearl L.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Nakṣatra is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[१] resolves it into na-kṣatra (‘no power’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta[२] refers it to the root nakṣ, ‘obtain,’ following the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa.[३] Aufrecht[४] and Weber[५] derived it from nakta-tra, ‘guardian of night,’ and more recently[६] the derivation from nak-kṣatra, ‘having rule over night,’ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star.’

The Nakṣatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.--The sense of ‘star’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Nakṣatra occurs in the Rigveda.[७] The same sense occurs in the later Saṃhitās also: the sun and the Nakṣatras are mentioned together,[८] or the sun, the moon, and the Nakṣatras,[९] or the moon and the Nakṣatras,[१०] or the Nakṣatras alone;[११] but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of ‘lunar mansion’ in these passages.

On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Nakṣatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tiṣya,[१२] however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual)[१३] the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phalgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age.[१४] Ludwig[१५] and Zimmer[१६] have seen other references to the Nakṣatras as 27 in the Rigveda,[१७] but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (‘rich’) and punarvasā (‘bringing wealth again’) in another hymn[१८] appear to refer to the Nakṣatras.

The Nakṣatras as Lunar Mansions.--In several passages of the later Saṃhitās the connexion of the moon and the Nakṣatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāṭhaka[१९] and Taittirīya Saṃhitās[२०] it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohiṇī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber[२१] hence deduced that the Nakṣatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Saṃhitās: the Taittīriya has 33, and the Kāṭhaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Saṃhitā[२२] and elsewhere.[२३] The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa[२४] Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book,[२५] in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā,[२६] and in the Atharvaveda list,[२७] it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3×3×3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.[२८] Weber,[२९] however, believes that 27 is the older number in India.

The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lāṭyāyana[३०] and Nidāna Sūtras[३१] as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Nakṣatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra[३२] makes an attempt to introduce the Nakṣatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13(1/3) days in each Nakṣatra (13(1/3)×27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda.[३३]

The Names of the Nakṣatras.--In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda[३४] gives the names of Jyeṣṭhaghnī[३५] (the later Jyeṣṭhā) and Vicṛtau,[३६] which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kṛttikās.[३७] With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or ‘laying of the sacred fires,’ the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā,[३८] the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā,[३९] and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa[४०] mention the Nakṣatras called Kṛttikās, Rohiṇī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmaṇa adds Punarvasū, and in an additional remark[४१] excludes Pūrve Phalgunī in favour of Uttare Phalgunī. The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[४२] adds Mṛgaśīrṣa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities[४३] as suitable for the Punarādheya, ‘relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer.[४४] The Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā,[४५] however, allows Anurādhās also.

In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or ‘piling of the firealtar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Nakṣatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Nakṣatras multiplied by 27 secondary Nakṣatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense.[४६] But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Saṃhitās[४७] enumerate the 27 Nakṣatras, and these lists[४८] may be given in extenso as follows:<C1>Taittirīya Saṃhitā. <C2>Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhita. <C3>Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā.<C1>1. Kṛttikās (fem. plur.) ... <C2>Kṛttikās ... ... ... <C3>Kṛttikās<C1>2. Rohiṇī ... ... ... <C2>Rohiṇī ... ... ... <C3>Rohiṇī<C1>3. Mṛgaśīrṣa (neut.) ... <C2>Invagā ... ... ... <C3>Invakā<C1>4. Ārdrā ... ... ... <C2>Bāhu ... ... ... <C3>Bāhu<C1>5. Punarvasū (dual) ... <C2>Punarvasu (sing.) ... ... <C3>Punarvasu<C1>6. Tiṣya ... ... ... <C2>Tiṣya ... ... ... <C3>Tiṣya<C1>7. Āśreṣās (fem. plur.) ... <C2>Āśleṣās(plur.; Pada Aśleṣā) <C3>Āśleṣās (or Aśleṣās)<C1>8. Maghās (fem. plur.) ... <C2>Maghās ... ... ... <C3>Maghās<C1>9. Phalgunī (fem. dual) ... <C2>Phalgunīs (plur.) ... ... <C3>Phalgunis<C1>10. Phalgunī (fem. dual) ...<C2>Phalgunīs (plur.) ... ... <C3>Uttarāḥa Phalgunīs<C1>11. Hasta ... ... ... <C2>Hasta ... ... ... <C3>Hastau (dual)<C1>12. Citrā ... ... ... <C2>Citrā ... ... ... <C3>Citrā<C1>13. Svātī ... ... ... <C2>Niṣṭya (neut.) ... ... <C3>Niṣṭyā<C1>14. Viśākhe (fem. dual) ... <C2>Viśākha (neut. sing.) ... <C3>Viśākhā (fem. sing.)<C1>15. Anūrādhās (plur.) ... <C2>Anūrādhā (Pada Anu-Anūrādhās (masc. rādhā) <C3>Anūrādhās (masc. plur.)<C1>16. Rohiṇī ... ... ... <C2>Jyeṣṭhā ... ... ... <C3>Jyeṣṭhā<C1>17. Vicṛtau ... ... ... <C2>Mūla (neut.) ... ... <C3>Mūla<C1>18. Aṣāḍhās (fem. plur.) ... <C2>Aṣāḍhās ... ... ... <C3>Aṣāḍhās<C1>19. Aṣāḍhās (fem. plur.) ... <C2>Aṣāḍhās ... ... ...<C3>Uttarā Aṣāḍhās<C1>20. <C2>Abhijit ... ... ...<C1>21. Śroṇā ... ... ... <C2>Śroṇā ... ... ... <C3>Aśvattha<C1>22. Śraviṣṭhās (plur.) ... <C2>Śraviṣṭhās ... ... ... <C3>Śraviṣṭhās<C1>23. Śatabhiṣaj ... ... <C2>Śatabhiṣaj ... ... ... <C3>Śatabhiṣaj<C1>24. Proṣṭhapadās (masc. plur.) <C2>Proṣṭhapadās ... ... <C3>Proṣṭhapadās<C1>25. Proṣṭhapadās(masc. plur.) <C2>Proṣṭhapadās ... ... <C3>Uttare Proṣṭhapadās<C1>26. Revatī ... ... ... <C2>Revatī ... ... ... <C3>Revatī<C1>27. Aśvayujau (dual) ... <C2>Aśvayujau ... ... ... <C3>Aśvayujau<C1>28. Apabharaṇīs (fem. plur.) <C2>Bharaṇīs ... ... ... <C3>Apabharaṇīs

The Taittirīya Brahmaṇa[४९] has a list of the Nakṣatras which agrees generally with the list of the Saṃhitās. It runs as follows: Kṛttikās, Rohiṇī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tiṣya, Āśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phalgunī, Uttare Phalgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Niṣṭyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohiṇī, Mūlabarhaṇī, Pūrvā Aṣāḍhās, Uttarā Aṣāḍhās, Śroṇā, Śraviṣṭhās, Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrve Proṣṭhapadās, Uttare Proṣṭhapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharaṇīs. In a later book,[५०] however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number 28, as an attempt to bring the Nākṣatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Saṃhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Kṛttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varṣayantī, Cupuṇīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya[५१] and Kāṭhaka Saṃhitās.[५२] Beside Mṛgaśīrṣa, Invakās are also mentioned.[५३] Then come Ārdrā, Punarvasū, Tiṣya, Āśreṣās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arundhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau),[५४] Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Niṣṭyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyeṣṭhā, Mūla, Aṣāḍhās, Aṣāḍhās, Abhijit, Śronā, Śraviṣṭhās, Śatabhiṣaj, Proṣṭhapadās, Proṣṭhapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharaṇyas, but also Apabharaṇīs.[५५] Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmaṇa,[५६] is perhaps interpolated. But Weber's[५७] argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmaṇa is here mentioned as the 28th Nakṣatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā[५८] contains 28 Nakṣatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmaṇa at the end as another.

In another passage[५९] the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa divides the Nakṣatras into two sets, the Deva Nakṣatras and the Yama Nakṣatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmaṇa[६०] where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Nakṣatras. The Brāhmaṇa treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity.

The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list[६१] of the Nakṣatras, including Abhijit. The names here given are: Kṛttikās, Rohiṇī, Mṛgaśiras, Ārdrā, Punarvasū, Puṣya, Āśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrvā Phalgunyau (sic),[६२] Hasta, Citrā, Svāti (masc.),[६३] Viśākhe, Anurādhā,[६४] Jyeṣṭhā, Mūla, Pūrvā Aṣāḍhās,[६५] Uttarā Aṣāḍhās, Abhijit, Śravaṇa, Śraviṣṭhās, Śatabhiṣaj, Dvayā Proṣṭhapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharaṇyas.

The Position of the Nakṣatras.--There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Nakṣatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber[६६] was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney[६७] in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta.

Nakṣatra.--In note ^137, 1, 424, supply ‘of’ before ‘the criticisms made,’ and in the following lines read ‘Journal’ and ‘466.’
==Foot Notes==

Vedic Rituals Hindi[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


नक्षत्र न.
एक प्रकार के यज्ञ का नाम, इसे भरणी नक्षत्र (चैत्र मास की) पूर्णमाषी के दिन प्रारम्भ करना चाहिए। अथवा इसे जन्मकालिक नक्षत्र में प्रारम्भ करना चाहिए एवं हर वर्ष अथवा तीन वर्ष इसे जारी रखना चाहिए। इसमें ‘जीवातुमन्त्र आज्यभाग’ विहित हैं और प्रथमतया अगिन् अथवा नक्षत्रों को जो भी हो, आहुतियां दी जाती हैं। इसके बाद अगिन् के लिए अष्टाकपाल पुरोडाश एवं ‘अनुमति’ के लिए पके हुये चावल का विधान है। सामिधेनियों की संख्या इसमें सत्रह होती है। स्विष्टकृत् के पूर्व ‘अगिन्’, कृत्तिकाओं एवं अम्बा आदि के लिए चम्मच को भर कर घृत की आहुतियां दी जाती हैं। विष्णुक्रम के साथ इस कृत्य का समापन होता है। ‘विशाखा’, मघा, ‘अनुराधा’ एवं ‘अभिजित्’ आदि के लिए देय आहुतियों में कुछ विभिन्नतायें हैं। इस यज्ञ की भी दक्षिणा वही है जो ‘अपाघ’ यज्ञ के लिए निर्धारित है, (तै.ब्रा. 3.12.4.7), अर्थात् चार साल की ओसर (गाय) एवं श्वेत-ताम्र-पात्र एवं स्त्रियों के आभूषण, श्रौ.को. (अं.) I.591-593; बौ.श्रौ.सू. 28.3-4.

  1. ii. 1, 2, 18. 19. Cf. a citation in Nirukta, iii. 20.
  2. Loc. cit., and of. St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v.
  3. i. 5, 2, 5.
  4. Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 8, 71, 72. So Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 12, 288, n. 2.
  5. Naxatra, 2, 268.
  6. Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, p. 74. line 8.
  7. See i. 50, 2;
    vii. 86, 1;
    x. 68, 11;
    111, 7;
    used of the sun itself, vi. 67, 6 (as masculine);
    vii. 81, 2;
    x. 88, 13. The sun is allied with them, iii. 54, 19. Nakṣatra-śavas, ‘equalling the multitude of the stars,’ is used as an epithet in x. 21, 10. Even in x. 85, 2, where Soma, on the lap of the Nakṣatras, is mentioned, ‘stars’ would do;
    but, as this hymn refers to two of the later Nakṣatras, ‘lunar mansions’ may well be meant.
  8. Av. vi. 10, 3;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxiii. 43;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, x. 1, 1;
    Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, iv. 10, 12.
  9. Av. vi. 128, 3;
    xv. 6, 2;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 8, 13, 3;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxii. 29, etc.
  10. Av. v. 24, 10;
    vi. 86, 2;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 4, 5, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxv. 15;
    xxxvii. 12;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 21;
    xxxix. 2, etc.
  11. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 2, 2, 2;
    ii 6, 2, 6, etc;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxx. 21 etc.;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, Aśvamedha, v. 5, and very often elsewhere.
  12. Rv. v. 59, 13;
    x. 64, 8;
    Weber, 2, 290.
  13. x. 85, 13;
    Weber, 364-367, and see references under Aghā and Arjunī.
  14. Cf. Arnold, Vedic Metre, 322.
  15. Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 184 et seq.
  16. Altindisches Leben, 354. Cf. Tilak, Orion, 158.
  17. i. 162, 18 (the 34 ribs of the horse = moon, sun, 5 planets, 27 Nakṣatras);
    x. 55, 3 (34 lights).
  18. x. 19, 1.
  19. xi. 3 (Indische Studien, 3, 467).
  20. ii. 3, 5, 1-3. Cf. also iii. 4, 7. 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xviii. 14;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xviii. 40;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ix. 4, 1, 9;
    Ṣaḍviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, iii. 12. The dwelling of the moon in a Nakṣatra is mentioned, Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, x. 5, 4, 17;
    Nirukta, v. 21;
    a Mantra in Kauśika Sūtra, 135;
    Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, i. 11, 6;
    v. 12, 1, etc.
  21. Op. cit., 277. Cf. the later system of the Siddhāntas, Whitney, Oriental and Linguistic Studies, 2, 372, and see Tilak, Orion, 33 et seq.
  22. iv. 4, 10, 1-3.
  23. Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxix. 13, but Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 13, 20, has 28;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, i. 5, 1, 1-5, in lists of Nakṣatras. See also Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, ix, 7;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, x. 5, 4, 5;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, xxiii, 23;
    Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, v. 1;
    Sāṅkhāyana Āraṇyaka, ii. 16;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 1, 2, 2;
    Jyotiṣa, 18. 20 (verse 34 has 28, but it is interpolated);
    Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xiv. 78, etc.
  24. i. 5, 2, 3. Cf. Weber, 1, 360, n.
  25. iii. 1, 2, 6.
  26. ii. 13, 20.
  27. xix. 7, 1;
    8, 1 = Nakṣatrakalpa, 10. 26. So in Śāṅkhāyana Gṛhya Sūtra, i. 26.
  28. Whitney, op. cit., 409-411;
    Journal of the American Oriental Society, 8, 390.
  29. Op. cit., 2, 280;
    Indische Studien, 9, 446;
    10, 223, 224, 226, 227.
  30. iv. 8, 1 et seq.
  31. v. 11. 12. See Weber, 2, 281288.
  32. Thibaut, Astronomic, Astrologie und Mathematik, 7.
  33. See Māsa.
  34. l. e., books i. xvi.
  35. vi. 110, 2. This constellation, ‘the slayer of the oldest,’ was apparently of evil omen. Cf. Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, i. 5, 2, 8. Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 361, equates it with Antares or Cor Scorpionis, with or without , Scorpionis (Jyaīṣṭhaghnī is a misreading in the edition of Whitney and Roth).
  36. vi. 110, 2. It is also mentioned in ii. 8, 1;
    iii. 7, 4;
    vi. 121, 3. It is identified by the commentators with Mūla, ‘the root,’ the two stars, and Scorpionis, which form the sting of the Scorpion's tail;
    Whitney, op. cit., 48.
  37. ix. 7, 3.
  38. viii. 1.
  39. i. 6, 9.
  40. i. 1, 2, 1-6.
  41. i. 1, 2, 8.
  42. ii. 1, 2, 1.
  43. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 5, 1, 4;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 7, 2;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, viii. 15;
    Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, ii. 1, 2, 10;
    Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, i. 3.
  44. Hillebrandt, Rituallitteratur, 109.
  45. viii. 15;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā. i. 7, 2.
  46. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, x. 5, 4, 5. See Weber, 2, 298, with whom Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 42, 383, n. 1, concurs. For a wild speculation, see Shamasastry, Gavam ayana, 122 et seq.
  47. Taittiriya Samhitā, iv. 4, 10. 1-3;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 13, 20;
    Kātnaka Saṃhitā, xxxix. 13.
  48. The forms and genders are given as accepted by Weber, 2, 300. The latter depend on references to the names of the Nakṣatras in other passages in some cases--e.g., Anūrādheṣu, in Kāṭhaka, viii. 15, shows that the name is a masculine in that Saṃhitā.
  49. i. 5, 1
  50. iii. 1, 4, 1 et seq. Cf. iii. 1, 1-2.
  51. iv. 4, 5, 1.
  52. xl. 4.
  53. iii. 1, 4, 3.
  54. iii. 1, 4, 9.
  55. iii. 1, 5, 14.
  56. i. 5, 2, 3.
  57. Op. cit., 305, 306.
  58. ii. 13, 20.
  59. i. 5, 2, 7. Cf. Tilak, Orion, 41 et seq.
  60. iii. 1, 2. Cf. Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, iv. 12, with Vināyaka's note.
  61. xix. 7, 1 et seq. The number is given as 28 in xix. 7, 1 (as emended) and 8, 2. Cf. Lanman's introductory note to the former hymn in Whitney's Translation, 906, 907.
  62. The reading Pūrvā Phalgunyau must be wrong;
    perhaps Dvaye (cf. verse 5) or Pūrve should be read. See Lanman in Whitney, Translation of the Atharvaveda, 908. The Uttare Phalgunyau are omitted.
  63. Svātī should, no doubt, be read;
    but for the Svāti (sie) of all the manuscripts (Saṃhitā and Pada), cf. the navasrakti of the Aitareya Āraṇyaka, ii. 3, 6, with Keith's note.
  64. See Lanman in Whitney, 908.
  65. Lanman, ibid., 909. reads Pūrvā Aṣāḍhā and Uttarā Aṣāḍhā;
    Whitney reads Pūrvā and Uttarā Aṣāḍhās. The manuscripts have Pūrvā and Uttare, which cannot stand.
  66. Op. cit., 2, 367 et seq.
  67. Oriental and Linguis'tic Essays, 2, 350 et seq.
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