मास

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मासः, पुं, (मस् परिमाणे + भावे घञ् ।) माष- परिमाणम् । इत्यमरटीकायां भरतः । माषा इति भाषा ॥ (मस्यते परिमीयते असावने- नवेति मस् + घञ् ।) शुक्लकृष्णपक्षद्बयात्मकः कालः । स च पौषमाघादिद्बादशसंज्ञकः । इत्यमरः । १ । ४ । १२ ॥ माश्चन्द्रस्तस्यायं मासः ष्णः । चान्द्रमासस्येयं व्युत्पत्तिः । सौरादिषु तु मस्यते परिमीयतेऽनेनासौ वा मासः । मसिर्य ई परिमाणे घञ् । माः सान्तोऽपि । मास्तु मासोऽपि दृश्यते । इति हड्डः । इति भरतः ॥ * ॥ स्मृतिमतेऽपि पौषादिद्वादशसंज्ञकः । यथा, -- “चक्रवत् परिवर्त्तेत सूर्य्यः कालवशाद्यतः । अतः सांवत्सरं श्राद्धं कर्त्तव्यं मासचिह्नितम् ॥ मासचिह्नन्तु कर्त्तव्यं पौषमाघाद्यमेव हि । यतस्तत्र विधानेन स मासः परिकीर्त्तितः ॥” इति लघुहारीतः ॥ कार्त्तिकादिद्बादशसंज्ञकोऽपि । यथा, -- “अन्त्योपान्त्यौ त्रिभौ ज्ञेयौ फाल्गुनश्च त्रिभो मतः । शेषा मासा द्विभा ज्ञेयाः कृत्तिकादिव्यव- स्थया ॥” स च चैत्रादिद्बादशसंज्ञकश्च । यथा व्यक्तं ब्रह्मपुराणम् । “चैत्रे मासि जगद्ब्रह्मा ससर्ज्ज प्रथमेऽहनि । शुक्लपक्षे समग्रन्तु तदा सूर्य्योदये सति ॥ प्रवर्त्तयामास तदा कालस्य गणनामपि । ग्रहान्राशीनृतून् मासान् वत्सरान् वत्सराधि- पान् । इत्यनेन मासर्त्तुवत्सराणां चान्द्रत्वमुक्तम् । ब्रह्मसिद्धान्तेऽपि । “चैत्रसितादेरुदयाद्भानोर्व्वर्षर्त्तुमासयुगकल्पाः । सृष्ट्यादौ लङ्कायामिह प्रवृत्ता दिनैर्व्वत्स ॥” चैत्रसितादेश्चैत्रशुक्लप्रतिपदस्तामारभ्येत्यर्थः ॥ अपि च । “मीनादिस्थो रविर्येषामारम्भप्रथमक्षणे । भवेत्तेऽब्दे चान्द्रमासाश्चैत्राद्या द्वादश स्मृताः ॥” चान्द्रसावनसौरनाक्षत्रभेदेन स च चतुर्व्विधः । शुक्लप्रतिपदादिदर्शान्तश्चान्द्रः । तत्र चान्द्रो- ऽपि द्विविधः । शुक्लप्रतिपदादिदर्शान्तो मुख्यः । कृष्णप्रतिपदादिपौर्णमास्यन्तो गौणः । यत्- किञ्चित्त्रिंशत्तिथ्यात्मकश्चेति द्विविधो गौणः । त्रिंशदहोरात्रात्मकः सावनः । आदित्यैक- राशिभोगावच्छिन्नः सौरः । सप्तविंशतिनक्षत्रा- वच्छिन्नस्त्रिंशन्नाक्षत्रदिनात्मकश्च नाक्षत्रः । तथा च ब्रह्मसिद्धान्ते । “चान्द्रः शुक्लादिदर्शान्तः सावनस्त्रिंशता दिनैः । एकराशौ रविर्यावत् कालं मासः संभास्करः ॥ पञ्चाहानि त्र्यहाणि स्युर्द्दोलोत्सवो विधीयते ॥ दक्षिणाभिमुखं कृष्णं दोलयानं सकृन्नराः । दृष्ट्वापराधनिचयैर्मुक्तास्ते नात्र संशयः ॥ निक्षिप्य जलमात्रे तु मासे माधवसंज्ञिते । सौवर्णपात्रे ताम्रे वा रौप्ये वा मृण्मयेऽपि वा ॥ तोयस्थं योऽर्च्चयेद्देवं शालग्रामसमुद्भवम् । प्रत्यहं मां महाभागे ! तस्य पुण्यं न गण्यते ॥ दमनारोपणं कृत्वा श्रीविष्णौ च समर्पयेत् । वैशाख्यां श्रावणे भाद्रे कर्त्तव्यञ्च तदर्पणम् ॥ वैशाखे च तृतीयायां जलमध्ये विशेषतः । अथवा मण्डपे कुर्य्यात् मण्डले वा बृहद्ध्वजे ॥ सुगन्धचन्दनेनाङ्गसुपुष्टाङ्गो दिने दिने । यथा प्रयत्नतः कार्य्यः कृशाङ्गो नैव पूजितः ॥ चन्दनागुरुकस्तूरीकुष्ठं कुङ्कुमरोचना । जटामांसी वचा चैव विष्णोर्गन्धाष्टकं तथा । एतैर्गन्धयुतैश्चापि हरेरङ्गानि लेपयेत् ॥ घृष्टञ्च तुलसीकाष्ठं कर्पूरागुरुयोगतः । अथवा केशरैर्योज्यं हरिचन्दनमुच्यते ॥ अस्मिन् काले कृष्णभक्त्या ये प्रपश्यन्ति मानवाः ॥ न तेषां पुनरावृत्तिः कल्पकोटिशतैरपि ॥ सुगन्धिमिश्रितैस्तोयैः स्नापयित्वा जगद्गुरुम् । अथवा पुष्पमध्ये च स्थापयेज्जगदीश्वरम् ॥ बृन्दावनं तत्र कृत्वा उपस्कृतफलानि च । विष्णुभक्तेन योग्येन भोजयेत्तदशेषतः ॥ नारिकेलफलं नीरं कोषञ्चोद्धृत्य दापयेत् । कण्टाफलञ्च पनसं कोषमुद्धृत्य दीयते ॥ यथा पचेत्तथा दद्याद्यथाशक्ति नियोगतः । दध्ना विमिश्रितञ्चान्नं घृतेनाप्लुत्य दापयेत् ॥ पाचितं पिष्टकं धातुरष्टादश घृतेन च । तिलैश्च तिलसंमिश्रैः फलं शुद्धञ्च दापयेत् ॥ यद्यदेवात्मनः श्रेयस्तत्तदीशाय कल्पयेत् । दत्त्वा नैवेद्यवस्त्रादीनाददीत कथञ्चन । त्यक्तव्यं विष्णुमुद्दिश्य तद्भक्तेभ्यो विशेषतः ॥ इति ते कथितं किञ्चित् समासेन महेश्वरि ! । गोप्तव्यञ्च प्रयत्नेन स्वयोनिरिव पार्व्वति ! ॥” इति पाद्मे पातालखण्डे १२ अध्यायः ॥

अमरकोशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मास पुं।

पक्षद्वयौ

समानार्थक:मास

1।4।12।2।3

ते तु त्रिंशदहोरात्रः पक्षस्ते दशपञ्च च। पक्षौ पूर्वापरौ शुक्लकृष्णौ मासस्तु तावुभौ॥

अवयव : दिवसः,त्रिंशत्मुहूर्ताः,पञ्चदशदिनानि,पूर्वपक्षः,अपरपक्षः,मनुष्यमासः_पितृदिनम्

 : पुष्यनक्षत्रयुक्ता_पौर्णमासी, पौषमासः, मार्गशीर्षामासः, माघमासः, फाल्गुनमासः, चैत्रमासः, वैशाखमासः, ज्येष्ठमासः, आषाढमासः, श्रावणमासः, भाद्रपदमासः, आश्विनमासः, कार्तिकमासः, प्रसवमासः

पदार्थ-विभागः : , द्रव्यम्, कालः

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मास¦ पु॰ माएव अण्।

१ चन्द्रे त्रिंशद्दिनात्मके

२ काले च। सच सौरसावनचान्द्रनाक्षत्रभेदाच्चतुर्{??}। मासश्चन्द्र-स्वयम् अण्।

३ चान्द्रे मासे तु मुख्यः। मस्यते परिमी-यतेऽनेन मस परिमाणे करणे घञ्। परिमाणपञ्चगुञ्जा-त्मके भरतः। स्वार्थे क। मासक तत्रैवार्थे।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मास¦ m. (-सः)
1. A month, the twelfth part of the Hindu year; it is usually a lunar one, consisting of thirty Tit'his, but it may be a Saura or solar month, being equal to the sun's passage through a sign of the zodiac; there is also a Savan month, consisting of thirty risings and settings of the sun; a Na4kshatra month, or month regulated by the lunar asterisms, and a fifth description of month called Va4rhaspatya, depending on the motions of the planet JUPITER; the lunar month also, being of two kinds, as reckoned from the new or from the full moon, completes six different modes of monthly computation.
2. A jeweller's weight: see माष। E. मास् the moon, aff. अण्; or मस् to measure, (the year by it,) aff. घञ् |

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मासः [māsḥ] सम् [sam], सम् [मा एव अण्]

A month, (it may be चान्द्र, सौर, सावन, नाक्षत्र or बार्हस्पत्य); न मासे प्रतिपत्तासे मां चेन्मर्तासि मैथिलि Bk.8.95.

The moon (Ved.).

The number 'twelve'. -Comp. -अधिपः, -अधिपतिः the planet presiding over a month. -अनुमासिक a. monthly; पिण्डान्वाहार्यकं श्राद्धं कुर्यान्मासानुमासिकम् Ms.3.122.-अन्तः the day of new moon. -अवधिक a. lasting for or occurring in a month. -आहार a. eating only once a month.

उपवासिनी a woman who fasts for a whole month.

a procuress, a lascivious or lewd woman (ironically.). -ऋक्षम् the constellation after which a month (like चैत्र, वैशाख) is named; माघे च सितसप्तम्यां मघाराकासमागमे । राकया चानुमत्वा वा मासार्क्षाणि व्युतान्यपि ॥ Bhāg.7.14.22. -कालिक a. monthly, lasting for a month. -चारिक a. practising (any thing) for a month. -जात a. a month old, born a month ago. -ज्ञः a kind of gallinule. -देय a. to be paid in a month. -पाक a. maturing in a month. -प्रमितः the new-moon.-प्रवेशः the beginning of a month. -भुक्तिः (the sun's) monthly course. -मानः a year. -संचयिक a. having provisions for a month; सद्यः प्रक्षालको वा स्यान्माससंचयिको$पि वा Ms.6.18.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


मास m. (or n. Siddh. )the moon(See. पूर्ण-म्)

मास m. a month or the 12th part of the Hindu year (there are 4 kinds of months , viz. the solar , सौर; the natural , सावन; the stellar , नाक्षत्र, and the lunar , चा-न्द्र; the latter , which is the most usual and consists of 30 तिथिs , being itself of two kinds as reckoned from the new or full moon See. IW. 179 ; for the names of the months See. ib. 173 n. 3 ) RV. etc. ( मासम्, for a month ; मासम् एकम्, for one month ; मासेन, in the course of a month ; मासे, in a -mmonth = after the lapse of a -mmonth)

मास m. a symbolical N. for the number " twelve " Su1ryas.

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


--३० days and nights; two पक्षस्; two months equal to a ऋतु; six months constitute an अयण and two अयणस् make one year; the twelve names of months Tapa, Tapasya, etc. are mentioned. Br. II. 7. २०; १३. १४ and ११४; वा. 3. १४; ३०. १६ and १७८; ३१. २६; वा. ६५. ५८; Vi. I. 3. 9-१०; II. 8. ८१; VI. 3. १०.

Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Māsa denotes a ‘month,’ a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later.

The characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of the new moon, Amā-vasyā, ‘home-staying (night),’ and ‘of the full moon,’ Paurṇa-māsī. Two hymns of the Atharvaveda[१] celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī,[२] the day before new moon; Kuhū,[३] also called Guṅgū,[४] the new moon day; Anumati,[५] the day before full moon; and Rākā,[६] the day of new moon. The importance of the new and full moon days is seen in the Darśa-pūrṇamāsau, or festivals of the new and full moon days respectively.

One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was important. In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa[७] there are stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and the twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitās and elsewhere[८] as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most commentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Māgha. It marked the end of the year, or the beginning of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa[९] places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha,[१०] not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāṣṭakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year.

It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon--the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon--the pūrṇimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi[११] argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon's conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg[१२] points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (pūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (kṛṣṇa) period. Thibaut[१३] considers that to assume the existence of the pūrṇimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber[१०] assumes that it occurs in the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or the beginning of the month.

That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to.[१४] It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas,[१५] and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in the Brāhmaṇa literature; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras[१६] refer to (1) years with 324 days--i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days--i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days--i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut[१७] clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa[१८] and to Garga.[१९]

That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer,[२०] indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year.[२१] But Weber[२२] may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant.

The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer[२३] is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five your Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29(16/31) days each = 1, 830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30(1/2) days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long;[२४] but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda[२५] are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa,[२६] occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and had no authority for the text itself.

On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days--a synodic lunar year--roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra[२७] treats it as a solar year, stating that he sun perambulates each Naxatra in 13(1/3) days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda[२८] downwards,[२९] teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days,[३०] 35 days,[३१] or 36 days.[३२] The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6×6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references[३३] to the year having 12 or 13 months.

The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described.[३४] These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv ṛtū); (3) Śukra, (4) Śuci (summer months, graiṣmāv ṛtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas),[३५] (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārṣikāv ṛtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) Ūrja (autumn months, śāradāv ṛtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),[३५] (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāv ṛtū); (11) Tapa (or Tapas),[३५] (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv ṛtū).

There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice[३६] and of the horse sacrifice,[३७] all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names,[३८] but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Āraṇyaka[३९] as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use.[४०]

In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā[४१] is Aṃhasaspati, while that given in the Taittirīya[४२] and Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitās[४३] is Saṃsarpa. The Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā[४४] gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Saṃsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names.[४५] The Atharvaveda[४६] describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition.

The other method of naming the months is from the Nakṣatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotiṣa[४७] mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identification of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmaṇas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year.[४८]

In the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[४९] are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling[५०] thinks, from yu, ‘ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘joint’ = division of time) probably[५१] denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda.[५२] More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-pakṣa,[५३] the second, that of the waning light, apara-pakṣa,[५४] Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-māsa).[५५]

Māsa, 2, 157, note ^10, add: according to Taittirīya Samhitā, iii. 5, 1, 3, the new moon begins the month.
==Foot Notes==

  1. vii. 79 and 80. Cf. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 5, 1, 1;
    Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, iii. 7, 5, 13, etc.
  2. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 8, 8, 1;
    iii. 4, 9, 1;
    Rv. ii. 32, 6;
    Av. ii. 26, 2;
    vi. 11, 3;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xi. 55. 56;
    xxxiv. 10;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xii. 8;
    Ṣaḍviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, v. 6.
  3. Av. vii. 47;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 8, 8, 1;
    iii. 4, 9, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xii. 8, etc.
  4. Rv. ii. 32, 8, where Sāyaṇa identifies it with Kuhū.
  5. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 8, 8, 1;
    iii. 4, 9, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xii. 8;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxix. 60;
    xxxiv. 8, 9;
    Ṣaḍviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, v. 6.
  6. Rv. ii. 32, 4;
    v. 42, 12;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 8, 8, 1;
    iii. 4, 9, 1. Cf. Nirukta, xi. 31;
    Weber, Indische Studien, 5, 228 et seq.;
    Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 189.
  7. x. 3, 11. Cf. Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, vi. 2, 2, 23;
    Av. xv. 16, 2.
  8. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 4, 8, 1;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, v. 9, 1. Cf. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 3, 8, 4;
    iv. 3, 11, 3;
    v. 7, 2, 2;
    Av. iii. 10;
    viii. 9, 10;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxix. 10;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 13, 21, etc. See Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xiii. 1, 2, with the commentary;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, loc. cit., with Sāyaṇa's notes;
    Weber, Naxatra, 2, 341, 342;
    Indische Studien, 17, 219 et seq.
  9. xix. 23.
  10. १०.० १०.१ So Vināyaka on Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, loc. cit.;
    Ānartīya on Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xiii. 19, 1;
    Weber, op. cit., 2, 345, 346, 353, 354. Weber accepts the scholiasts’ view that Māgha is here regarded as beginning with the day after full moon in Taiṣa;
    but it is simpler to suppose the meaning to be that Māgha is regarded as commencing with, not after, the new moon and ending with the day before new moon. Several passages in the Baudhāyana Śrauta Sūtra (ii. 12;
    iii. 1;
    xxvi. 18;
    xxx. 3;
    see Caland, Über das vituelle Sūtra des Baudhāyana, 36, 37) and Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, i. 3;
    Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, xi. 1, 1, 7, point to the full moon being the middle of the month, and the new moon being regarded as either the beginning or the end. Hopkins (n. 11) thinks Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, v. 1;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, vi. 2, 2, 18, point to the commencement of the month with the full moon. If this could be accepted, then the Aṣṭakā would fall a week before the winter solstice in Māgha.
  11. Zeitschrfit der Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 49, 229, n. 1;
    50, 81. Cf. Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 24, 20.
  12. Ibid., 48, 633, n. 1;
    49, 476, 477. This is the Epic rule, Hopkins, loc. cit.
  13. Indian Antiquary, 24, 87. None of the evidence is absolutely conclusive one way or the other. It is perfectly possible that the usage of families or districts differed. Cf. Thibaut, Astronomie, Astrologie und Mathematik, 12.
  14. Rv. i. 164, 11. 14, 48;
    x. 189, 3;
    190, 2;
    Av. iv. 35, 4;
    x. 7, 6;
    8, 23;
    xiii. 3, 8, etc.
  15. Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 10, 8;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, iv. 12;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxvi. 2, 3;
    Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, iii. 2;
    Aitareya Āraṇyaka, iii. 2, 1;
    Baudhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xxvi. 10;
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, i. 5, 22. See also Weber, Naxatra, 2, 288;
    Thibaut, Astronomie, Astrologie und Mathematik, 8.
  16. Lāṭyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, iv. 8, 1 et seq.;
    Nidāna Sūtra, v. 11. 12;
    Weber, Naxatra, 2, 281-288.
  17. Op. cit., 8, 9.
  18. verse 28.
  19. Cited in the commentary on the Jyotiṣa, 10.
  20. Altindisches Leben, 365, 366.
  21. Ten months is the period according to Rv. v. 78, 7-9;
    x. 184, 3;
    Av. i. 11, 6;
    iii. 23, 2;
    v. 25, 13;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxviii. 6;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iv. 5, 2, 4. 5 (ibid., ix. 5, 1, 63, a six months' embryo is alone able to live). A year is mentioned in Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, x. 1, 9 (ten months in vi. 1, 3);
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxiii. 8;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, vi. 1, 3, 8;
    xi. 5, 4, 6-11;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, iv. 22.
  22. Naxatra, 2, 313, n. 1.
  23. Op. cit., 369, 370.
  24. The Yuga is too long by nearly four days. The true year has 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46 seconds. Cf. Thibaut, op. cit., 24, 25.
  25. i. 164, 14;
    iii. 55, 18. These passages are, of course, obscure, but to interpret them as referring to the ten half years of the Yuga is particularly gratuitous.
  26. xvii. 13, 17. See also Thibaut, op. cit., 7, 8;
    Weber, Indische Streifen, 1, 91, and references. The most that can be said is that a tendency to accept five years as a convenient period for intercalation was arising, which ultimately appears developed in the Jyotiṣa. But we cannot say that a year of 366 days is known until then.
  27. Lāṭyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, iv. 8, has nothing of this, but Nidāna Sūtra, v. 12, 2, 5, is quite clear.
  28. i. 25, 8;
    perhaps 165, 15.
  29. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iv. 3, 1, 5;
    vi. 2, 2, 29;
    xii. 2, 1, 8;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, i. 12;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxxiv. 13;
    Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, x. 3, 2;
    xxiii. 2, 3;
    Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, v. 4, 29;
    Weber, Naxatra, 2, 336, n. 1.
  30. Av. xiii. 3, 8.
  31. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, x. 5, 4, 5.
  32. Ibid., ix. 1, 1, 43;
    3, 3, 18. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 43, 167, n. 1. Shamasastry, Gavām Ayana, 122, interprets these passages in quite an impossible manner. There is no trace of a month of 35-36 days in the Epic: Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 24, 42.
  33. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, v. 6, 7, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxi. 5;
    xxxiv. 9;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 10, 8;
    Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, v. 8;
    Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, i. 6;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ii. 2, 3, 27;
    iii. 6, 4, 24;
    v. 4, 5, 23;
    vii. 2, 3, 9, etc.;
    Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, i. 10, 6.
  34. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iv. 4, 11, 1;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xvii. 10;
    xxxv. 9;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ii. 8, 12;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xiii. 25;
    xiv. 6. 15. 16 27;
    xv. 57.
  35. ३५.० ३५.१ ३५.२ In Maitrāyaṇī, Kāṭhaka, and Vājasaneyi Saṃhitās. See notes 34, 36.
  36. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 4, 14, 1;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 3, 16;
    iv. 6, 7;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, iv. 7;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, vii. 30 (where Iṣ and Ūrj appear as the names of the months).
  37. Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iii. 12, 13;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxii. 31.
  38. See, e.g., Taittirīya Saṃhitā, i. 7, 9, 1;
    iv. 7, 11, 2;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā ix. 20;
    xviii. 28;
    xxii. 32;
    Kāthaka Saṃhitā, xxxv. 10, Weber, 2, 349, 350.
  39. iv. 7, 2;
    v. 6, 16.
  40. Cases like that of nabhas, used by Mallinātha on Meghadūta, i. 4, are merely scholastic.
  41. vii. 30;
    xxii. 31.
  42. i. 4, 14, 1.
  43. iii. 12, 13.
  44. xxxviii. 4.
  45. Ibid., xxxv. 10;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃitā, xxii. 30.
  46. v. 6, 4.
  47. Verse 6 Yajus recension = verse 5 Ṛc recension: Weber, 2, 354 et seq.
  48. Weber's theory (359) that Caitra was as the first spring month secondary to Phālguna is, of course, an error;
    for, owing to the precession of the equinoxes, Phālguna became the first month of spring de facto, while Caitra became virtually the last month of the preceding season. The truth is that the six seasons are an arbitrary division of the year, and that either Phālguna or Caitra could be regarded as the beginning of spring without much impropriety. See Weber, Indische Studien, 9, 457;
    10, 231, 232;
    Whitney, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 8, 71, 397, 398.
  49. viii. 4, 2, 12;
    3, 18. See Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xiv. 26. 31. The Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iv. 3, 10, 3, has the words in the form of yāva and ayāva, which are explained in v. 3, 4, 5.
  50. Sacred Books of the East, 43, 69, n.
  51. The months and the half months are the parvāṇi of the sacrificial horse in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, i. 1, 1. Cf. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 6, 3, 35;
    vi. 2, 2, 24;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xiii. 43;
    St. Petersburg Dictionary, s.v. 4, where the sense is left vague.
  52. i. 94, 4. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 189.
  53. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 4, 9, 6;
    Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, iv. 25, 3;
    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, vi. 7, 4, 7;
    viii. 4, 2, 11;
    Nirukta, v. 11,;
    xi. 5. 6.
  54. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, vi. 7, 4, 7;
    viii. 4, 2, 11;
    xi. 1, 5, 3;
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, iii. 1, 5;
    Nirukta, v. 11;
    xi. 6, etc.
  55. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 4, 5, 21;
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, i. 1, 1;
    iii. 8, 9 etc.;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vii. 1, 15, 1;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, iii. 12, 7;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xxii. 28.

    Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 364 et seq.;
    Thibaut, Astronomie, Astrologie und Mathematik, 7-9;
    Weber, Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 1894, 37 et seq.;
    Naxatra,
    2, passim.
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