कुरु

विकिशब्दकोशः तः
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यन्त्रोपारोपितकोशांशः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

कल्पद्रुमः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


कुरुः, पुं, (कृ + “कृग्रोरुच्च” । उणां १ । २५ । इति कुः उच्च ।) आग्नीध्रराजपुत्त्रः । स तु प्रियव्रत- राजपौत्त्रः । (स्वायम्भुवमनोः प्रपौत्त्रः उत्तरकुरु- राज्यं प्राप्तवांश्च । तत्रत्या नदी च भद्रेति नाम्ना विश्रुता । यथा विष्णुपुराणे । २ । १ । १६-२२ । “जम्बुद्वीपेश्वरो यस्तु आग्नीध्रो मुनिसत्तम ! । तस्य पुत्त्रा बभूवुस्ते प्रजापतिसमा नव ॥ नाभिः किम्पुरुषश्चैव हरिवर्ष इलावृतः । रम्यो हिरण्वान् षष्ठश्च कुरुर्भद्राश्व एव च ॥ केतुमालस्तथैवान्यः साधुचेष्टो नृपोऽभवत् । जम्बुद्वीपविभागांश्च तेषां विप्र ! निशामय ॥ पित्रा दत्तं हिमाह्वन्तु वर्षं नाभेस्त दक्षिणम् । हेमकूटं तथा वर्षं ददौ किम्पुरुषाय सः ॥ तृतीयं नैषधं वर्षं हरिवर्षाय दत्तवान् । इलावृताय प्रददौ मेरुर्यत्र तु मध्यगः ॥ नीलाचलाश्रितं वर्षं रम्याय प्रददौ पिता । श्वेतं तदुत्तरं वर्षं पित्रा दत्तं हिरण्वते ॥ यदुत्तरं शृङ्गवतो वर्षं तत्कुरवे ददौ । मेरोः पूर्ब्बेण यद्वर्षं भद्राश्वाय प्रदत्तवान्” ॥ वैवस्वतमनुवंश्यश्चन्द्रवंशीयराजविशेषः । स तु सम्बरणराजभार्य्यायां सूर्य्यकन्यायां तपत्यां जातः । अयमेव कुरुक्षेत्रपतिः । धार्त्तराष्ट्रपाण्डवानां पूर्ब्बपुरुषः । यथा, -- “योऽजमीढसुतस्त्वन्य ऋक्षः सम्बरणस्ततः । तपत्यां सूर्य्यकन्यायां कुरुक्षेत्रपतिः कुरुः ॥ परीक्षित् सधनुर्जह्नुर्निषधाश्वः कुरोः सुताः” ॥ इति श्रीभागवते । ९ । २२ । ४ ॥) भक्तम् । देशविशेषः । इति मेदिनी ॥ स तु जम्बुद्वीपस्य नववर्षान्तर्गत- वर्षविशेषः । इति ज्योतिषम् ॥ तद्देशवासी । तत्र बहुवचनान्तः । (यथा गीतायाम् १ । २५ । “उवाच पार्थ ! पश्यैतान् समवेतान् कुरूनिति” ॥) कण्टकारिका । इति शब्दचन्द्रिका ॥

वाचस्पत्यम्[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


कुरु¦ पु॰ कृ--क उच्च।

१ चन्द्रवंश्ये आजमीढनृपप्रपौत्रे

१ राज-भेदे
“योऽजमीढसुतस्त्वन्य ऋक्षः संवरणस्ततः। तपत्यांपूर्य्यकन्यायां कुरुक्षेत्रपतिः कुरुः। परीक्षित् सध-{??}र्जह्नुर्निषधश्च कुरोः सुताः” भाग॰

९ ,

२२ ,

३ , यथा च{??}स्य तपत्यामुद्भयः तथोक्तं भा॰ आ॰

१३

४ अ॰
“एवमासीन् महाभागा तपती नाम पौर्व्विकी। तववैवस्वती पार्थ! तापत्यस्त्वं यया मतः। तस्यां सञ्जनयामास{??}रुं संवरणो नृपः। तपत्यां तपतां श्रेष्ठ! तापत्यस्त्वं”{??}तोऽर्ज्जुन!”। कुरोर्निवासः जनपदे अणोलुप् लुपिव्यक्तिवद्वचनता।

२ तदीयनिवासदेशभेदे पु॰ भूम्नि।
“कु-रून् स्वपिति” सि॰ कौ॰। स च देशः वृह॰ स॰

१४ अ॰कूर्म्मविभागे
“साकेतकुरुकालकोटिकुकुराश्च पारि-पात्रनगः। औदुम्बरकापिष्ठलगजाह्वयाश्चेति मध्यमि-दम्” मध्यस्थतयोक्तं तत्सीमादि च
“हस्तिनापुरमा-रभ्य कुरुक्षेत्रस्य दक्षिणे। पञ्चालपूर्ब्बभागे तु कुरुदेशःप्रकीर्त्तितः, इति शक्तिसङ्कमतन्त्रे उक्तम्।
“आ मत्स्येभ्य-कुरुपाञ्चालदेश्याः” भा॰ क॰

२०

८ श्लोकः। तेषां राजनि अणबहुषु तस्य लुक्।

३ तद्देशराजे पु॰ भृस्नि
“कुरूणां सृञ्ज-यानाञ्च पुरोहित आस” शत॰ व्रा॰

२ ,

५ ,
“उवाच पार्थ। पश्यैतान् समवेतान् कुरूनिति” गीता।
“श्रियः कुरूणाम-धिपस्य पालनीम्” किरा॰ तस्येदम् अण्। कौरव तदपत्येपुंस्त्री
“ऋक्षात् स वरणो जज्ञे कुरुः संवरणात्तथा। यः प्रयागमतिक्रस्य कुरुक्षेत्रञ्चकार ह। पुण्यञ्च रमणो-यञ्च पुण्यकृद्भिर्निषेवितम्। तस्यान्ववायः सुमहान् यस्यनाम्ना स्थ कौरवाः” हरिवं ॰

३३ अ॰ कुर्या॰ अपत्येण्य। कौरव्यतदपत्ये पुंस्त्री बहुषु तस्य लुक्। क्वचिन्न
“कौरव्याःपशवः प्रियापरिभवक्ले शोपशान्तिः फलम्” वेणीसं॰। कौरव्ये साधवः अण्। कौरव्या इति तु माधवः।
“स्त्रि-यामवन्तिकुन्तिकुरुभ्यः” इति स्त्रियां लुकि नृजतित्वादृङ्कुरूः।

४ ओदने मेदि॰।

५ कण्ठकारिकायां शब्दच॰ पियव्र-तराजपौत्रे

६ आग्नीध्रराजपुत्रभेदे
“तस्यासु{??} वा आत्{??}[Page2123-a+ 38] जान् स राजवर आग्नीध्रोनाभिकिंपुरुषहरिवर्षे लावृत-रम्यकहिरण्मयकुरुभद्राश्वकेतुमालसंज्ञान्नव पुत्रानजन-यत्” भाग॰

५ स्क॰

२८ अ॰

१९ श्लो॰ तत्पुत्रकुरुराज्य-त्वेन

७ उत्तरकुरुनामके तद्वर्षे च। तत्प्रमाणञ्च उत्तर-कुरुशब्दे

१०

९४ पृ॰ दर्शितम्। पुराणसर्व्वस्वे विष्णुपु॰
“ना-भिञ्च प्रथमं बर्षं ततः किंपुरुषं स्थितम्। हरिवर्षं तथैवा-न्यत् मेरोर्दक्षिणतः स्थितम्। रम्यकञ्चोत्तरं वर्षं तथैवानुहिरण्मयम्। उत्तराः कुरुवश्चैव यथा वै भारतं तथा। इलावृतञ्च तन्मध्ये सौवर्ण्णोमेरुत्तमः” इति। अतस्तत्पुत्र-नवकनाम्ना नवानां वर्षाणां ख्यातिरिति। तत्सन्नि-वेशादिकं तत्रैवोक्तं यथा
“भद्रा तथोत्तरगिरीनुत्तरांश्च तथा कुरून्। अतीत्योत्तर-सम्भोधिं समभ्येति महामुने!। वङ्क्षुश्च पश्चिमगिरीन-तीत्य सकलांस्ततः। पश्चिमं केतुमालाख्यं वर्षमभ्येतिसार्णवम्। तथा चालकनन्दापि दक्षिणेनेत्य भारतम्। प्रयाति सागरं भृत्वा सप्तभेदा महामुने। आनीलनिषधायामौ माल्यवद्गन्धमादनौ। तयोर्नध्यगतो मेरुःकर्णिकाकारसांस्थितः। भारताः केतुमालाश्च भद्राश्वाःकुरवस्तथा। पद्मानि लोकपद्मस्य मर्य्यादाश्चैव बाह्यतः। जठरोदेवकूटश्च मर्य्यादापर्व्वातातुभौ। तौ दक्षिणोत्तरा-यामावानीलनिषधायतौ। मेरोः पश्चिमदिग्भागे यथा-पूर्व्वौ तथा स्थितौ। त्रिशृङ्गोजारुधिश्चैव उत्तरे वर्ष-पर्व्वतौ। पूर्व्व पश्चायतावेतावर्णवान्तव्यवस्थितौ। इत्येतेमुनिवर्योक्ता मर्य्यादापर्व्वतास्तवः। जठराद्याः स्थिता-मेरोर्येषां द्वौ द्वौ चतुर्द्दिशम्। मेरोश्चतुर्द्दिशं ये तुप्रोक्ताः केशरपर्वताः। शीतान्त्याद्या मुने! तेषामतीपेहमनोरमाः। शैलानामन्तरद्रोण्यः सिद्धचारणसेविताः। सुरम्याणि तथा तेषु काननानि पुराणि च। लक्ष्मोवि-ष्णूग्निसूर्य्यादि देवानां मुनिसत्तम!। तान्यायतनरम्याणिजुष्टानि वरकिन्नरैः। गन्धर्व्वयक्षरक्षांसि तथा दैतेयदा-नवाः। क्रीडन्ति तासु रम्यासु शैलद्रोणीष्वहर्निशम्। भौमाह्येते स्मृताः स्वर्गा धर्मिणामालया मुने!। नैतेषुपापकर्माणो यान्ति जन्मशतैरपि। भद्राश्वे भगवान् वि-ष्णुरास्त हयशिरा द्विज!। वराहः केतुमाले तु भारतेकूर्मरूपधृक्। मत्स्यरूपश्च गोविन्दः कुरुष्वास्ते सनातनः। विश्वरूपेण सर्व्वत्र सर्व्वः सर्व्वेश्वरोहरिः। सर्वस्याधार-भूतोऽसौ मैत्रेयास्तेऽखिलात्मकः। यानि किंपुरुषा-द्यानि वर्षास्यष्टौ महामुने!। न तेषु शोकोनोनोहो[Page2123-b+ 38] नोद्वेगः क्षुद्भयादिकम्। सुस्थाःप्रजा निरातङ्काः सर्व्वदुःखविवर्जिताः। दशद्वादशवर्षाणां सहस्राणि स्थिरा-युषः। न तेषु वर्षवर्य्येषु भौमान्यम्भांसि तेषु वै। कृतत्रेतादिका नैव तेषु स्थानेषु कल्पना। सर्वष्वेतेषुवर्षेषु सप्त सप्त कुलाचलाः। नद्यश्च शतशस्तेभ्यः प्रसूताया द्विजोत्तम!”। विजित्य यः प्राज्यमयच्छदुत्तरान्कुरूनकुप्यं वसु वासवोपममः” किरा॰

८ यज्ञादिकर्त्तरि त्रि॰कुरुश्रवणशब्देउदा॰।

शब्दसागरः[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


कुरु¦ m. (-रुः)
1. Kuru or Uttara Kuru, the most northerly of the four Maha Dwipas, or principal divisions of the known world, by other systems it is considered as one of nine divisions of Varshas of the same; in both cases it is the country beyond the northern-most range of mountains, extending to the frozen ocean.
2. A proper name, son of AGNIDHRA, and grandson of PRIYAVRATA.
3. A proper name, a prince of the lunar race, son of SAMVARANA by TAPATI; sovereign of the north-west of India or the country about Dehli, and ancestor of both PANDU and DHRITARASHTRA; the patrony- mic however derived from his name is most usually applied to the sons of the latter.
4. A holy place: see कुरुक्षेत्र।
5. Boiled rice.
6. Pricklynightshade: see कण्टकारिका। E. कृ to make, कु affix, and ऋ becomes. उ।

Apte[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


कुरुः [kuruḥ], (pl.)

N. of a country situated in the north of India about the site of the modern Delhi; श्रियः कुरूणा- मधिपस्य पालनीम् Ki.1.1; चिराय तस्मिन् कुरवश्चकासति 1.17.

The kings of this country.

रुः A priest.

Boiled rice. -Comp. -क्षेत्रम् N. of an extensive plain near Delhi, the scene of the great war between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas; धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः Bg.1.1; Ms.2.19. -क्षेत्रियोगः a solar day in the course of which three lunar days, three asterisms and three yogas occur. The yoga is indicative of death; पञ्चग्रहयुते मृत्यौ लग्नसंस्थे बृहस्पतौ । सौम्यक्षेत्रगते लग्ने कुरुक्षेत्रे मृति- र्भवेत् ॥ -चिल्लः a crab. -जाङ्गलम् = कुरुक्षेत्र q. v. -नन्दनः epithet of Arjuna; Bg.2.41;6.43. -पञ्चालाः N. of a country; कुरुपञ्चालानां ब्राह्मणाः Bṛi. Up.3.9.19. -बिल्वः a ruby. -राज् m.

राजः an epithet of Duryodhana. स्वस्था भवन्तु कुरुराजसुताः सभृत्याः Ve.1.7.

N. of Yudhi- ṣṭhira; कस्यचित्त्वथ कालस्य कुरुराजो युधिष्ठिरः Mb.16.1.7.-विस्तः a weight of gold equal to about 7 Troy grains. -वृद्धः an epithet of Bhīṣma; तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः Bg.1.12.

Monier-Williams[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


कुरु m. pl. N. of a people of India and of their country (situated near the country of the पञ्चालs ; hence often connected with पञ्चालor पञ्चाल[see कुरु-पञ्च्below]: the उत्तर-कुरवः, or उत्तराः कुरवःare the northern कुरुs , the most northerly of the four महा-द्वीपs or principal divisions of the known world [distinguished from the दक्षिणाः कुरवःor southern कुरुs MBh. i , 4346 ] , by other systems regarded as one of the nine divisions or वर्षs of the same ; it was probably a country beyond the most northern range of the हिमा-लय, often described as a country of everlasting happiness [ AitBr. MBh. etc. ] , and considered by some to be the ancient home of the Aryan race)

कुरु m. = ऋत्विजस्(priests) Naigh.

कुरु m. = कर्तारस्(" doers " , fr. 1. कृ) Comm. on ChUp.

कुरु m. N. of the ancestor of the कुरुs (son of संवरणand तपती, daughter of the sun [ MBh. i , 3738 ff. Hariv. 1799 etc. ] ; कुरुis the ancestor of both पाण्डुand धृत-राष्ट्र, though the patronymic derived from his name is usually applied only to the sons of the latter , the sons and descendants of the former being called पाण्डवs)

कुरु m. N. of a son of आग्नीध्रand grandson of प्रिय-व्रतVP. BhP.

कुरु m. boiled rice L.

कुरु m. the plant Solanum Jacquini(= कण्टकारिका) L.

कुरु f. ( ऊस्)a princess of the कुरुrace Pa1n2. 4-1 , 66 and 176 (See. कौरव, etc. )

Purana index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


(I)--a son of आग्नीध्र and पूर्वचित्ति; फलकम्:F1:  भा. V. 2. १९; वा. ३३. ४०; Vi. II. 1. १७ and २२.फलकम्:/F Lord of शृन्गवटम्. फलकम्:F2:  Br. II. १४. ४७.फलकम्:/F Kingdom north-east of शृङ्गवत्वर्ष. फलकम्:F3:  वा. ३३. ४४; Br. II. १४. ५१.फलकम्:/F
(II)--a son of Samvarna and तपटी; occupied प्रयाग and established कुरुक्षेत्र; Lord of कुरुक्षेत्र. Had four (several-वि। प्।) sons--परीक्षित् and others. फलकम्:F1:  भा. IX. २२. 4; वा. ९९. २१४-7;; Vi. १९. ७६-8.फलकम्:/F परीक्- षित्'s son Janamejaya was his grandson? At कुरुक्षेत्र he performed तपस् and फलकम्:F2:  Br. III. ६८. २१.फलकम्:/F pleased Indra. Family members were known as Kauravas. फलकम्:F3:  M. ५०. २०-2.फलकम्:/F [page१-406+ ५०]
(III)--a son of Manu and नड्वला; wife आग्नेयी; gave birth to six sons, अङ्ग and others. Vi. I. १३. 5, 6.
(IV)--(Uttara) country of the; famous for a forest शड्वल. वा. ८४. २३, ४८.
(V)--a continent bounded by शृन्गवन् on one side. Here Hari is worshipped in his Boar incarnation by पृथ्वि (Earth) with the Kurus. भा. V. १६. 8; १८. ३४-9.
(VI)--an eastern kingdom watered by the Ganges. Its king was enlisted by जरासन्ध, against Yadus, but was vanquished by कृष्ण. फलकम्:F1:  भा. I. १०. ३४. X. [५० (V) 2]; II. 7. ३५. Br. II. १८. ५०; III. ५९. 3 and ४६.फलकम्:/F He took part in the festivities con- nected with the marriage of रुक्मिनी and कृष्ण. फलकम्:F2:  भा. X. ५४. ५८.फलकम्:/F He praised कृष्ण's heroism and welcomed him. फलकम्:F3:  Ib. X. ७१. २९; ७२. 5; IX. २४. ६३.फलकम्:/F Took part in the राजसूय of युधिष्ठिर. फलकम्:F4:  Ib. X. ७५. १२.फलकम्:/F He went to स्यमन्तपञ्चक for solar eclipse; फलकम्:F5:  Ib. X. ८२. १३; ८४. ५५.फलकम्:/F migration of Yadus to. फलकम्:F6:  Ib. X. 2.फलकम्:/F

Purana Encyclopedia[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kuru : m. (pl.): Name of a country (once distinguished as northern and southern (14. 69. 19), also referred to as Kururāṣṭra (1. 105. 21), and its people (in general or those of Hāstinapura in particular); the term often signifies the descendants of Kuru or the the Kuru family in general (also called Kuruvaṁśa ), or the descendants of Kuru sitting in the assembly of the Kauravas; very often it signifies the chief warriors in the army of the Kauravas (in which case the term occasionally includes heroes like Droṇa, Kṛpa, Karṇa or the Saṁśaptakas (8. 59. 1, 3), or sometimes it refers even to the Kaurava army in general; sometimes the term Kuravaḥ includes the Pāṇḍavas and their descendants (Abhimanyu, Parikṣit and Janamejaya), or, as opposed to the Pāṇḍavas, the term is restricted to refer to the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (otherwise called Kauravas).


A. Country (often it is difficult to distinguish between the country and the people): Listed by Saṁjaya among the Janapadas of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha gadato mama/ tatreme kurupāñcālāḥ) 6. 10. 37. 5; its capital town Hāstinapura (sa hāstinapure ramye kurūṇāṁ puṭabhedane) 1. 94. 10 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 1. 100. 12: puṭabhedane pattane); (sa dharmātmā (bhīṣmaḥ)… yayau kurūn) 1. 96. 44; nāndhaḥ kurūṇāṁ nṛpatir anurūpas tapodhana) 1. 100. 11; when Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍu and Vidura were born the Kuru country, as also Kurujāṅgala and Kurukṣetra prospered (teṣu triṣu kumāreṣu jāteṣu kurujāṅgalaṁ/ kuravo 'tha kurukṣetram trayam etad avardhata//) 1. 102. 1 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 1. 109. 1: kurujāṅgalaṁ deśaḥ kuravaḥ puruṣāḥ kurukṣetraṁ teṣāṁ vāsasthānam); the Kuru country described after the birth of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍu and Vidura: it rained on time, draught-animals as well as birds and animals were happy; the cities were crowded with merchants and craftsmen; there were no robbers and no one took delight in unlawful acts; in all parts of the Kuru country, Kṛta yuga prevailed; people, free from pride, anger and greed, helped one another to prosper; there were tall houses and people sported in rivers, ponds and forest tracts; people of the southern Kurus as though vied with those of the Uttarakurus (see p. 635 ff.); no one was wretched; women did not suffer from widowhood; wells, gardens, and assembly halls, and lodging places for Brāhmaṇas were raised by the Kuru people; the country prospered by obliging other countries; the people celebrated festivals at all times; one always heard the words ‘give, enjoy’ in the houses of the people and of the Kuru chiefs; in short, the wheel of dharma, set in motion by Bhīṣma, prevailed in the land of Kurus (yathartuvarṣī parjanyo…nābhavan dasyavo kecin nādharmarucayo janāḥ…pradeśeṣv api rāṣtrāṇāṁ kṛtaṁ yugam avartata//…uttaraiḥ kurubhiḥ sārdhaṁ dakṣiṇāḥ kuravas tada/vispardhamānā vyacaraṁs…//…tasmiñ janapade ramye bahavaḥ kurubhiḥ kṛtāḥ/kūpārāmasabhāvāpyo brāhmaṇāvasathās tathā/…bhīṣmeṇa vihitaṁ rāṣṭre dharmacakram avartata//… gṛheṣu kurumukhyānām paurāṇām ca narādhipa/dīyatāṁ bhujyatāṁ ceti vāco 'śrūyanta sarvaśaḥ) 1. 102. 1-14); kururāṣṭrāṇi 1. 105. 21; abhyāgacchaṁ kurūn bhīṣma 1. 122. 38; kurubhyaḥ prasthitās te tu 2. 18. 26; kṣipraṁ kurūn yāhi 4. 61. 22; yāvad adhyāvasat kurūn 4. 65. 11; kurūn asapatno 'nuśiṣyām 5. 30. 46; 5. 31. 4; kuravas te sajāṅgalāḥ 5. 53. 7; kurūn gatvā bhāratāñ śamayeḥ prabho 5. 70. 90; samatsyaiḥ kurumadhyadeśaiḥ 5. 158. 20; bāhlīkaṁ kuruvāsinam 8. 30. 20; bhava rājā kuruṣv iti 9. 32. 3; kṛṣnaḥ…anvayāt kurūn 12. 38. 39; kurūn vai dakṣiṇottarān 14. 69. 19; kurūn abhyājagāma ha 14. 89. 25; gatvā kurūn 16. 5. 2; kurūṁs tadā dāruko…yayau 16. 5. 3; 16. 6. 1; kingdom of the Kuru country (kururājye…abhyaṣiñcat) 1. 95. 12; Arjuna expressed his wish to win the whole kingdom of the Kuru country (rājyaṁ kurūṇāṁ avajetā samagram) 5. 47. 91; (ekarājyaṁ kurūṇaṁ sma cikīrṣati yudhiṣṭhire) 5. 54. 10; (rājyam icchāmi kurūṇām) 9. 30. 41; (prāpya rājyaṁ kurūṇām) 13. 75. 28.


B. Kuru dynasty, Kuru family: Sūta traced the lineage of the Kuru to the Sun through five intervening generations (tebhyo 'yaṁ kuruvaṁśaś ca) 1. 1. 44; Vaiśaṁpāyana narrated to king Janamejaya a brief and a detailed account of the Kuru dynasty starting from the very beginning (vistaraṁ kuruvaṁśasya) 1. 1. 59; (kathitaṁ vai samāsena…kurūṇāṁ caritaṁ mahat) 1. 56. 1; kurūṇāṁ vaṁśam āditaḥ) 1. 62. 2; King Parikṣit was born in the line of the Kurus (kurukulotpanna) 1. 38. 36; after Parikṣit, Janamejaya got the kingdom which came to him in the line of the Kurus (rājyaṁ kurukulāgatam) 1. 45. 16; birth of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu necessary for the continuation of the line of the Kurus (asmākam api te janma viditaṁ…kurūṇāṁ vaṁśavṛddhaye) 1. 113. 23; Pāṇḍu brought fame to the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ akarod yaśaḥ) 1. 105. 12; Pāṇḍu told Kuntī that a son born to her by Dharma would be, among the Kurus, the one devoted to dharma (dhārmikaś ca kurūṇāṁ saḥ) 1. 113. 41; an incorporeal voice prophesied at Arjuna's birth that he would set right the emblem of the Kurus (kurulakṣma sudhāsyati) 1. 114. 31; the Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and others spoke about the extent of the glorious Kuru dynasty (yakṣarākṣasagandharvāḥ…vistaram kuruvaṁśasya śrīmataḥ kathayanti te//) 1. 159. 3; the Gandharva Aṅgāraparṇa himself had observed the prowess of the (Kuru)kula while wandering on the earth (svayaṁ cāpi mayā dṛṣṭaś…prabhāvaḥ svakulasya te) 1. 159. 5; sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra had crossed the limits of dharma of the Kuru dynasty (yatrābhyatītāṁ kurudharmavelām 2. 60. 33; if Yudhiṣṭhira got the kingdom of the illustrious Kurus, he could obtain great place (?) and perform sacrificial rites (prāpya rājyaṁ kurupuṁgavānām śakyaṁ mahat prāptum atha kriyāś ca) 3. 173. 12; the Kuru dynasty depended on Dhṛtarāṣṭra (tvayy ādhīnaṁ kurukulam) 5. 36. 71; it depended on Yudhiṣṭhira 15. 44. 25; the Kuru dynasty was glorious (kuruvaṁśasya śrīmataḥ) 1. 159. 3; it was considered the best of all the royal families (idam adya kulaṁ śreṣṭhaṁ sarvarājasu); it was learned, marked by good conduct and good qualities; it was distinguished for its compassion, sympathy, kindness, non-cruelty, straightforwardness, mercy, and truthfulness 5. 93. 5-6; according to the hereditary dharma of the Kuru family their kingdom was to be ruled according to succession (rājyaṁ kurūṇām anupūrvabhogyaṁ kramāgato naḥ kuladharma eṣaḥ) 5. 146. 29; Yudhiṣṭhira should be allowed to rule the kingdom of the Kurus that had legitimately gone to him (nyāyāgataṁ rājyam idaṁ kurūṇāṁ) 5. 146. 35; during the war, singers sang songs in praise of Kuru family (jagur gītāni gāyakāḥ/kuruvaṁśastavārthāni) 7. 58. 3; Arjuna desired to win back the kingdom of the Kurus (rājyaprepsuḥ savyasācī kurūṇāṁ) 7. 120. 85; Bhīṣma revived the Kuru dynasty which appeared to have ended (pranaṣṭaḥ kuruvaṁśaś ca punar yena samuddhṛtaḥ) 11. 23. 24; Bhagavān prophesied that when Tiṣya would arrive again high-souled Bhārata kings, called Kurus, would be born and would become famous on the earth; there would be feud for mutual destruction in the family of those born of Vyāsa (punas tiṣya ca saṁprāpte kuravo nāma bhāratāḥ/bhaviṣyanti …teṣāṁ tvattaḥ prasūtānāṁ kulabhedo bhaviṣyati) 12. 337. 42-43; bards and others praised Kṛṣṇa with songs proclaiming the praise of the Kuru family and by blessings (kuruvaṁśastavākhyābhir āśīrbhir…) 14. 69. 7; Yudhiṣṭhira had distinguished himself among the Kuru heroes by observing dharma (tvaṁ cādya kuruvīrāṇāṁ dharmeṇābhivirājase) 14. 70. 23; a Brāhmaṇa living in Hāstinapura, called Sāmba, told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that no king in the dynasty of the Kurus was at any time, as the protector of subjects, unpopular among them; he assured Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Yudhiṣṭhira would follow the footsteps of the ancient royal sages in his dynasty like Kuru, Saṁvaraṇa and Bharata (na jātv asya tu vaṁśasya rājñāṁ kaścit kadācana/rājāsīd yaḥ prajāpālaḥ prajānām apriyo 'bhavat// rājarṣīṇāṁ purāṇānām bhavatāṁ vaṁśadhāriṇām/…vṛttaṁ samanuyāty eṣa dharmātmā) 15. 15. 15; 23-24; Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī told Yudhiṣṭhira that the Śrāddha libation, fame and the lineage (of the Kurus) were established in him (tvayy adya piṇḍaḥ kīrtiś ca kulaṁ cedaṁ pratiṣṭhitam/ …tvayy adhīnaṁ kurukulaṁ piṇḍaś ca śvaśurasya me) 15. 44. 21, 25.


C. Members of the Kuru family, who lived at Hāstinapura (or outside it 2. 52. 8, 25) and who sided with the Kauravas: Dhṛtarāṣṭra told Vidura that he did not rejoice at the destruction of the Kurus (na ca prīye kurukṣaye) 1. 1. 97; Janamejaya wanted to know from Vyāsa the story of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas to which he was a witness (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavāṇāṁ ca bhavān pratyakṣadarśivān) 1. 54. 18; Vaiśaṁpāyana was to tell Janamejaya the account of the feud, loss of kingdom, and war between the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca yathā bhedo 'bhavat purā) 1. 54. 22; (bhedaṁ rājyavināśaṁ ca kurupāṇḍavayoḥ) 1. 54. 24; 1. 55. 4-5; the Kurus could not bear the glory, fame etc. of the Pāṇḍavas (nāmṛṣyan kuravo dṛṣṭvā pāṇḍavāñ śrīyaśobhṛtāḥ) 1. 55. 7; Bhīṣma asked all the Kuru chiefs to perform the funeral rites of Vicitravīrya (pretakāryāṇi…akārayat/ …bhīṣmaḥ sarvaiś ca kurupuṁgavaiḥ) 1. 96. 59; many Kurus got wells, gardens etc. constructed in the Kuru country 1. 102. 11; in the houses of the Kuru chiefs, gifts were given and food offered (gṛheṣu kurumukhyānām…dīyatām bhujyatāṁ ceti vāco 'śrūyanta sarvaśaḥ) 1. 102. 14; Gāndhārī, after her marriage, gave satisfaction to all the Kurus (tuṣṭiṁ kurūṇāṁ sarveṣām) 1. 103. 16; as the Kurus watched, the sages disappeared after telling them to perform the funeral rites of Pāṇḍu and Mādrī (evam uktvā kurūn sarvān ...kurūṇām eva paśyatām) 1. 117. 32; once the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas went out for hunting 1. 123. 15; Pāṇḍavas, while proceeding to Vāraṇāvata, bowed down to all elderly Kurus (kurūn vṛddhān) 1. 133. 3; Vidura and other distinguished Kurus followed them 1. 133. 5; the distinguished Kurus might get angry when they knew about the Vāraṇāvata incident 1. 134. 22; Kurus prospered due to the marriage of the Pāṇḍavas with Draupadī 1. 192. 17; the Pāṇḍavas were to be protected by all the Kurus--Bhīṣma told Dhṛtarāṣṭra (tathā kurūṇāṁ sarveṣām anyeṣām api bhārata) 1. 195. 3; Droṇa told Karṇa what was very much in the interest of the Kurus; if his advice was not followed, the Kurus would soon perish (hitaṁ tu paramaṁ karṇa bravīmi kuruvardhanaṁ…kuravo vinaśiṣyanti nācireṇa) 1. 196. 27-28; the Kurus were anxious to meet the Pāṇḍavas after their marriage with Draupadī 1. 198. 21; all Kurus gathered at Hāstinapura at the time of dyūta (samāgatāḥ kauravaś caiva sarve 2. 52. 8); Pāṇḍavas met the Kurus who had arrived from all sides (kurubhiś cāpi sarvaśaḥ) 2. 52. 25; according to Vidura many of the Kurus would follow Duḥśāsana to hell and that the end of the Kurus was at hand (tvām anvetāro bahavaḥ kurūṇām) 2. 59. 10; (anto nūnaṁ bhavitāyaṁ kurūṇām) 2. 59. 12; 3. 5. 9; 3. 48. 40; 3. 225. 24; according to Bhīṣma, the end of the Kurus was not far since all of them were under the influence of greed and delusion (nūnam antaḥ kulasyāsya bhavitā na cirād iva/tathā hi kuravaḥ sarve lobhamohaparāyaṇāḥ) 2. 62. 17; the second game of dice could mean the end of the Kurus 2. 67. 16; the priests of Kurus would recite Sāmans addressed to Yama and Rudra (2. 71. 7) when the Bhāratas would be killed in war (hateṣu bhārateṣv ājau kurūṇām guravas tadā/evaṁ sāmāni gāsyanti) 2. 71. 22; in the opinion of Vidura the Pāṇḍavas were stronger than the Kurus 2. 72. 33; Vyāsa knew where lay the happiness of the Kurus 3. 11. 2; Vyāsa, if he had any mercy for the Kurus, should advise Duryodhana (kauraveṣu dayā yadi) 3. 11. 3; Maitreya asked Duryodhana to do what was in the interest of the Kurus 3. 11. 20; if Kṛṣṇa could have spoken to Dhṛtarāṣṭra against dyūta, the dharma of the Kurus would not have suffered (anāmayam syāt dharmasya kurūṇām) 3. 14. 11; all Kurus, except four (the four include Karṇa and Śakuni), shed tears when Pāṇḍavas started for the forest 3. 28. 7; according to Draupadī that was not the time to show forgiveness to Kurus 3. 29. 34; Duryodhana exhorted all the Kurus against the Pāṇḍavas (udyojayām āsa kurūṁś ca sarvān) 3. 35. 13 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 3. 34. 14: udyojayām āsa utkarṣeṇa svecchayā teṣu teṣu durgadeśādipālanakāryeṣu iṣṭān yojitavān); Duryodhana, surrounded by Kurus, shone like the moon surrounded by the nakṣatras 3. 226. 10; soldiers of the Kurus (kurusainikāḥ) were halted by the Gandharvas 3. 230. 6; Pāṇḍavas, honoured by Kurus and their wives and children (sastrīkumāraiḥ kurubhiḥ), shone like fires in their midst (kurumadhye) 3. 235. 19; Draupadī complained to Bhīma that distress had overtaken her defeating all Kurus, Pāñcālas and Pāṇḍavas (kurūn paribhavan sarvān… saṁprāpto mama kleśo hy ariṁdama) 4. 19. 11; Balarāma wished that some one went to Hāstinapura to strive for conciliation between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (śamārthaṁ kurupāṇḍavānām) 5. 2. 4; according to Kṛṣṇa, the relations of Yādavas with Kurus and Pāṇḍavas ought to be the same, no matter how they behaved (saṁbandhakaṁ tulyam asmākaṁ kurupāṇḍuṣu) 5. 5. 3; if the chief of the Kurus (Dhṛtarāṣṭra ?) would behave justly, large scale destruction could be avoided by the good brotherliness between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (na bhavet kurupāṇḍūnām saubhrātreṇa mahān kṣayaḥ) 5. 5. 8; the whole earth was agitated due to (the feud between) the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (kurupāṇḍavakāraṇāt) 5. 5. 16; Drupada sent his priest to the Kurus 5. 5. 18; the Pāṇḍavas desired peace, and not conflict, with the Kurus 5. 20. 12, 64; Yudhiṣṭhira hoped that the Kurus did not talk ill of the Pāṇḍavas 5. 23. 19; what Saṁjaya wanted to say was for the prosperity of the Kurus 5. 25. 3, 8; according Saṁjaya if the Pāṇḍavas wanted to discipline the Kurus (by killing them), Pāṇḍavas' being alive would be as good as their death (te cet kurūn anuśāsya stha pārthāḥ…samaṁ vas taj jīvitaṁ mṛtyunā syāt) 5. 25. 9; according to Saṁjaya who could face the attack of the Kurus when protected by Droṇa Bhīṣma and others ? 5. 25. 11; Saṁjaya begged the Pāṇḍavas and others to see where lay the welfare of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas (kathaṁ svasti syāt kurusṛñjayānām) 5. 25. 14; Yudhiṣṭhira to Saṁjaya: Why should Dhṛtarāṣṭra desire to separate the Pāṇḍavas from the Kurus ? Vidura wished welfare of the Kurus, but Dhṛtarāṣṭra did not remember him from among the Kurus; while playing the game of dice, Vidura wondered if disaster was in store for the Kurus; when the Kurus followed the advice of Vidura, calamity did not strike the Kurus; on the other hand, their kingdom prospered; if Vidura was kept out, how could welfare come to the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas (kathaṁ svasti syāt kurusṛñjayānām); all the Kurus-including Karṇa, Duryodhan, Droṇa and Bhīṣma--knew that there was no archer like Arjuna 5. 26. 7, 12, 15-16, 18, 21-22; Kṛṣṇa to Saṁjaya: If all the Kurus, young and old, had prevented Duḥśāsana, it would have pleased Kṛṣṇa (sakumāravṛddhāḥ…kuravaḥ); if Kṛṣṇa could establish peace with the Kurus, they would be saved from the bond of death; he would approach the Kurus if they would be willing to respect him 5. 29. 32, 41-42; Yudhiṣṭhira wished well for the Kuru chiefs (kurumukhyā yuvānaḥ) as also for their Dāsas and the sons of Dāsas (dāsīputrā ye ca dāsāḥ kurūṇām) 5. 30. 22, 37; the Pāṇḍavas, though stronger than the Kurus, had patiently borne the hardships--this was known to the Kurus 5. 31. 14; the counsellors of the Kurus were convinced that a hell had been let loose for the destruction of the Kurus (kurukṣayārthe nirayo vyapādi) 5. 32. 20 (Nī. who reads niyamenodapādi (Bom. Ed. 5. 32. 21) paraphrases as niyamena utpannaḥ); Dhṛtarāṣṭra requested Vidura to tell him what was beneficial for the Kurus 5. 34. 2, 5; Dhṛtarāṣṭra was one on whom the Kuru family depended (tvayy ādhīnaṁ kurukulam) 5. 36. 71; the Kurus would witness the destruction of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra in case of war (pratyakṣaṁ vaḥ kuravaḥ) 5. 47. 90; all the Kurus would be longlived if they followed the advise of Bhīṣma and others 5. 47. 103; otherwise, annihilation was in store of the Kurus (no ced ayam abhāvaḥ syāt kurūṇām) 5. 48. 25; Jarāsandha could not subdue the Kurus 5. 50. 39; Dhṛtarāṣṭra felt that destruction of the Kurus was certain 5. 50. 36, 57, 59; he advised the Kurus not to confront the Pāṇḍavas if they wanted to avoid destruction of the whole family 5. 52. 14; many kings blamed Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and the Kurus, (vyagarhayaṁś ca saṁgamya bhavantaṁ kurubhiḥ saha) 5. 54. 4; Saṁjaya was to tell the Kurus and others to deal justly with Yudhiṣṭhira 5. 56. 56; all the Kurus were of the opinion that peace with the Pāṇḍavas meant acting according to dharma (etad dhi kuravaḥ sarve manyante dharmasaṁhitaṁ) 5. 57. 4; Kurus were inferior to the Pāṇḍavas in point of strength and lustre, both divine and human (devamānuṣayoḥ śaktyā tejasā caiva pāṇḍavān/kurūn śaktyālpatarayā) 5. 59. 4; Agni would help the Pāṇḍavas in war between them and the Kurus 5. 59. 8; brooding over peace between Kurus (and Pāṇḍavas) Dhṛtarāṣṭra passed sleepless nights; he felt destruction of the Kurus was at hand, for he always rated Pāṇḍavas stronger than Kurus 5. 59. 21-23; he wanted Duryodhana to listen to him whose advice was in the interest of the Kurus (kurūṇām arthavādinam) 5. 63. 12; Kṛṣṇa wished to release the agitated Kurus and Sṛñjayas from the noose of death (saṁrabdhān kurusṛñjayān) 5. 70. 81; Yudhiṣṭhira initially did not approve of Kṛṣṇa's approaching the Kurus 5. 70. 82; Kṛṣṇa would burn all the Kurus if they tried to do anything improper to him 5. 70. 87; if Kṛṣṇa, while striving for peace, did not get any response which would be in accord with dharma (na dharmaṁ tatra lapsyase), all kings would blame Kurus 5. 71. 30, 32; Kṛṣṇa warned Kauravas that fierce war was certain 5. 75. 17; Bhīma did not want Kṛṣṇa to incite the Kurus for war; he remembered that at one time they lived happily together with the Kurus and their sons (kuravaḥ sahaputrās tathā vayam); he wanted Kṛṣṇa to act in such a way that the Pāṇḍavas could remain neutral with the Kurus and that Kurus did not resort to an unjust course (apy udāsīnavṛttiḥ syād yathā naḥ kurubhiḥ saha/ vāsudeva tathā kāryaṁ na kurūn anayaḥ spṛśet) 5. 72. 1, 9, 21; Kṛṣṇa was a great friend of Kurus and Pāṇḍavas; he could lead them to well-being (nirāmayam) 5. 76. 7-8; 5. 81. 1; but Sahadeva wanted Kṛṣṇa to strive for war between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas even if the former sought peace 5. 79. 2; Kṛṣṇa would strive to do that what was just and beneficial to the Pāṇḍavas and well-being of the Kurus (dharmyam asmaddhitaṁ caiva kurūṇām yad anāmayam) 5. 81. 5; Kṛṣṇa left for Hāstinapura, the seat of the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ sadanaṁ) 5. 81. 29; (kurusadman) 5. 83. 18; Duryodhana in his house was surrounded by Kurus 5. 89. 4; there the Kurus waited on Kṛṣṇa 5. 89. 36; Kṛṣṇa approached by the Kurus in Vidura's house; they offered him their houses and treasures; when Kurus left, Vidura worshipped Kṛṣṇa 5. 89. 35-36, 38; Kṛṣṇa assured Vidura that he would try for conciliation between Kurus and Sṛñjayas who would (otherwise) perish in war 5. 91. 8; great calamity loomed large over the Kurus who followed Karṇa and Duryodhana 5. 91. 9; 5. 93. 11; Kṛṣṇa tried for conciliation lest he was blamed (by others) for not checking, though capable, the agitated Kurus and Pāṇḍavas 5. 91. 16; Kṛṣṇa wished that the Kurus honoured him 5. 91. 20; Kurus, led by Bhīṣma, reached the Sabhā 5. 92. 8; they surrounded Kṛṣṇa when he started for the Sabhā; the whole town of the Kurus desired to see Kṛṣṇa whose chariot moved on the road (puraṁ kurūṇāṁ saṁvṛttaṁ draṣṭukāmaṁ janārdanam 5. 92. 14, 24; Kṛṣṇa went to the Kuruassembly to establish peace between the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas 5. 93. 3; Dhṛtarāṣṭra, as the seniormost among the Kurus (śreṣṭhaḥ kurūṇāṁ), could control them if they misbehaved 5. 93. 8; if Dhṛtarāṣṭra could restrain his sons (5. 93. 13), he, supported by the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas, could become the lord of the world 5. 93. 22; Kaṇva advised Duryodhana to be reconciled to the Pāṇḍavas so that they and the Kurus might protect the earth 5. 95. 8; Gāndhārī advised Duryodhana not to be responsible for the killing of the Kurus 5. 127. 49; Dhṛtarāṣṭra desired and strove for conciliation between the Kurus (and the Pāṇḍavas) and that was known to all the Kurus 5. 129. 26, 28; Duryodhana should not think of war but should think of peace for the prosperity of the Kurus (alaṁ yuddhena…śāmya tvaṁ kuruvṛddhaye) 5. 137. 22; Karṇa felt that the war between the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas was certain and that there were astronomical conjunctions foreboding great danger for the Kurus (viśeṣeṇa hi vārṣṇeya citrāṁ pīḍayate grahaḥ) 5. 141. 3, 9; Vidura wondered that when the dharma was being forcibly driven away by the Kurus, who could not be afflicted; the unlawful act of the Kurus would cause destruction of the heroes 5. 142. 8-9; Kuntī wished that the Kurus saw the coming together of Karṇa and Arjuna as good brothers 5. 143. 9; according to Karṇa, Bhīṣma always wished ill of the Kurus, but Duryodhana did not realize it (kurūṇām ahito nityam na ca rājāvabudhyate) 5. 165. 12; Bhīṣma felt that by their association with Karṇa, the Kurus had very much gone astray (kurūṇām anayo mahān) 5. 166. 8; Vyāsa assured Dhṛtarāṣṭra that he would make known the fame of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas 6. 2. 13; he told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that there was nothing like permanent for his kinsmen, (as well as) for the Kurus (neha vidyati śāśvatam/jñātīnāṁ ca kurūṇāṁ ca) 6. 4. 3; for the Kurus as well as for the Pāṇḍavas, Vyāsa was their dharma, purification, glory, fame, forebearance, and smṛti; he was their respected grand-sire (tvaṁ hi dharmaḥ pavitraṁ ca yaśaḥ kīrtir dhṛtiḥ smṛtiḥ/ kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca mānyaś cāsi pitāmahaḥ//) 6. 4. 13; the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas were striving for the sovereignty of the earth by all sorts of means 6. 10. 73; during the battle between Arjuna and Bhīṣma-Droṇa, huge dust arose in the sky which looked like an excessive and frightfully unjust conduct of the Kurus (kurūṇām anayas tīvraḥ samadṛśyata dāruṇaḥ) 6. 51. 21; if Dhṛtarāṣṭra had urged the Kurus to arrest Duryodhana before the war, he would not have faced calamity 7. 62. 6; when calamity was in store for the Kurus, Balarāma started on a pilgrimage (kurūṇāṁ vaiśase) 9. 34. 18; when Dhṛtarāṣṭra and others started for the battlefield a big cry arose from all the houses of the Kurus (praṇādaḥ saṁjajñe sarveṣu kuruveśmasu) 11. 9. 8; according to Gāndhārī, Kṛṣṇa neglected the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas, who were relatives, killing each other (jñātayaḥ kurupāṇḍavāḥ) 11. 25. 40; with Kṛṣṇa as a boat, the Pāṇḍavas were able to cross the ocean of the Kurus (tīrṇāḥ sma kurusāgaram) 14. 51. 7; Uttaṅka wanted to know if Kṛṣṇa went to the seat of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (?) to strive for conciliation (kaccic chaure tvayā gatvā kurupāṇḍavasadma tat); Uttaṅka wanted to curse Kṛṣṇa since the latter failed to save Kurus and Pāṇḍavas although he could do that; he also blamed Kṛṣṇa for acting falsely with the best of the Kurus since he remained indifferent to them; he was capable of doing (otherwise) (tvayā hi śaktena satā… upacīrṇāḥ kuruśreṣṭhā yas tv etān samupekṣathāḥ) 14. 52. 22 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 14. 53. 22: mithyācāreṇa kapaṭapūrvakaṁ avirodhacchalena virodhaṁ draḍhayatā); Vṛṣṇi and Andhaka chiefs were honoured by the Kuru chiefs (kurūdvahāḥ) of Hāstinapura 14. 70. 11; Vaiśaṁpāyana narrated to Janamejaya in details all the deeds of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (kurūṇāṁ caritaṁ kṛtsnaṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 18. 5. 25.


D. People in general of the Kuru country or of Hāstinapura: At the śrāddha ceremony of Pāṇḍu, Bhīṣma fed the people of the Kuru country and also the principal Brāhmaṇas by thousands (kurūṁś ca vipramukhyāṁś ca bhojayitvā sahasraśaḥ) 1. 119. 2; at the birth of Arjuna, an incorporeal voice prophesied that he would subdue the Kurus and others 1. 114. 31; all the people of the Kuru country prospered when the Pāṇḍavas followed dharma; the people became free from blemish and were happy (vyavardhan kuravaḥ sarve hīnadoṣāḥ sukhānvitāḥ) 1. 205. 4; if Dhṛtarāṣṭra could check Duryodhana, all the Kuru people would be happy 2. 55. 8; Kurus, when ruled by Yudhiṣṭhira, would not be lamented (aśocyāḥ kuravo rājan) 2. 65. 13; Kuru people waited on Yudhiṣṭhira as do the servants (kuravaḥ kiṅkarā yathā) 4. 65. 14; Saṁjaya informed Yudhiṣṭhira that the spirited Kuru people were all well (kurūn kuruśreṣṭha janaṁ ca pṛcchasi/anāmayās tāta manasvinas te) 5. 24. 1; Yudhiṣṭhira wished that the Kuru and the Pāñcāla people came together with smiles and not cause injury to each other (smayamānāḥ samāyāntu pāñcālāḥ kurubhiḥ saha//akṣatān kurupāñcālān paśyema) 5. 31. 21-22; the conflict among the Bhāratas would mean an end of the people and the burning up of the Kurus (anto nūnaṁ bhavitāyaṁ prajānām/no ced…kurūn dahet) 5. 32. 27; the Kuru people did not welcome war (kuravaḥ… yuddhaṁ nābhinandanti) 5. 57. 8; Kuru people counted among those who knew well the eternal dharma and they followed it (kuravaḥ…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 60-61, 75; kurupāñcāladeśyāḥ… dharmaṁ purāṇam upajīvanti santo…) 8. 30. 62; the people of the Kuru and the Pāñcāla country understood fully when only a part was told to them (ardhoktāḥ kurupāñcālāḥ kṛtsnaṁ jānanti) 8. 30. 79; according to Citrāṅgadā, the life of the Kuru people (kurūṇāṁ) depended on Arjuna 14. 79. 11; the people of the Kurujāṅgala and of the Kuru country had lived together for long; they were friends of one another and worked for mutual welfare (bhavantaḥ kuravaś caiva bahukālaṁ sahoṣitāḥ) 15. 13. 14.


E. Kurus in the Sabhā: 1. Kurus seated in the Sabhā of the dicegame: Duryodhana cheated Yudhiṣṭhira at the game of dice in the presence of Bhīṣma, Droṇa, Vidura and the other Kuru chiefs (paśyatāṁ kurumukhyānām…dyūtenāvañcayat tadā) 5. 71. 11-12; Draupadī was to receive the answer to her question directly from the Kurus (pratyakṣam asyāḥ kuravo bruvantu) 2. 60. 16; it was improper to drag Draupadī to face the Kuru heroes when she was rajasvalā (idaṁ tv anāryaṁ kuruvīramadhye rajasvalāṁ yat parikarṣase mām) 2. 60. 32; (kurusaṁsadi) 3. 13. 54: (kuravaḥ) 5. 88. 50, 56; Kurus, including Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Bāhlika, (Kṛpa), and Somadatta, were then dejected 5. 88. 51; Duḥśāsana asked Draupadī to wait on the Kurus (kurūn bhajasva) 2. 60. 20; Draupadī blamed the Kurus present in the assembly as they simply watched the transgression of the limits of the Kuru dharma (and did not intervene) (yatrābhyatītāṁ kurudharmavelāṁ prekṣanti sarve kuravaḥ sabhāyām) 2. 60. 33; Draupadī asked the elderly Kurus in the Sabhā to answer her question (ime kuravaḥ sabhāyām) 2. 60. 45; she bowed down to the elders in the Kuru assembly (gurūṇāṁ kurusaṁsadi) 2. 62. 2; she lamented in the Sabhā as follows: she who was not seen before in the open had been brought to the Kurusabhā; she whom neither wind nor the sun saw in her house could now be seen in the Kuru assembly; that the Kurus tolerated all this showed that the times had changed (mṛṣyante kuravaś ceme manye kālasya paryayam); although she was a chaste woman she was standing in the Sabhā (of the Kurus) 2. 62. 2-5, 7-8; Vidura felt that what the Kurus in the assembly talked about was sinful (pāpān mantrān kuravo mantrayanti); the Kurus should quickly recognize what was the dharma (of the game of dice); otherwise, the Sabhā would be at fault; the Kurus should not deviate from the proper course of dharma 2. 63. 17-19; Arjuna told the Kurus to recognize that Yudhiṣṭhira, once he had lost himself, could not be the master of any one (īśas tv ayaṁ kasya parājitātmā taj jānīdhvaṁ kuravaḥ sarva eva) 2. 63. 21; Dhṛtarāṣṭra blamed Duryodhana for having argued with Draupadī in the Sabhā of the Kuru chiefs (sabhāyāṁ kurupuṁgavānām) 2. 63. 25; Bhīma was angry to hear what Karṇa said to Draupadī amidst the Kurus 2. 64. 4; Duḥśāsana asked Draupadī to choose as her husband any one from among the Kurus who had assembled in the Sabhā (ete hi sarve kuravaḥ sametāḥ) 2. 68. 12; 7. 107. 13; in the Kuru assembly, Karṇa reviled Draupadī as the wife of the Dāsas (sabhāmadhye…dāsabhāryeti pāñcālīm abravīt kurusaṁsadi) 8. 5. 79; Karṇa spoke bad words to Draupadī in the presence of the Kuru heroes in the assembly (sabhāyāṁ kuruvīramadhye) 8. 46. 39; the Kurus, including Dhṛtarāṣṭra, were dejected when Draupadī sought help (in the Sabhā) 15. 23. 12; Dhṛtarāṣṭra remembered what Bhīma vowed to do within the hearing of the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ śṛṇvatāṁ tadā) 7. 110. 16; Duryodhana vowed in the midst of the assembly that the kingdom of five rivers would be of Yudhiṣṭhira if he carried out the terms of the second game of dice, and if the Kauravas were defeated they would live out for the same period (bravīmi satyaṁ kurusaṁsadīha tavaiva tā bhārata pañca nadyaḥ) 3. 35. 10-11; it was not proper to act contrary to what was agreed upon in the midst of the Kuru heroes (kuruvī ramadhye) 3. 35. 18; Duḥśāsana addressed the Pāṇḍavas as ‘cow, cow’ in the midst of the Kurus (madhye kurūṇāṁ…gaur gaur iti smāhvayan muktalajjaḥ) 2. 68. 19; 5. 126. 10; 5. 135. 21; 9. 58. 7 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 2. 77. 19: madhuparke gaur gaur iti trir niveditāyā gor vadha utsargaś ca dṛṣṭaḥ/tatsāmānyāt antakarūpāyātithaye niveditāḥ/pāṇḍavapaśava utsṛṣṭāḥ/); the Kurus in the Sabhā were fortunate that they were not burnt down by Draupadī (by the fire of her anger) 2. 70. 6; Nārada cursed the Kauravas in the midst of the Kuru assembly (sabhā madhye kurūṇāṁ agrataḥ sthitaḥ) 2. 71. 29; Duryodhana and Karṇa spoke harsh words to Draupadī in the Kuru saṁsad 2. 72. 17; that the Kurus were not killed before, tormented Bhīma's heart 4. 20. 3; Arjuna challenged Karṇa to carry out everything of which he boasted in the midst of the Kurus 4. 55. 3; the Kurus in the assembly did very sinful things (karma pāpīya eva sabhāmadhye…kurūṇāṁ) 5. 29. 30; the Kurus, chief among whom was Bhīṣma, ignored the harassment of Draupadī (in the assembly) 5. 29. 31; Duryodhana offended Bhīma in the presence of the Kuru chiefs (paśyatāṁ kurumukhyānām) 5. 88. 82; the pieces of dice which Śakuni threw in the Kuru assembly were, in fact, arrows and the Kurus assembled there, as gamblers, formed the army of Duryodhana (kuravaḥ paryavasthitāḥ/senāṁ durodaraṁ viddhi) 7. 105. 16-17 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 130. 18: durodaraṁ dyūtakāriṇam); Duryodhana and Śakuni had invited the wrath of the Pāṇḍavas in the Kuru saṁsad 7. 126. 18; 2. Kurus in their general Sabhā at Hāstinapura: Dhṛtarāṣṭra seated among the Kurus (in the Sabhā) was to be informed that the Pāṇḍavas lived happily due to his prowess (āsīnaṁ kurubhiḥ parivāritaṁ/tavaiva rājan vīryeṇa sukhaṁ jīvanti pāṇḍavāḥ//) 5. 31. 5; also Duryodhana seated with the Kurus (in the Sabhā) to be told not to force the Pāṇḍavas to kill the Kurus (madhye kurūṇāṁ āsīnam… mā vadhīṣma kurūn iti) 5. 31. 12-13; Kurus were to hear Yudhiṣṭhira's message brought by Saṁjaya in the Sabhā (prātaḥ śrotāraḥ kuravaḥ sabhāyām) 5. 32. 30; Pāṇḍavas, through Saṁjaya, greeted all the Kurus in the order of their age 5. 46. 15; Arjuna's message to be conveyed to Duryodhana in the midst of the Kurus 5. 47. 3; when Dhṛtarāṣṭra paid no heed to what Bhīṣma and Droṇa said, all the Kurus (in the Sabhā) lost hope of their lives 5. 48. 47; Saṁjaya was asked in the Sabhā of the Kuru assembly who were the allies of the Pāṇḍavas (sabhāyāṁ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 49. 10; Saṁjaya addressed Dhṛtarāṣṭra in the Sabhā of the Kurus 5. 49. 13; Bhīṣma spoke to Duryodhana among the Kurus (madhye kurūṇāṁ) 5. 61. 14; Kṛṣṇa agreed to go to the assembly of the Kurus (yāsyāmi kurusaṁsadam) 5. 70. 79; Kṛṣṇa to address Duryodhana in the midst of the Kurus (kurumadhye) 5. 78. 11; the divine sages and the royal sages desired to listen to the words which Kṛṣṇa would speak to the kings among the Kurus (kuruṣu rājamadhye) 5. 81. 69; Kṛṣṇa joked with the Kurus and, surrounded by them, established contact with them (sarvān parihasan kurūn/āste saṁbandhakaṁ kurvan kurubhiḥ parivāritaḥ) 5. 87. 20 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 5. 89. 20: parihasan narma kurvan sāmbandhikaṁ dhanañjayādisambandhahetukaṁ vyavahāram); Kṛṣṇa had his initial contact with the Kurus in their assembly after his arrival at Hāstinapura (kurubhiḥ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 87. 22; Kṛṣṇa assured Vidura that he would try for conciliation between Kurus and Sṛñjayas who would otherwise perish in war (kurūṇāṁ sṛñjayānāṁ ca saṁgrāme vinaśiṣyatām) 5. 91. 8; Kṛṣṇa honoured by the Kurus while proceeding to the Sabhā; he honoured them duly in return (saṁpūjyamānaḥ kurubhiḥ…yathārhaṁ pratisatkurvan) 5. 92. 26; Kṛṣṇa covered the Kurus in the Sabhā with his lustre 5. 92. 32; Kurus honoured Kṛṣṇa 5. 92. 39; after Kṛṣṇa, Jāmadagnya and Kaṇva addressed the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 94. 3; 5. 95. 1; Duryodhana replied to Kṛṣṇa in the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 125. 1; Krṣṇa's rejoinder in the Kuru assembly 5. 126. 1; later in the epic, Kṛṣṇa reported to Uttaṅka that he had tried to frighten the Kurus pointing out the great danger they faced 14. 53. 20; Duḥśāsana spoke to Duryodhana in the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 126. 21; according to Kṛṣṇa, all the Kuru elders had seriously transgressed (the correct path) (sarveṣāṁ kuruvṛddhānāṁ mahān ayam atikramaḥ) 5. 126. 33; Vidura alerted Dhṛtarāṣṭra in the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 128. 17; Dhṛtarāṣṭra and others were witness to what transpired in the Kuru assembly (pratyakṣam etad bhavatāṁ yad vṛttaṁ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 129. 30; in the presence of the Kurus (of the Sabhā) Kṛṣṇa left to meet Kuntī 5. 129. 34; Kṛṣṇa reported to her what transpired in the Kuru assembly 5. 130. 1; when Kṛṣṇa left, the Kurus of the assembly talked among themselves about the great wonder shown by Kṛṣṇa in the Sabhā 5. 135. 25; when Kṛṣṇa proceeded from the Kurus to the Pāṇḍavas, Vidura lamented in the presence of Kuntī 5. 142. 1; Kṛṣṇa reported to Yudhiṣṭhira what transpired in the Sabhā of Kurus and also what Bhīṣma said (madhye kurūṇāṁ…sabhāyām 5. 145. 13; (yad vṛttam kurusaṁsadi) 5. 148. 6, 18; Ulūka said that time had come for Arjuna to prove his boast reported by Saṁjaya to the Kurus 5. 157. 5; he also reported what Duryodhana had asked him, within the hearing of the Kuru heroes, to convey to the Pāṇḍavas (śṛṇvatāṁ kuruvīrāṇām) 5. 158. 6; 5. 160. 10; Duryodhana's consultations with Karṇa and others in the Kuru assembly (karṇaḥ saṁpṛṣṭaḥ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 195. 6; since the Kurus did not agree to what Kṛṣṇa told them, he asked the Pāṇḍavas to move out to the battlefield with him under the Puṣya constellation (na kurvanti vaco mahyaṁ kuravaḥ kālacoditāḥ/nirgacchadhvaṁ pāṇḍaveyāḥ puṣyeṇa sahitā mayā//) 9. 34. 9. 3. Kurus in their Sabhā referred to in some other context: A certain Brāhmaṇa reviled the Āraṭṭa (Bāhlīka) country in the assembly of the Kurus (yad anyo 'py uktavān asmān brāhmaṇaḥ kurusaṁsadi) 8. 30. 34, 41. 4. On one occasion, not a regular meeting of the Sabhā, but a meeting of the heroes on the side of the Kauravas on the battlefield is referred to as Kuru assembly: Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya to tell him the reply of Droṇa to Duryodhana in the meeting of the Kurus (droṇas tathoktaḥ kurusaṁsadi/kim uktavān) 7. 126. 2.


F. The term Kuru includes, besides those on the side of the Kauravas, also the Pāṇḍavas, or, the term Kuru refers only to the Pāṇḍavas: When the number of Kurus was diminished, Uttarā gave birth to Parikṣit (parikṣīṇeṣu kuruṣu) 1. 45. 13; 14. 66. 2; Janamejaya ruled the kingdom which came to him in the line of the Kurus (rājyaṁ kurukulāgatam) 1. 45. 16; in the line of the Kurus, no king was born who was not attentive to his subjects and was not dear to them 1. 45. 17; the eminent Kurus (kurūdvahāḥ) were tired at the end of the day of sports at Pramāṇakoṭi 1. 119. 31; since a teacher who was not qualified could not teach the use of missiles to the mighty Kurus, Bhīṣma looked for a special teacher (nālpadhīr…vinayet kurūn astre mahābalān) 1. 121. 2; the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas), delighted, greeted Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma 1. 183. 5; the eminent Kurus (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) went to the residence of Drupada 1. 186. 3; the eminent among the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) and the Vṛṣṇis and Andhakas, enjoyed their time at Indraprastha; honoured by the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) the Vṛṣṇi and the Andhaka chiefs returned to Dvāravatī taking with them the jewels given by the best among the Kurus (kurusattamaiḥ i. e. by the Pāṇḍavas) 1. 213. 53-56; according to Śiśupāla, the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) were clearly cheating Kṛṣṇa when they honoured him first (tvām eva kuravo vyaktaṁ pralambhante janārdana) 2. 34. 20 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 2. 37. 28; pralambhante avalambante); Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Maitreya whether the good-brotherliness of the Kurus would remain undisturbed (kaccit kurūṇāṁ saubhrātram avyucchinnaṁ bhaviṣyati) 3. 11. 10; the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) helped by Arjuna would not be afraid to fight even with gods 3. 79. 20; Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) were happy to spend in forest the approaching twelfth year (te dvādaśaṁ varṣam athopayāntaṁ vane vihartuṁ kuravaḥ pratītāḥ) 3. 174. 20; Draupadī and Satyabhāmā told each other stories of Kurus and Yadus 3. 222. 2; the Kuru warriors (kurupuṅgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) followed Virāṭa who started to fight with Suśarman 4. 30. 25; Vidura told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Dhārtarāṣṭras and Pāṇḍavas should protect each other; the Kurus should have common enemies and common friends and should hold mutual consultations (ekārimitrāḥ kuravo hy ekamantrāḥ) 5. 36. 70; Bhīma wondered whether Duryodhana was going to act as fire, caused by Time, for all the Kurus (including Pāṇḍavas) (apyayaṁ naḥ kurūṇāṁ syād yugānte kālasaṁbhṛtaḥ…kulāṅgāro) 5. 72. 18; Arjuna established suzerainty of the Kurus over kings (ādhirājyaṁ…āhṛtaṁ yena…kurūṇāṁ sarvarājasu) 5. 88. 31; Kṛṣṇa employed the policy of conciliation wishing to establish good brotherliness and avoid a rift in the Kuru family; he again employed it for the same purpose by offering (five villages) (sāma ādau prayuktaṁ me…saubhrātram icchatā/ abhedāt kuruvaṁśasya) 5. 148. 7; (punaḥ sāmābhisaṁyuktaṁ saṁpradānam athābruvam/abhedāt kuruvaṁśasya) 5. 148. 13; in the city Udayendu of the Kurus (i. e. Pāṇḍavas), Sutasoma (son of Arjuna) was born (pure kurūṇāṁ udayendunāmni) 7. 22. 22 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 23. 29: udyendunāmni udayenduparyāye pure śakraprastha eva); Ghaṭotkaca born of Bhīma in the large family of the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ vipule kule) 7. 131. 60; Kuru chiefs (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) attacked Śalya 9. 15. 29; when the Kurus were diminished, Uttarā would give birth to a son (parikṣīṇeṣu kuruṣu putras tava janiṣyati) 10. 16. 3; the Kuru chiefs (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) went to meet Gāndhārī 11. 13. 1; after Bhīṣma went to heaven, there would be no one whom Kurus could consult in matters related to dharma (dharmeṣu kuravaḥ kaṁ nu pariprakṣyanti) 11. 23. 25; of the Pāñcālas and the Kurus, those that were killed and those that were not killed would go to the lowest regions due to their (evil) acts (pāñcālānāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca hatā eva hi ye 'hatāḥ/te vayaṁ tv adhamāĩ lokān prapadyema svakarmabhiḥ) 12. 7. 20; no one among all the illustrious Kurus who followed dharma was equal to Yudhiṣṭhira (sarveṣāṁ dīptayaśasāṁ kurūṇāṁ dharmacāriṇāṁ) 12. 55. 4; the Kuru chiefs (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) were pleased to listen to Bhīṣma's exposition of fruits of good deeds 13. 7. 27; after the funeral of Bhīṣma, the chiefs of the Kurus (kurusattamāḥ, kurūdvahāḥ which term includes Pāṇḍavas, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Vidura and Yuyutsu 13. 153. 9-10) went to the river Bhāgīrathī 13. 154. 15; Arjuna and the other Kurus (i. e. Pāṇḍavas) should not grieve over the death of Abhimanyu (na sa śocyas tvayā tāta na cānyaiḥ kurubhis tathā) 14. 61. 15; Vyāsa, desirous of the welfare of the Kurus, had advised Yudhiṣṭhira to perform Aśvamedha (kurūṇāṁ hitakāmena) 14. 62. 4; Bhīma and other Kurus, were delighted to hear the stories about Arjuna (bhīmādayas te tu kuravaḥ) 14. 89. 11; when Babhruvāhana, came to the Kuru country for Aśvamedha, he was greeted by the Kurus 14. 89. 26; due to the miracle performed by Vyāsa, Kurus (who arose from the waters of Bhāgīrathī) met one another 15. 41. 7.


G. Kuru warriors on the battlefield (in this context, the term Kuru sometimes includes even Droṇa, Karṇa, Śalya and such other non-Kurus who were in the army of the Kauravas):


I. Battle fought at Kurukṣetra: Destruction of Kuru chiefs is narrated in the Śalyaparvan (vināśaḥ kurumukhyānāṁ śalyaparvaṇi kīrtyate) 1. 2. 174; performance of the funeral rites of the Kurus is mentioned in the Śrāddhaparvan 1. 2. 62; a noncorporeal voice foretold a week after the birth of Arjuna that he was to vanquish Madras, Kaliṅgas, Kekayas and Kurus 8. 48. 7, according to a heavenly voice heard at night (naktam) at Arjuna's birth, he was to kill the Kurus in battle 5. 28, 88. 65; 5. 135. 3-4 (a reference to 1. 114. 28, 31 where it is said that the voice was heard immediately after the birth of Arjuna); Bhīma desired to kill all the Kurus (in the war) 3. 28. 22; the Yādavas ready to subdue the Kurus 3. 180. 21; Sātyaki ready to kill Duryodhana and all the Kuru chiefs (duryodhanaṁ cāpi kurūṁś ca sarvān… kuruyodhamukhyān) 3. 120. 9-10; the army which gathered round the Pāṇḍavas desirous to fight with the Kurus (yuyutsamānāḥ kurubhiḥ) awaited orders 5. 19. 13; 5. 20. 16; Pāṇḍavas did not wish to kill the Kurus at an improper time 5. 31. 13, 15; (akālikaṁ kuravo nābhaviṣyan) 5. 32. 21; Duryodhana would repent if Yudhiṣṭhira released his wrath on the Kurus 5. 47. 12; the Pāñcālas with Śikhaṇḍin wished to confront the Kurus 5. 49. 33; Draupadī told Kṛṣṇa that if Bhīma and Arjuna did not opt for war, Drupada, with his sons and Draupadī's sons, led by Abhimanyu, would wage war with the Kurus (yotsyanti kurubhiḥ saha) 5. 80. 38; if Kṛṣṇa were to succeed in his mission, the Kurus would be spared from the noose of Death (śamaṁ kurūṇāṁ yadi cācareyam/ mucyeraṁś ca kuravo mṛtyupāśāt) 5. 91. 19; Kṛṣṇa did not want the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (i. e. those fighting on the side of the Pāṇḍavas) to get diminished in war (na paśyema kurūn sarvān pāṇḍavāṁś caiva saṁyuge/kṣīṇān) 5. 93. 31; Kṛṣṇa, along with the Pāṇḍavas, left under the Puṣya nakṣatra to face the Kurus (yayāv abhimukhaḥ kurūn/…puṣyeṇa madhusūdanaḥ) 9. 34. 14; Janamejaya asked Vaiśaṁpāyana all that the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas did at Kurukṣetra (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānām ca yad yad āsīd viceṣṭitam) 5. 150. 7; 5. 156. 1; Kurus to see the Indra-like valour of Sudakṣiṇa, a Kāmboja, in war (parākramaṁ yathendrasya drakṣyanti kuravo yudhi) 5. 163. 2; the Kurus, Pāṇḍavas and Somakas decided on the rules of the war (tatas te samayaṁ cakruḥ kurupāṇḍavasomakāḥ) 6. 1. 26, 33; association of Dhūmaketu with Puṣya foretold the annihilation, especially of Kurus (abhāvaṁ hi viśeṣeṇa kurūṇām pratipaśyati/dhūmaketur…puṣyam ākramya tiṣṭhati) 6. 3. 12; Kurus depended on Bhīṣma for war (yasmin dvīpe samāśritya yudhyanti kuravaḥ) 6. 15. 36; the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas saw Bhīṣma in his chariot 6. 16. 41; the Kuru army (referred to also as dhārtarāṣṭrāṇy anīkāni) moved to form a vyūha 6. 19. 17, 3); on the first day of the war, the Kurus faced west (paścānmukhāḥ kuravo…), with Duryodhana on an elephant, in the middle of the Kurus (madhyagataḥ kurūṇāṁ) 6. 20. 5, 7; Kṛṣṇa drew Arjuna's attention to the Kurus on the battle-field 6. 23. 25; Pāṇḍavas, as though possessed by some spirit fought with the Kurus (āviṣṭā iva yudhyante pāṇḍavāḥ kurubhiḥ saha) 6. 44. 3; when Kurus battled with Pāṇḍavas a friend fought with a friend, a relative with a relative (sakhāyaṁ ca sakhā rājan saṁbadhī bāndhavaṁ tathā/evaṁ yuyudhire tatra kuravaḥ pāṇḍavaiḥ saha) 6. 44. 46; the Kurus should see the Krauñcavyūha of the Pāṇḍavas 6. 46. 40; the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas got ready for the battle of the second day 6. 47. 30; seeing Kurus attacking from all sides, Kṛṣṇa assured Sātyaki that he (Kṛṣṇa) would fell down Bhīṣma and Droṇa (dṛṣṭvā kurūn āpatataḥ samantāt) 6. 55. 81; when Kṛṣṇa, holding cakra in his hand, rushed towards Bhīṣma, all beings raised their voice apprehending the destruction of the Kurus 6. 55. 91; Arjuna promised Kṛṣṇa that he would bring about the end of the Kurus 6. 55. 100; the Kuru chief warriors (kurupravīrāḥ) again raised their voice when Kṛṣṇa was back in his chariot; their voice was mixed with the loud sound of the mṛdaṅga, bherī, paṭaha, and dundubhi, and also the one made by the chariotrims 6. 55. 103-104; the Kurus along with Bhīṣma and others retired from the battlefield at sun-set 6. 55. 128; seeing Arjuna retire, a loud sound in the evening went up from the side of the Kurus, and they retired 6. 55. 129, 132; on the fourth day of the war, the army of the Kurus, very dreadful and protected by Bhīṣma, suddenly rushed towards Arjuna (senā mahogrā sahasā kurūṇāṁ…prayātā praty arjunaṁ) 6. 56. 6; the Kurus and Sṛñjayas watched the duel between Bhīṣma and Dhanaṁjaya 6. 56. 28; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas watched the duel between Sāṁyamani and Dhṛṣṭadyumna 6. 57. 34; Sātyaki routed the principal Kuru warriors 6. 59. 27; Kurus and Pāṇḍaveyas killed one another (kuravaḥ pāṇḍaveyāś ca) 6. 68. 12; Sṛñjayas, with their hair loose and deprived of their armour, chariot and bows, wrestled with the Kurus (bāhubhiḥ samayudhyanta sṛñjayāḥ kurubhiḥ saha) 6. 69. 39; the armies of the Pāṇḍavas and Kurus retired to their camps (at the end of the fifth day of the war) 6. 70. 36-37; next day, they came out again for battle 6. 71. 1; when Dhṛṣṭadyumna fixed saṁmohanāstra on his bow, all Kurus fled with their horses, elephants and chariots 6. 73. 43; many headless trunks appeared all around in the armies of the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (uttasthuḥ samare tatra kabandhāni samantataḥ) 6. 74. 31; when Bhīma raised his gadā, Kurus fled in all directions 6. 81. 33; the Pāṇḍavas and Kurus retired to their camps (at the end of the seventh day of war); next day, they again came out for battle 6. 82. 52; 6. 83. 1; Kuru and Pāṇḍava forces killed one another with all sorts of fierce weapons 6. 83. 36; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas withdrew their armies for the day (at the end of the eighth day) and retired to their camps (tato 'vahāraṁ sainyānāṁ pracakruḥ kurupāṇḍavāḥ) 6. 92. 78-79; Duryodhana, respected by the Kurus, left for the camp of Bhīṣma 6. 93. 26; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas fought one another at midday (of the ninth day of war) 6. 100. 15; Arjuna and Bhīṣma routed respectively the armies of Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (yathā kurūṇāṁ sainyāni babhañja yudhi pāṇḍavaḥ/tathā pāṇḍavasainyāni babhañja yudhi te pitā//) 6. 102. 73; Bhīṣma retired to his camp along with the delighted Kurus (at the end of the ninth day) 6. 103. 9; placing Bhīṣma in the forefront, Kurus marched against the Pāṇḍavas (on the tenth day) 6. 104. 11; Arjuna assured Śikhaṇḍin that he would check all the Kurus (the term includes Droṇa, Aśvatthāman, Kṛpa, Duryodhana, Citrasena, Vikarṇa, Jayadratha (a Saindhava), Vinda and Anuvinda (both Āvantyas), Sudakṣiṇa (a Kāmboja), Bhagadatta, a Māgadha (not named), Saumadatti, Ārśyaśṛṅgi (a Rākṣasa), Trigartarāja and their armies) 6. 104. 55-58; seeing the battle between Bhīṣma, helped by Kurus, and Śikhaṇḍin, helped by Arjuna, the warriors doubted (the outcome of the battle) 6. 111. 6; Bhīṣma's śakti cut by Arjuna into three pieces while all the Kuru heroes watched (paśyatāṁ kuruvīrāṇāṁ sarveṣām) 6. 114. 63; the twelve Janapadas, Sauvīras and Kitavas persecuted the fleeing Kurus and showered arrows on them to force them to return to the battlefield 6. 114. 78; when Bhīṣma fell, the Kurus were highly confounded 6. 114. 102; 6. 115. 19; they felt a great void (abhāvaḥ sumahān rājan kurūn āgāt) 6. 114. 105; Dhṛtarāṣṭra felt as though all Kurus were dead the moment he heard that Bhīṣma did not attack Śikhaṇḍin 6. 115. 2; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas gathered round fallen Bhīṣma 6. 115. 10; Kurus surrounded Duḥśāsana wondering what news he had brought (to Droṇa) 6. 115. 23; the Kurus stopped fighting (as ordered by Droṇa after the fall of Bhīṣma) 6. 115. 26; Pāṇḍavas and Kurus went near Bhīṣma and bowed down to him 6. 115. 29; they arranged for his pillow (upadhānaṁ tato dattvā) 6. 115. 57; the next day, the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas, without weapons and armours, went to Bhīṣma 6. 116. 5; all the Kurus were thrilled to see Arjuna forcing out a stream of water (saṁprāvepanta kuravaḥ) 6. 116. 26; Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya what the Kurus did after making arrangements (for the protection ?) of Bhīṣma (saṁsādhya tu mahātmānaṁ bhīṣmaṁ…kim akārṣuḥ paraṁ tāta kuravaḥ) 7. 1. 9, 10; the Kurus then remembered Karṇa 7. 1. 30; Bhīṣma's death was, for the Kurus, like the breaking of a boat in a fathomless (ocean) (bhinnāṁ nāvam ivātyagādhe kurūṇāṁ) 7. 2. 1, 3; their condition became lamentable 7. 2. 7; Karṇa was prepared to protect the army of the Kurus 7. 2. 13, 22; Karṇa, honoured by Kurus (saṁpūjyamānaḥ kurubhiḥ), went to Bhīṣma (7. 2. 35) and told him that since there was no one like him to save the Kurus, the Pāṇḍavas would destroy them; the Kurus would be frightened hearing the sound of Gāṇḍīva 7. 3. 12-14; but Bhīṣma asked Karṇa to guide the Kurus while fighting and bring victory to Duryodhana (anuśādhi kurūn saṁkhye) 7. 4. 9; the Kurus, seeing Karṇa prepared for the battle, applauded him with loud shouts and twang of their bows 7. 4. 15; the kings and Kurus then became free from grief 7. 6. 10; Dhṛṣṭadyumna killed the Kurus 7. 6. 38; Dhṛtarāṣṭra admitted to Saṁjaya that he himself was responsible for the destruction of Kurus 7. 10. 47; watching the duel between Bhīma and Śalya, the Pāṇḍavas and Kurus shouted ‘well done’ 7. 14. 10; Arjuna routed the Kurus (kurūn vidrāvya) 7. 15. 43; description of the river (of blood) (7. 20. 31-36) on the battlefield caused by Droṇa which carried the bodies both of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas (kurusṛñjayavāhinīm nadīm) 7. 20. 34; Droṇa with the help of Kurus (kurubhiḥ parivāritaḥ) defeated Sātyaki and other heroes, as also many kings of different Janapadas 7. 20. 51; the chief Kuru warriors (kurupuṁgavāḥ) gathered round Droṇa trying to reach Bhīma 7. 21. 25; when the Pāñcāla warriors attacked Droṇa as their only target, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra urged all the Kurus to foil their attempt (mā droṇam iti putrās te kurūn sarvān acodayan) 7. 30. 6; it was as if a game of dice between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas with Droṇa as a stake (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca droṇadyū {??}am avartata) 7. 30. 7; king Nala burnt the army of the Kurus 7. 30. 19; Arjuna tormented the Kurus with the lustre of his weapons; the Kurus then shouted to get help from Karṇa 7. 31. 44-45, 49; Dhṛtarāṣṭra told Saṁjaya that the Kurus, Pāṇḍavas and Sṛñjayas were not eternal (kuravaḥ …adhruvāḥ 7. 52. 30): Dhṛtarāṣṭra wanted to know from Saṁjaya how the Kurus managed to be fearless when they knew the feats of Arjuna 7. 61. 2; Aśvatthāman used to be respected (upāsyamānaḥ) by Kuru, Pāṇḍava and Sātvata warriors 7. 61. 14; Dhṛtarāṣṭra was to listen to the description of the war between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas 7. 62. 23; Kurus delighted to see Droṇa's chariot 7. 63. 30; Arjuna tormented the chief Kuru warriors (kurupravīrān) with his arrows 7. 66. 21; looking at the refreshed horses of Arjuna's chariot, the seniormost warriors in the Kuru army (kurubalaśreṣṭhāḥ) became dejected 7. 75. 18; other fighters then urged Kurus to hasten to kill Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna 7. 75. 22; seeing Duryodhana battle with Arjuna, all Kurus were very much grieved 7. 77. 32; chief Kuru warriors (kuruyodhavīrāḥ) rushed towards Arjuna's chariot wishing to help Duryodhana 7. 79. 9; Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked what the Kurus did when Arjuna and Sātyaki penetrated Kauravas' vyūha 7. 89. 18; Dhṛtarāṣṭra believed that his sons must be grieving seeing Kurus run away 7. 89. 31; the chief Kuru warriors, angry, surrounded Sātyaki 7. 91. 53; Duḥśāsana exhorted Kurus, who were not expert in fighting with rocks, to return and not be afraid of Sātyaki (kuravaḥ sarve nāśmayuddhaviśāradāḥ) 7. 97. 31; if Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna died, the Kurus would have achieved their objective and the Pāṇḍavas would be defeated (kuravaḥ kṛtārthāḥ syuḥ) 7. 100. 14; Yudhiṣṭhira feared that since Arjuna was in danger, Kṛṣṇa himself had started fighting with Kurus 7. 102. 60; the excellent Kuru warriors (who included Bhūriśravas, Kṛpa, Aśvatthāman, Śalya and Jayadratha) roared ‘well done’ seeing Karṇa fight with Bhīma 7. 112. 16; when Bhīma held the flagstaff of Karṇa, all the Kurus on the battlefield and Cāraṇas praised him 7. 114. 57; Arjuna was assailed by Kurus (who included Aśvatthāman, Kṛpa, Śalya, Jayadratha and Vṛṣasena 7. 120. 77-79) with arrows 7. 120. 83; Arjuna killed with arrows many chief Kuru warriors (kurupravīrān) 7. 120. 87; Kuru chiefs would face grave danger due to Duryodhana (kurumukhyānāṁ mahad utpatsyate bhayam) 7. 122. 14; death of Jayadratha meant calamity for the Kurus 7. 125. 9; Droṇa decided that Kurus and Sṛñjayas would continue fighting during the night 7. 126. 38; so the Pāñcālas and Kurus continued fighting and could distinguish the one from the other only by hearing the gotra, family, or personal names (gotrāṇāṁ nāmadheyānāṁ kulānāṁ caiva māriṣa/śravaṇād dhi vijānī maḥ pāñcālān kurubhiḥ saha//) 7. 128. 8; Dhṛtarāṣṭra wondered how the Kurus distinguished themselves from the Pārthas (i. e. Pāṇḍavas) 7. 130. 10; Karṇa asked Sahadeva to go to Arjuna for shelter who was then fighting with Kurus 7. 142. 15; Ghaṭotkaca, without taking anybody's help, attacked the Kurus and destroyed their army 7. 149. 10, 17-18; Sātyaki fought with Kuru chief warriors 7. 145. 56; Kuru chief warriors shouted thinking Ghaṭotkaca was dead 7. 150. 57; seeing Alāyudha arrive to help Duryodhana, all Kurus were delighted 7. 152. 1; when Ghaṭotkaca became invisible, Kurus cried aloud fearing he might kill Karṇa 7. 154. 21; the Kauravas (= Kurus) cried aloud when the Kurus were being destroyed on a large scale (kuruvīrāvamarde); they began to flee; when the army was routed it was difficult to know who were Kurus and who not (na jñāyante kuravo netare vā) 7. 154. 40-42, 47; all Kurus then pressed Karṇa to use his śakti against Ghaṭotkaca, since all Kurus were being killed 7. 154. 48-50; Ghaṭotkca killed many Kuru warriors (kauravān) by assuming large body 7. 154. 61; the rest of the Kurus (kauraveyāḥ) were delighted by the death of Ghaṭotkaca and they shouted like lions; the Kurus then honoured Karṇa 7. 154. 61-63; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas continued fighting when only three parts of the night remained (tribhāgamātraśeṣāyāṁ rātryāṁ yuddham avartata/kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 7. 161. 1; Kṛṣṇa wanted to keep the Kuru army, divided into two by Droṇa, to Arjuna's left (dvaidhībhūtān kurūn dṛṣṭvā…sapatnān savyataḥ kurmi) 7. 161. 4; before the release of brahmāstra by Droṇa, Kurus and Somakas had got mixed up and, shouting, they killed each other with weapons 7. 165. 99; when Droṇa released brahmāstra, the armies of both Kurus and Pāṇḍavas, were afflicted 7. 163. 45; Bhīma, Nakula and Sahadeva urged Arjuna to attack Kurus and separate them from Droṇa 7. 164. 56; when Droṇa was killed, the Pāṇḍavas and Sṛñjayas attacked Kurus who, losing their enthusiasm, (nirutsāhān kurūn) fled 7. 165. 58; Kurus afflicted by weapons, routed, with their chief heroes dead, were very much grieved (kuravaḥ śastrapīḍitāḥ/hatapravīrā vidhvastā bhṛśaṁ śokaparāyaṇāḥ) 7. 165. 68; Kurus, not hoping for victory and with their spirits low, fled to protect themselves 7. 167. 11; Dhṛtarāṣṭra wanted to know how did the Pāṇḍavas plan to protect Dhṛṣṭadyumna when the Kurus, encouraged by Aśvatthāman, returned to attack their enemies 7. 167. 8; Bhīma ready to fight with Aśvatthāman as the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas looked on (paśyatsu kurupāṇḍuṣu) 7. 170. 51; Dhṛtarāṣṭra was curious to know who from among the Kurus were alive 8. 4. 3 (in Saṁjaya's list of those of the Kurus who were dead are to be found not only Bhīṣma, Duḥśāsana, Vikarṇa, Bhūriśravas, the sons of Duryodhana and Duḥśāsana, but also Droṇa, Karṇa, Jayadratha, Vinda and Anuvinda, and others who were not Kurus but who fought on the side of the Kurus); Kurus, Pāṇḍavas and Sṛñjayas fought each other 8. 16. 24; Nakula blamed Karṇa for the destruction of Kurus (tvaddoṣāt kuravo kṣīṇāḥ) 8. 17. 51; Bhīmasena killed many Kuru warriors 8. 19. 74; Kurus, delighted to see Karṇa ready to fight, shouted loudly 8. 26. 31; no one except Karṇa from among the Kurus was capable of resisting Arjuna 8. 26. 45; Karṇa fled from the battle notwithstanding the Kurus watching him (paśyatāṁ kuruvīrāṇāṁ) 8. 28. 58-59; Kurus followed Duryodhana in their Bārhaspatyavyūha 8. 31. 22, 26; Karṇa, together with Kuru warriors, attacked the fleeing army of Yudhiṣṭhira 8. 33. 42; Kurus, with upraised weapons, attacked Bhīma from all sides of the Vyūha (tataḥ pakṣāt prapakṣāc ca prapakṣaiś cāpi dakṣiṇāt/udastaśastrāḥ kuravaḥ) 8. 34. 2; Kurus returned to the battlefield seeing Śakuni and others engaged in battles 8. 35. 48; there was great battle between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas in which Kurus named their opponents (kurūṇāṁ…giraḥ/śrūyante… nāmāny uddiśya) 8. 35. 55-56; Bhīma fought with the Kurus 8. 40. 69, 77, 130; Kurus and Sṛñjayas, not afraid and led by Karṇa and Yudhiṣṭhira respectively, met each other 8. 42. 1; the Kuru army was put to flight 8. 44. 2; Bhīma checked the advance of Kurus and sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra 8. 44. 15; Kuru warriors, wonderstruck, watched Aśvatthāman covering Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna with arrows 8. 45. 4; Aśvatthāman, with Kurus, intervened in Arjuna's battle with the Saṁśaptakas 8. 47. 2; Kurus as good as defeated if Karṇa was killed 8. 49. 65; many peoples like Tukhāras, Yavanas, Khaśas had gone to the side of the Kurus to fight for Duryodhana 8. 51. 18, 20; Arjuna alone would attack and burn all the Kurus and Bāhlīkas 8. 52. 32; the other Kurus led the attack on Bhīma from all sides and attacked his fast front horse with arrows (tato 'pare…pratyudyayuḥ kuravas taṁ samantāt/bhīmasya vāhāgryam udāravegam samantato bāṇagaṇair nijaghnuḥ) 8. 54. 3; Bhīma told his charioteer that the whole world would know that either Bhīma had defeated Kurus and killed them or they had killed him 8. 54. 18-19; for all the Kurus, Karṇa was their resort, armour, foundation and hope of life (kurūṇām api sarveṣām karṇaḥ…śarma varma pratiṣṭhā ca jīvitāśā ca) 8. 56. 4; all Kurus looked upon Karṇa as their saviour in battle (ete tvāṁ kuravaḥ sarve dvīpam āsādya saṁyuge/viṣṭhitāḥ…śaraṇakāṅkṣiṇaḥ) 8. 57. 30; Kuru chiefs (kurupravīrāḥ) and Sṛñjayas struck each other with straightgoing and sharp arrows (śarais tadāñjogatibhiḥ sutejanaiḥ) 8. 57. 67; excellent armies of Kurus attacked Bhīma (kurūṇāṁ pravarair balair) 8. 58. 1; Arjuna acted as god Yama to Kurus 8. 58. 4; Kurus turned back when they were burnt (nirdagdhāḥ) by Arjuna 8. 58. 18-19; ninety chariot-fighters of Kurus (here the term Kuru refers to Saṁśaptakas 8. 59. 3) chased Arjuna as he was rushing towards Karṇa; Arjuna killed them 8. 59. 1, 4; other Kuru warriors (in this episode, Kuru refers to Dhṛtarāṣṭra's sons 8. 59. 7), undaunted, assailed Arjuna 8. 59. 6; they obstructed Arjuna's onward march and struck him with śaktis, ṛṣṭis and other weapons 8. 59. 8; Kurus uttered sounds of grief when struck by Arjuna with arrows; Kurus lost hope about Karṇa; defeated, they turned back and fled in all directions; persecuted by Arjuna, they took refuge with Karṇa who granted them freedom from fear 8. 59. 29-30, 33-34, 3741; Kurus thought highly of Vṛṣasena's (Karṇa's son) heroism, but knowing the prowess of Arjuna they thought Vṛṣasena was as good as dead 8. 62. 54; when Karṇa faced Arjuna, Kurus gathered together with musical instruments and, to encourage Karṇa, they blew their conches 8. 63. 10; Kuru and Pāṇḍava warriors (kurupāṇḍuyodhāḥ) filled the earth and directions with sounds of instruments, arrows and lion-like roars, and killed their opponents; when their elephants, footsoldiers, horses and chariot-fighters were afflicted by the arrows of Karṇa and Arjuna, they fled 8. 64. 3, 13; Arjuna alone killed two thousand chief warriors of Kurus together with their chariots, horses and charioteers (kurupravīrān…kurūṇāṁ …sarathāśvasūtān); then the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and the remaining Kurus (tavātmajāḥ kuravaś cāvaśiṣṭāḥ) ran away abandoning Karṇa; Karṇa, left alone by the shattered Kurus since they were afraid, was not afflicted 8. 65. 43-45; Kurus, whose armies were routed (kuravo bhinnasenāḥ) and stood at a distance of only an arrow-shot from Karṇa (śarapātamātram avasthitāḥ), saw the missile released by Arjuna 8. 66. 1; when Arjuna broke the flag-staff of Karṇa, the hearts of Kurus sank and they uttered a loud sound of grief (tadā kurūṇāṁ hṛdayāni cāpatan babhūva hāheti ca nisvano mahān) 8. 67. 15; when Karṇa was killed, Kurus, afraid and deeply wounded in battle, fled looking again and again at the shining banner of Arjuna; they all left for their camp 8. 67. 36; 8. 68. 5, 35-36; Janamejaya asked what did the Kurus, whose number had diminished, do after the death of Karṇa (alpāvaśiṣṭāḥ kuravaḥ) 9. 1. 1; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas confronted each other and perished in large number 9. 3. 1; on the eighteenth day, Duryodhana was protected by Kuru chief warriors (rakṣitaḥ kurupuṁgavaiḥ) 9. 7. 25; seeing Śalya stoutly facing the enemies, Kurus returned to the battlefield determined to fight till death (kuravaḥ saṁnyavartanta mṛtyuṁ kṛtvā nivartanam) 9. 9. 7; Pāṇḍava warriors, being killed by Kurus, fled 9. 15. 3; all Kurus together saw the śakti hurled by Yudhiṣṭhira at Śalya 9. 16. 41; when Śalya fell, Kurus fled shouting words of grief (hāhākāraṁ vikurvāṇāḥ kuravo vipradudruvuḥ) 9. 16. 65; Kurus again returned determined to fight till the end and started fighting with Pāṇḍavas 9. 20. 4; Pāṇḍavas and Pāñcālas killed seven hundred desperate Kuru-chariotfighters (rathān saptaśatān hatvā kurūṇām ātatāyinām) 9. 22. 14; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas watched the śaktis hurled by heroic Pāṇḍava warriors and by those of Śakuni, as heavenly bodies 9. 22. 43; Bhīma put to flight all the Kurus 9. 25. 36; Yuyutsu was grieved since all the Kurus, led by Bhīṣma and Droṇa, had perished; he alone survived the holocaust of the Kurus (hastāś ca kuravaḥ sarve bhīṣmadroṇapuraḥsarāḥ aham eko vimuktas tu…/…asmin kurukṣaye vṛtte) 9. 28. 76-77, 84; Kurus, Kaliṅgas and others perished by confronting Bhīma 9. 32. 42; Balarāma and other sages asked Nārada news about the Kurus (yathāvṛttam kurūn prati); Nārada reported to them the great destruction of Kurus just as it took place (sarvam eva yathāvṛttaṁ atītaṁ kurusaṁkṣayam) 9. 53. 19-20; Pāṇḍavas had accomplished a great feat by killing Kurus led by Bhīṣma (kṛtvā sumahat karma hatvā…bhīṣmamukhān kurūn) 9. 57. 10; destruction of Kuru and Pāṇḍava warriors (kurupāṇḍavayoḥ kṣayam) lamented by Aśvatthāman 10. 1. 29; since the start of the war a certain kṛtyā used to appear at nights between the armies of Kurus and Pāṇḍavas 10. 6. 67; a great calamity was destined to overtake Kurus--Vyāsa told lamenting Dhṛtarāṣṭra (avaśyaṁ bhavitavye ca kurūṇāṁ vaiśase) 11. 8. 16; women of Hāstinapura lamented the destruction of Kurus 11. 9. 19, 21; 11. 13. 14; Gāndhārī with her divine sight, saw all around the destruction of Kurus (gāndhārī kurūṇāṁ āvikartanam/apaśyat…divyena cakṣuṣā) 11. 16. 1: (however, Nī. who reads avakartanam, Bom. Ed. 11. 16. 1, explains it as yuddhasthānam); having witnessed the calamity that had overtaken the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ vaiśasam), Gāndhārī spoke to Kṛṣṇa 11. 16. 17; she said she did not imagine that such a calamity would overtake Pāñcālas and Kurus 11. 16. 26; Gāndhārī pointed towards Droṇa whom Kurus appointed their leader and challenged the Pāṇḍavas (kurava āhvayanti sma pāṇḍavān) 11. 23. 29; Somadatta's wife said fortunately her husband was not alive to see the terrible destruction of the Kurus which was as good as yugānta (kurusaṁkrandanaṁ ghoraṁ yugāntam) 11. 24. 4; Gāndhārī cursed Kṛṣṇa for being deliberately indifferent to the destruction of the Kurus (icchatopekṣito nāśaḥ kurūṇām) 11. 25. 38; but according to Kṛṣṇa, the Kurus were killed due to the fault of Gāndhārī 11. 26. 1; the Kurus who somehow got killed between battles had obtained the world of the Uttarakurus (ye tatra nihatā rājann antarāyodhanaṁ prati/yathākathaṁcit te… saṁprāptā uttarān kurūn) 11. 26. 17; Yudhiṣṭhira blamed Kuntī for the grief he and his brothers felt at the death of Abhimanyu and others and at the fall of Kurus (kurūṇāṁ patanena ca) 11. 27. 18; Kurus, the enemies of Pāṇḍavas, acted and (as warriors) fully accomplished their objective (amitrā naḥ samṛddhārthāḥ vṛttārthāḥ kuravaḥ kila) 12. 7. 4 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 12. 7. 4; yato vayaṁ vṛttārthāḥ saṁkṣiptapuruṣārthā jñātivadhena hatabhāgyāḥ sma tato hetor naḥ asmākam amitrāḥ samṛddhārthā ity arthaḥ); Yudhiṣṭhira, along with Dhṛtarāṣṭra, performed the obsequies of Kurus prominent among whom were Bhīṣma and Karṇa (bhīṣmakarṇapurogāṇāṁ kurūṇāṁ) 14. 14. 15; Kṛṣṇa reported to Vasudeva and Devakī the death of Kuru warriors 14. 59. 5; destruction of Kurus due to Dhṛtarāṣṭra's fault 15. 5. 1; destruction of Kurus as destined by fate 15. 16. 1; Kṛṣṇa witnessed the annihilation of Yādavas as he did before of kings and of pominent Kurus (rājñāṁ ca pūrvaṁ kurupuṁgavānām) 16. 5. 8; Kṛṣṇa contemplated on the destruction of the Vṛṣṇis, Andhakas and Kurus and realized that it was time for him to depart 16. 5. 18. II. Kurus in the battle of the cow-raid: The victory of Arjuna over Kurus in this battle mentioned in the contents of the Virāṭaparvan (gograhe yatra pārthena nirjitāḥ kuravo yudhi) 1. 2. 132; Kurus drove away sixty thousand cows of Virāṭa 4. 33. 5, 10; 4. 35. 3, 6, 12; Bhūmiṁjaya (Uttara) was to defeat the Kurus and turn back the cattle 4. 33. 14, 19; Uttara boasted that he could defeat the Kurus if he had the help of a good charioteer 4. 34. 5, 17; Kurus succeeded in capturing the cows since there was no one to protect them (śūnyam āsādya kuravaḥ prayānty ādāya godhanam) 4. 34. 8; Uttara wanted the Kurus to see his heroism 4. 34. 9; Uttarā asked Bṛhannaḍā to get for her the thin (upper) garments of the Kurus led by Bhīṣma and Droṇa, when they were defeated 4. 35. 23; Bṛhannaḍā drove the chariot towards the Kurus 4. 35. 26; Uttara's chariot to be driven in the direction of the fleeing Kurus 4. 36. 1; he wanted to defeat the Kurus 4. 36. 2; strong Kurus and their army within sight near the cremation ground 4. 36. 4; Uttara afraid to fight with the Kurus since their army had many excellent heroes, was very fierce, unassailable even by gods and was endless (bahupravīram atyugraṁ devair api durāsadam…kurusainyam anantakam) 4. 36. 9, 13; Bṛhannaḍā, however, was determined to take Uttara in the midst of the Kurus who were ready to kill their opponents (madhyam…kurūṇāṁ ātatāyinām/neṣyāmi) 4. 36. 19; if not Uttara, Bṛhannaḍā was ready to fight with the Kurus 4. 36. 23; Uttara unwilling to face the Kurus even if the Kurus plundered more wealth of the Matsyas 4. 36. 24; the Kurus seeing Bṛhannaḍā run after Uttara wondered who he was; they discussed but came to no conclusion 4. 36. 29, 36; Bṛhannaḍā again assured Uttara that he would fight with the Kurus and asked Uttara to drive his chariot close to their army 4. 36. 44-45; 4. 40. 4; the sound which Arjuna produced with his bow was thought by the Kurus to be the sound produced by the splitting of the lightning (taṁ śabdaṁ kuravo 'jānan visphoṭam aśaner iva) 4. 40. 27; Karṇa said that the Kurus may return with the booty or, seated in their chariots, watch him fight alone with Arjuna 4. 43. 21; Kṛpa reminded the Kurus that they were rescued from the Gandharvas by Arjuna single-handed 4. 44. 5; Uttara drove Arjuna's chariot in the direction of the Kurus and Duryodhana 4. 48. 13; Arjuna's chariot moved all around in the army of the Kurus 4. 49. 12; all groups of gods, Siddhas and great sages gathered in the air to witness the battle between Arjuna and Kurus 4. 51. 13; all Kurus were struck with wonder to see the battle between Arjuna and Aśvatthāman 4. 54. 11; Arjuna said that let the Kurus and their forces act as spectators when he fought with Karṇa 4. 55. 6; Kurus would get a sight of Arjuna's Gāṇḍīva and would keep wondering whether he shot arrows with his right or left hand 4. 56. 4; Arjuna wanted to burn with the lustre of his missiles the forest of the Kuru army, with trees in the form of banners, grass in the form of footsoldiers and lions in the form of chariot(fighters) (dhvajavṛkṣaṁ pattitṛṇaṁ rathasiṁhagaṇāyutam/vanam ādīpayiṣyāmi kurūṇām astratejasā//) 4. 56. 12; Arjuna, when he employed Aindra astra, covered all the Kurus (with its lustre) 4. 58. 9; Arjuna warded off every missile of the Kuru stalwarts with a corresponding missile 4. 61. 8; when Arjuna used his Saṁmohana astra he struck the minds of (Kurus) with fear and when he blew the conch, the chief Kuru warriors were stupefied by the loud sound of the conch 4. 61. 8-11; Arjuna asked Uttara to go to the unconscious Kurus to get their (upper) garments 4. 61. 12; when Arjuna saw the chief Kuru heroes returning to Hāstinapura he was satisfied 4. 61. 25, 29; Arjuna defeated the Kurus in the battle who left (for Hāstinapura) 4. 62. 1, 7; when the defeated sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra had left, their soldiers (kurusainikāḥ) came out of hiding from the dense forest 4. 62. 2; Virāṭa informed about the cattleraid of the Kurus 4. 63. 6; he knew that when the Kurus came to know about the defeat of the Trigartas, they would not keep quiet (kuruvas te hi…na sthāsyanti kadācana) 4. 63. 10; Virāṭa was grieved and tormented when he knew that his son had gone to fight with the Kurus 4. 63. 15; Yudhiṣṭhira assured Virāṭa that Uttara would be able to defeat the Kurus and other kings 4. 63. 16; the minister reported the defeat of the Kurus and the winning back of the cows 4. 63. 18-21, 36; Uttara told that the Kurus were defeated and their (upper) garments taken away by a Devaputra 4. 64. 21, 28, 30; later it was known that it was Arjuna who won back the cows and defeated the Kurus 4. 66. 14.


H. The word Kuru refers to the army of the Kurus (fighting for the Kauravas): Many hundreds and thousands of kings joined the Kurus in their conflict (with the Pāṇḍavas) (kurūṇāṁ vigrahe tasmin samāgacchan bahūny atha/rājñāṁ śatasahasrāṇi) 1. 57. 105; the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas together made eighteen akṣauhiṇīs (akṣauhiṇyo…aṣṭādaśaiva tāḥ/etayā saṁkhyayā hy āsan kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 1. 2. 24; Bhīṣma fought for ten days for the Kuru army, while Droṇa protected it for five days (kuruvāhinīm) 1. 2. 26; march of the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas towards Kurukṣetra described in the (abhi-) niryāṇa parvan (niryāṇaṁ parva ca tataḥ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 1. 2. 52 (reference to 5. 149-152); the army of the Kurus will be destroyed in war (balaṁ kurūṇāṁ) 5. 57. 28; (ete naśyanti kuravo…) 5. 146. 21, 25; the army got ready for battle at day-break (udatiṣṭhan…sūryodaye mahat sainyaṁ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 6. 16. 24; army, large like an ocean (kurūṇāṁ…sainyaṁ sāgarapratimaṁ mahat) 7. 85. 81; army looked upon as a dice-player (senāṁ durodaraṁ viddhi) 7. 105. 17; looked upon as a herd of bulls (kurusainyād vimukto vai siṁho madhyād gavām iva) 7. 116. 22; other references to the army: senāniveśe…kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 5. 156. 3; 6. 42. 25; 7. 4. 12; 7. 120. 4; 12. 336. 8; destruction of the army of the Kurus, Sauvīras and Saindhavas, (kurusauvīrasaindhavānāṁ balakṣayam) 7. 114. 17; (ghnantaṁ kurūṇām iṣubhir balānī) 7. 115. 20; 7. 133. 63; 9. 7. 34.


I. References to the war between Kurus (i. e. those who fought for the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) and the Pāṇḍavas: 1. Inquiries about the war: (i) Janamejaya asked Vaiśaṁpāyana how the two armies fought with each other (kathaṁ yuyudhire vīrāḥ kurupāṇḍavasomakāḥ) 6. 1. 1, 2; (ii) Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya (yathā tad abhavad yuddhaṁ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 6. 15. 75; (ke pūrvaṁ prāharaṁs tatra kuravaḥ pāṇḍavās tathā) 6. 42. 1; 6. 111. 2; (Saṁjaya replied) 6. 111. 3; (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 7. 71. 1; 7. 158. 12; (pāñcālāḥ kurubhiḥ sārdham) 7. 81. 1, 4; 2. The war variously described: dreadful (ghora, sughora, ghorarūpa) 5. 141. 3 (yuddhaṁ…pāṇḍavāṇāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca); 7. 70. 3; 7. 81. 4; 7. 91. 54; 7. 154. 40; 9. 8. 1; 6. 99. 24; 6. 85. 26; intense (tīvra) 7. 170. 9; 8. 35. 53; fierce (raudra) 9. 22. 13; tumultuous (tumula, sutumula) 6. 66. 12; 6. 100. 37; 7. 12. 18; 7. 70. 3; 7. 81. 4; 8. 1. 14; 9. 1. 9; bitter (kaṭuka) 6. 66. 12; great (mahat, sumahat) 5. 141. 3; 6. 16. 24; 6. 85. 26; 6. 111. 42; 7. 90. 3; 14. 59. 10; very much confused (bhṛśākula) 8. 62. 40; very cruel (atīva dāruṇa) 8. 62. 40 (punaḥ kurūṇāṁ saha pāṇḍusṛñjayaiḥ); full of surprise, its sight caused surprise (adbhuta, adbhutadarśana) 7. 70. 3; 8. 1. 15; (āścaryabhūtaṁ lokeṣu) 7. 14. 2; causing hair to stand (lomaharṣaṇa, romaharṣaṇa) 6. 100. 37; 7. 12. 18; 7. 70. 3; 7. 81. 2 (pāñcālānāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca) 8. 18. 56 (romaº); 14. 59. 10 (romaº); causing fear (bhayavardhana, lokabhayaṁkara) 9. 8. 1; 5. 157. 4; depriving men, horses and elephants of their lives (narāśvanāgāsuhara, yamarāṣṭravivardhana) 8. 62. 40; 8. 16. 8; 9. 22. 13; which tired the horses and warriors (śrāntavāhanasainika) 7. 159. 11; loud lionlike roar during the battle resounding heaven and earth (kurūṇāṁ pānḍavānāṁ ca saṁgrāme…/siṁhānām iva saṁhrādo divam ūrvīṁ ca nādayan//) 6. 43. 2; 7. 6. 30; 7. 78. 44; the sounds of horses, elephants, chariots (ete śabdāḥ…pravṛttāḥ kurusāgare) 7. 167. 20; (the sound of conches and bheris) 7. 170. 13; later the loud noise of the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas arose inside the water of the Gaṅgā as it did formerly during the war (tataḥ sa tumulaḥ śabdo jalāntar janamejaya/prādurāsīd yathā pūrvam kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 15. 40. 6;

(3) War described with various similes:

(1) With the war between gods and demons (devāsuropama, devāsuraraṇopama) 7. 14. 2; 7. 81. 4; 7. 91. 54; 9. 8. 1; 9. 1. 9;

(2) Coming together of two oceans at the time of high tide (samāgamo rājan kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ/…pūrṇasāgarayor iva) 7. 170. 9, or even of two mountains (yathā śiloccaye śailaḥ sāgare sāgaro yathā/pratihanyeta rājendra tathāsan kurupāṇḍavāḥ//) 7. 170. 12;

(3) The army of Kurus, when Bhīṣma fell down, became like the sky without the Nakṣatras or the atmosphere without wind (babhūva kuruvāhinī/dyaur ivāpetanakṣatrā hīnaṁ kham iva vāyunā) 7. 1. 24;

(4) War led to the rise of a river of blood (prāvartayata saṁgrāme śoṇitodāṁ mahānadīm/madhyena kurusainyānāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 6. 112. 124; 6. 114. 74; (saṁjajñe raṇabhūmau tu paralokavahā nadī/śoṇitodā rathāvartā…prāvartata nadī raudrā kurusṛñjayasaṁkulā//); the river is also described as very frightful, causing delight to brave, fear to timid śūrāṇāṁ harṣajananī bhīrūṇāṁ bhayavardhinī/…atibhairavām) 9. 8. 29-33; the simile with a river is implied in terms like ‘mire of blood’ (rudhirakardama) 5. 141. 3 and ‘blood in the form of water’ (śoṇitodaka) 6. 66. 12;

(5) Other simple references to war between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas or Somakas (yuddhaṁ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 1. 2. 9; (kurūṇāṁ vigrahe tasmin) 1. 57. 105; (virāṭanagare kurubhiḥ saha saṁgare) 5. 155. 28; (pāṇḍavānāṁ sasainyānāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca samāgamaḥ) 6. 16. 13; 6. 70. 12; 6. 92. 3. 7. 6. 30; 7. 15. 13; 7. 72. 4; 7. 159. 11, 25; 7. 161. 1; 8. 32. 84; 8. 35. 55.


J. References to Kuru women of Hāstinapura (mostly of the royal family): Bhīṣma, Vidura, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and all Kuru women offered water libations to Pāṇḍu (udakaṁ cakrire tasya sarvāś ca kuruyoṣitāḥ) 1. 118. 27; all high-ranking women of the Kurus (sarvāḥ kuruvarastriyaḥ) were anxious to meet newly-married Draupadī 1. 198. 23; the desires of Kuru women would remain unfulfilled after the death of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (hatasaṁkalpāḥ…kurustriyaḥ) 3. 224. 8; servants of Kauravas requested help from Pāṇḍavas lest the wives of the Kurus were molested (parāmarśo mā bhaviṣyat kurudāreṣu) 3. 237. 7; Gāndhārī and all Kuru women became unconscious hearing Saṁjaya say that all except ten perished in battle (sarvāś ca kuruyoṣitaḥ) 9. 1. 39; Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍavas and Kṛṣṇa met Kuru women (kurustriyaḥ samāsādya) and they all went to Kurukṣetra; there, those women whose husbands were killed (tāḥ striyo nihateśvarāḥ) saw their dead sons, brothers, fathers, husbands; seeing the sight they, lamenting, fell down from their vehicles (striyaḥ…yānebhyo vikrośantyo nipetire); that was a very pitiable condition of Pāñcāla and Kuru women (pāñcālakuruyoṣāṇāṁ kṛpaṇaṁ tad abhūn mahat); Gāndhārī showed to Kṛṣṇa daughters-in-law who were lamenting like kurarīs (snuṣā me…prakīrṇakeśāḥ krośantīḥ kurarīr iva mādhava); they remembered their near ones and ran to them separately; those women from noble families (paramāṅganāḥ), afflicted by sorrow and grief, lamented; their faces had dried up (mukhāni paramastrīṇām; vaktrāṇi kuruyoṣitām); grieving Kuru women described by Gāndhārī 11. 16. 1011, 13, 15, 18-19, 42-58; Kuru women, took away their ornaments, upper garments, girdles and, weeping due to excessive grief, knowing their dharma, gave water libations to their relatives and friends; when they were performing these rites, the river became fordable and then again spread out widely (bhūṣaṇāny uttarīyāṇi veṣṭanāny avamucya ca/…kurustriyaḥ/udakaṁ cakrire sarvā rudantyo bhṛśaduḥkhitāḥ/…dharmajñāḥ pracakruḥ salilakriyāḥ//) 11. 27. 2-4; all Kuru women, Kuntī and Draupadī, mounted different vehicles and went to Hāstinapura led by Vidura 12. 38. 41; Kuru women (kuruyoṣitaḥ) held Subhadrā, grieving over Abhimanyu's death, in their arms and lamented 14. 60. 26; Citrāṅgadā and Ulupī approached Draupadī, Subhadrā and other Kuru women (yāś cānyāḥ kuruyoṣitaḥ) with modesty 14. 90. 2; knowing Kuntī's firm resolve to retire to forest and seeing the Pāṇḍavas return without her, Kuru women wept loudly (kurustriyaḥ/…prarurudus tadā//) 15. 24. 11; wives of Kuru chiefs followed Pāṇḍavas on foot when they too on foot started towards the āśrama of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (striyaś ca kurumukhyānāṁ padbhir evānvayus tadā) 15. 31. 2; Saṁjaya introduced by name Draupadī and all other Kuru women to the ascetics in the āśrama (sarvān nāmābhināmataḥ/ …sarvāś cānyāḥ kurustriyaḥ) 15. 32. 4.


K. Different persons on the side of Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas variously referred to as born in the family of Kurus, eminent or best among Kurus, chief or king (prince) of Kurus, bringing good name (or in a few cases bad name) to the family of Kurus, etc.: kurukulādhama:

(1) Duryodhana 4. 48. 8; 9. 55. 17;

(2) Parikṣit 1. 37. 18;

(3) Bhīṣma 2. 38. 12; kurukulotpanna: Parikṣit 1. 38. 36; 1. 45. 16; kurukulodbhava: Bhīṣma 13. 154. 11; kurukulodvaha:

(1) Arjuna 3. 38. 37; 14. 50. 43, 46; 14. 77. 32;

(2) Janamejaya 9. 47. 4; 14. 62. 10;

(3) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 6. 12. 31; 6. 13. 21; 7. 172. 44; 15. 3. 1;

(4) Pāṇḍu 1. 117. 31;

(5) Bhīmasena 3. 148. 8;

(6) Bhīṣma 3. 81. 133; 5. 177. 16; 12. 291. 6; 13. 84. 4; 13. 86. 4;

(7) Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 18. 9; 3. 23. 3; 3. 188. 60; 14. 71. 21; 15. 7. 5; 17. 3. 24;

(8) Vicitravīrya 5. 145. 20; kurunandana:

(1) Abhimanyu 6. 97. 23;

(2) Arjuna 1. 164. 10; 1. 168. 20; 1. 184. 1; 1. 187. 19; 1. 206. 20; 1. 208. 5, 6; 1. 213. 15; 1. 214. 26; 1. 225. 11; 2. 24. 18, 20; 2. 25. 4; 3. 40. 41; 3. 42. 19; 3. 42. 34; 3. 43. 20; 3. 43. 27; 3. 44. 15; 3. 172. 19; 3. 234. 17; 4. 2. 10; 5. 7. 5; 5. 149. 18; 6. 24. 41; 6. 28. 43; 6. 36. 13; 6. 106. 20; 8. 59. 8; 14. 61. 14; 14. 78. 35; 14. 79. 11;

(3) Janamejaya 1. 99. 21, 22; 2. 33. 13; 3. 42. 24; 5. 19. 16; 12. 336. 58;

(4) Duryodhana 1. 195. 17; 2. 43. 2; 2. 57. 21; 3. 229. 6; 3. 235. 22; 3. 236. 10; 4. 25. 17; 5. 7. 5, 24, 30; 5. 83. 3; 5. 104. 6; 5. 189. 11; 5. 193. 41; 7. 53. 16; 8. 23. 24; 9. 60. 3;

(5) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 1. 197. 9; 2. 51. 7; 3. 11. 17; 5. 93. 33; 5. 153. 22; 6. 6. 12; 6. 12. 8; 6. 13. 43; 6. 41. 15; 6. 105. 30; 10. 8. 146; 15. 15. 26;

(6) Parikṣit 1. 38. 22;

(7) Pāṇḍu 1. 105. 3; 1. 112. 4; 1. 115. 3; 1. 116. 12; 1. 133. 10;

(8) Pāṇḍavas 4. 1. 15; 4. 1. 19; 4. 12. 2; 5. 21. 3;

(9) Pratīpa 1. 92. 17;

(10) Bhīmasena 1. 184. 1; 2. 21. 23; 2. 26. 9; 3. 147. 40; 3. 232. 15;

(11) Bhīṣma 2. 33. 26; 2. 34. 9; 3. 80. 42, 84; 3. 81. 63; 3. 82. 66; 3. 83. 9, 15; 5. 178. 18; 5. 180. 4; 12. 291. 2; 13. 39. 2; 13. 109. 11; 13. 154. 32;

(12) Yudhiṣṭhira 1. 156. 5; 1. 187. 26; 2. 13. 67; 2. 34. 9; 2. 42. 46; 3. 15. 15; 3. 22. 17; 3. 34. 42, 77; 3. 70. 16; 3. 72. 23; 3. 73. 21; 3. 83. 100; 3. 89. 12; 3. 90. 9; 3. 93. 27; 3. 128. 5; 3. 129. 8; 3. 163. 1; 3. 185. 44; 3. 261. 13; 5. 8. 19; 6. 41. 37, 39, 44; 6. 103. 50; 7. 58. 27; 9. 6. 31; 9. 16. 51; 9. 30. 2, 41; 9. 55. 41; 12. 25. 7; 12. 41. 8; 12. 49. 8; 12. 56. 20; 12. 69. 6, 24, 61, 63; 12. 72. 24; 12. 122. 10; 12. 265. 7; 12. 273. 14, 59; 12. 274. 16; 12. 306. 102; 13. 22. 13; 13. 42. 4; 13. 47. 25, 35, 47, 51; 13. 52. 35; 13. 57. 42; 13. 69. 30; 13. 83. 3; 13. 94. 7; 13. 98. 2; 14. 90. 16; 15. 5. 17; 15. 6. 16; 15. 8. 1; 15. 9. 8; 15. 45. 10; 17. 3. 32; 18. 4. 4, 6;

(13) Vidura 3. 7. 16;

(14) Sahadeva 2. 28. 15, 32; 4. 9. 2; 5. 149. 8; kurupati:

(1) Duryodhana 8. 40. 36;

(2) Pāṇḍu 15. 32. 2;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 2. 14; 11. 27. 23; 14. 86. 18; 14. 90. 27; kurupitāmaha: Bhīṣma 1. 103. 10; 2. 37. 2, 5; 2. 41. 29; 3. 241. 12; 5. 86. 7; 6. 14. 4; 6. 17. 5; 6. 48. 9, 22; 6. 52. 2; 6. 91. 3; 6. 102. 37; 6. 103. 52, 55, 60. 83; 6. 113. 20; 6. 114. 42, 89, 91-92; 7. 124. 23; 7. 169. 37; 12. 38. 6; 12. 278. 1; 14. 51. 15. kurupuṁgava:

(1) Abhimanyu 6. 54. 23;

(2) Arjuna 4. 54. 17; 14. 51. 36; 14. 77. 12; 16. 7. 1; 16. 9. 31;

(3) Duryodhana 5. 5. 8; 6. 112. 8; 7. 133. 13;

(4) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 60. 21;

(5) Bhīṣma 7. 2. 11; 13. 58. 1;

(6) Bhūriśravas 7. 117. 41, 50;

(7) Yudhiṣṭhira 8. 69. 18; 9. 16. 20, 86; 13. 117. 41;

(8) Somadatta 7. 131. 21; 7. 137. 7; kurupuṁgavāgraja: Janamejaya 1. 40. 7; kurupuṁgavāgrya: Dhṛtarāṣṭra 7. 94. 1; kurupṛtanāpati: Karṇa 8. 26. 70; kurupravīra:

(1) Arjuna 6. 33. 48; 8. 45. 64;

(2) Janamejaya 1. 40. 6, 9;

(3) Duryodhana 4. 60. 14; 4. 61. 22; 8. 57. 51;

(4) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 49. 25; 8. 4. 97;

(5) Pāṇḍu 1. 184. 18;

(6) Bhīṣma 5. 2. 5; 12. 51. 14;

(7) Yudhiṣṭhira 1. 182. 6; 1. 183. 6; 3. 24. 8; 3. 190. 82; 5. 2. 9; 12. 161. 47;

(8) Vikarṇa 4. 49. 9; kurumitra: Duryodhana 8. 4. 97; kurumukhya:

(1) Arjuna 14. 80. 9;

(2) Citrāṅgada 1. 95. 8;

(3) Durmukha 7. 19. 31;

(4) Duryodhana 6. 43. 18; 9. 57. 1;

(5) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 44. 22; 15. 2. 9;

(6) Bhīmasena 6. 43. 18; 9. 57. 1;

(7) Bhīṣma 1. 94. 66; 5. 58. 18; 6. 103. 100; 6. 113. 35; kururāja(-rājan):

(1) Duryodhana 1. 125. 1, 2; 2. 62. 28; 5. 46. 9; 5. 150. 27; 6. 69. 18; 6. 117. 15; 7. 38. 23; 7. 92. 12, 14, 22; 7. 117. 4; 8. 4. 105; 9. 5. 25; 9. 51. 10; 9. 55. 7; 9. 60. 51; 9. 61. 7; 10. 4. 15; 10. 9. 55; 11. 17. 28; 14. 17. 32 (-rājan);

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 52. 7; 7. 119. 28; 15. 15. 6; 15. 27. 2; 15. 36. 6; 15. 45. 34;

(3) Parikṣit 10. 16. 15; 17. 1. 8;

(4) Yudhiṣṭhira 1. 2. 43, 201; 1. 158. 34; 2. 42. 32; 3. 173. 7; 3. 181. 1; 4. 3. 3; 4. 9. 11; 4. 63. 52; 9. 15. 33; 10. 13. 5; 11. 26. 44; 13. 152. 2; 14. 15. 29; 14. 59. 24; 14. 70. 17; 14. 84. 13; 14. 91. 35; 14. 93. 87; 15. 1. 16; 15. 30. 5 (-rājan), 7; 15. 32. 5; 15. 35. 18; 15. 36. 10; 15. 45. 2; 16. 1. 7; 17. 3. 26; 18. 1. 19; 18. 3. 2, 41;

(5) Śaṁtanu 9, 55. 24; kururājaputra:

(1) Arjuna 1. 180. 14;

(2) Pāṇḍavāḥ 3. 161. 24;

(3) Bhīmasena 1. 180. 14;

(4) Yudhiṣṭhira 15. 30. 5; kururājarṣisattama: Bhīṣma 12. 308. 1; kuruvaṁśakara: Vyāsa 13. 18. 30; kuruvaṁśaketu: Bhīṣma 6. 22. 15; kuruvaṁśavivardhana:

(1) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 1. 61. 77;

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍu and Vidura 1. 100. 30;

(3) five Pāṇḍavas 1. 115. 25;

(4) Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas 1. 115. 28; kuruvaraśreṣṭha: Bhīṣma 3. 80. 88, 93; 3. 82. 28; kuruvardhana:

(1) Durjaya 6. 74. 23;

(2) Duryodhana 6. 11. 3;

(3) Parikṣit 1. 38. 15;

(4) Yudhiṣṭhira: 14. 15. 31;

(5) Vikarṇa 6. 74. 23; kuruvīra:

(1) Arjuna 14. 73. 20; 14. 80. 7;

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 15. 24. 19;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira 5. 33. 10; kuruvṛddha:

(1) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 5. 23. 7;

(2) Bhīṣma 4. 29. 16; 5. 137. 10; 5. 145. 7; 5. 160. 12; 5. 162. 5; 6. 23. 12; 6. 47. 22; 6. 50. 105; 6. 103. 30; 6. 108. 20; 6. 116. 4; 6. 117. 6; 7. 4. 1; 11. 1. 25; kuruvṛddhatama:

(1) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 61. 13;

(2) Bhīṣma 2. 61. 13; kuruvṛddhavarya: Dhṛtarāṣṭra 15. 32. 17; kuruvṛṣa: Bhīmasena 2. 26. 13; kuruśārdūla:

(1) Arjuna 1. 159. 7; 6. 43. 10; 12. 330. 40; 12. 336. 37; 16. 7. 7; 16. 9. 25;

(2) Janamejaya 12. 47. 2; 12. 336. 37;

(3) Duḥśāsana 7. 38. 21;

(4) Bhīmasena 2. 41. 4;

(5) Bhīṣma 5. 176. 7; 6. 43. 10; 13. 90. 1; 13. 153. 22; 13. 154. 30;

(6) Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 13. 52; 2. 37. 6; 3. 16. 10; 3. 83. 97; 5. 8. 30; 12. 272. 20; 14. 1. 7; 15. 7. 3; kuruśreṣṭha:

(1) Arjuna 4. 67. 10; 6. 32. 19; 6. 115. 39; 7. 27. 2; 7. 121. 28; 14. 61. 10; 14. 72. 9; 14. 78. 12; 14. 84. 16;

(2) Janamejaya 9. 36. 54; 13. 152. 13;

(3) Duryodhana 2. 62. 28; 3. 240. 15; 3. 241. 21; 5. 122. 19; 5. 194. 8; 7. 120. 30; 9. 54. 32; 10. 9. 41;

(4) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 6. 13. 42; 6. 79. 7; 6. 103. 6; 8. 69. 21; 9. 30. 2; 9. 62. 48; 15. 9. 6; 15. 20. 12; 15. 44. 43;

(5) Parikṣit 1. 46. 16;

(6) Bhīmsena 3. 149. 22; 3. 150. 4; 9. 54. 32;

(7) Bhīṣma 3. 80. 21; 5. 162. 14; 5. 176. 32; 5. 180. 15; 6. 55. 49; 6. 78. 5; 6. 102. 40; 6. 115. 38; 6. 117. 5; 12. 93. 1; 12. 125. 7; 12. 136. 3; 13. 39. 12; 13. 49. 1; 13. 68. 1; 13. 154. 15;

(8) Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 4. 4; 2. 34. 10; 3. 1. 43; 3. 14. 15; 3. 16. 18; 3. 24. 5; 3. 27. 6; 3. 87. 14; 3. 109. 18; 3. 144. 21; 3. 156. 8; 5. 24. 1; 7. 102. 30; 8. 45. 65; 10. 12. 11; 12. 56. 12, 46; 12. 59. 59; 12. 128. 29; 12. 153. 14; 12. 200. 44; 13. 116. 75; 14. 64. 11; 14. 89. 13; 14. 91. 19; 15. 11. 3; 15. 12. 20; 15. 23. 21; kuruśreṣṭhatama: Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 254. 7; kurusattama:

(1) Arjuna 1. 164. 2; 1. 207. 6; 6. 26. 31; 7. 67. 18; 8. 59. 6;

(2) Citrāṅgada 1. 95. 9;

(3) Janamejaya 1. 101. 5; 2. 30. 31; 9. 43. 14;

(4) Duryodhana 3. 240. 13; 5. 122. 6; 7. 128. 33; 7. 134. 4; 9. 56. 20, 47; 9. 57. 35; 9. 58. 19; 12. 124. 66;

(5) Droṇa 8. 5. 107;

(6) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 1. 124. 3; 3. 225. 5; 3. 227. 24; 5. 54. 9, 25; 5. 93. 8; 6. 11. 5; 7. 150. 55; 7. 165. 4; 8. 37. 11; 11. 2. 14; 11. 8. 1;

(7) Pāṇḍavas (pl.) 13. 27. 14;

(8) Bhīmasena 3. 158. 45; 9. 56. 20;

(9) Bhīṣma 1. 196. 2; 2. 39. 20; 3. 227. 15; 5. 30. 13; 5. 54. 21, 25; 6. 116. 2; 7. 3. 11; 8. 5. 107; 12. 38. 10; 12. 289. 1; 13. 47. 5;

(10) Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 28. 9; 3. 79. 3; 3. 120. 20; 3. 229. 14; 5. 9. 45; 8. 45. 59; 12. 1. 5; 12. 31. 25; 12. 55. 20; 12. 58. 27; 12. 76. 35; 12. 251. 26; 12. 270. 2, 3; 12. 310. 13; 13. 8. 22; 13. 58. 28; 13. 66. 11; 13. 144. 2;

(11) Śaṁtanu 1. 92. 19; kurusiṁha: Duryodhana 7. 164. 35; kurūttama:

(1) Arjuna 7. 79. 1;

(2) Duryodhana 7. 120. 23;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 214. 15; 6. 22. 8. [See Kurukṣetra-Kurujāṁgala, Kaurava-Kauraveya-Kauravya ].


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Mahabharata Cultural Index[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kuru : m. (pl.): Name of a country (once distinguished as northern and southern (14. 69. 19), also referred to as Kururāṣṭra (1. 105. 21), and its people (in general or those of Hāstinapura in particular); the term often signifies the descendants of Kuru or the the Kuru family in general (also called Kuruvaṁśa ), or the descendants of Kuru sitting in the assembly of the Kauravas; very often it signifies the chief warriors in the army of the Kauravas (in which case the term occasionally includes heroes like Droṇa, Kṛpa, Karṇa or the Saṁśaptakas (8. 59. 1, 3), or sometimes it refers even to the Kaurava army in general; sometimes the term Kuravaḥ includes the Pāṇḍavas and their descendants (Abhimanyu, Parikṣit and Janamejaya), or, as opposed to the Pāṇḍavas, the term is restricted to refer to the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (otherwise called Kauravas).


A. Country (often it is difficult to distinguish between the country and the people): Listed by Saṁjaya among the Janapadas of the Bhāratavarṣa (ata ūrdhvaṁ janapadān nibodha gadato mama/ tatreme kurupāñcālāḥ) 6. 10. 37. 5; its capital town Hāstinapura (sa hāstinapure ramye kurūṇāṁ puṭabhedane) 1. 94. 10 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 1. 100. 12: puṭabhedane pattane); (sa dharmātmā (bhīṣmaḥ)… yayau kurūn) 1. 96. 44; nāndhaḥ kurūṇāṁ nṛpatir anurūpas tapodhana) 1. 100. 11; when Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍu and Vidura were born the Kuru country, as also Kurujāṅgala and Kurukṣetra prospered (teṣu triṣu kumāreṣu jāteṣu kurujāṅgalaṁ/ kuravo 'tha kurukṣetram trayam etad avardhata//) 1. 102. 1 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 1. 109. 1: kurujāṅgalaṁ deśaḥ kuravaḥ puruṣāḥ kurukṣetraṁ teṣāṁ vāsasthānam); the Kuru country described after the birth of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍu and Vidura: it rained on time, draught-animals as well as birds and animals were happy; the cities were crowded with merchants and craftsmen; there were no robbers and no one took delight in unlawful acts; in all parts of the Kuru country, Kṛta yuga prevailed; people, free from pride, anger and greed, helped one another to prosper; there were tall houses and people sported in rivers, ponds and forest tracts; people of the southern Kurus as though vied with those of the Uttarakurus (see p. 635 ff.); no one was wretched; women did not suffer from widowhood; wells, gardens, and assembly halls, and lodging places for Brāhmaṇas were raised by the Kuru people; the country prospered by obliging other countries; the people celebrated festivals at all times; one always heard the words ‘give, enjoy’ in the houses of the people and of the Kuru chiefs; in short, the wheel of dharma, set in motion by Bhīṣma, prevailed in the land of Kurus (yathartuvarṣī parjanyo…nābhavan dasyavo kecin nādharmarucayo janāḥ…pradeśeṣv api rāṣtrāṇāṁ kṛtaṁ yugam avartata//…uttaraiḥ kurubhiḥ sārdhaṁ dakṣiṇāḥ kuravas tada/vispardhamānā vyacaraṁs…//…tasmiñ janapade ramye bahavaḥ kurubhiḥ kṛtāḥ/kūpārāmasabhāvāpyo brāhmaṇāvasathās tathā/…bhīṣmeṇa vihitaṁ rāṣṭre dharmacakram avartata//… gṛheṣu kurumukhyānām paurāṇām ca narādhipa/dīyatāṁ bhujyatāṁ ceti vāco 'śrūyanta sarvaśaḥ) 1. 102. 1-14); kururāṣṭrāṇi 1. 105. 21; abhyāgacchaṁ kurūn bhīṣma 1. 122. 38; kurubhyaḥ prasthitās te tu 2. 18. 26; kṣipraṁ kurūn yāhi 4. 61. 22; yāvad adhyāvasat kurūn 4. 65. 11; kurūn asapatno 'nuśiṣyām 5. 30. 46; 5. 31. 4; kuravas te sajāṅgalāḥ 5. 53. 7; kurūn gatvā bhāratāñ śamayeḥ prabho 5. 70. 90; samatsyaiḥ kurumadhyadeśaiḥ 5. 158. 20; bāhlīkaṁ kuruvāsinam 8. 30. 20; bhava rājā kuruṣv iti 9. 32. 3; kṛṣnaḥ…anvayāt kurūn 12. 38. 39; kurūn vai dakṣiṇottarān 14. 69. 19; kurūn abhyājagāma ha 14. 89. 25; gatvā kurūn 16. 5. 2; kurūṁs tadā dāruko…yayau 16. 5. 3; 16. 6. 1; kingdom of the Kuru country (kururājye…abhyaṣiñcat) 1. 95. 12; Arjuna expressed his wish to win the whole kingdom of the Kuru country (rājyaṁ kurūṇāṁ avajetā samagram) 5. 47. 91; (ekarājyaṁ kurūṇaṁ sma cikīrṣati yudhiṣṭhire) 5. 54. 10; (rājyam icchāmi kurūṇām) 9. 30. 41; (prāpya rājyaṁ kurūṇām) 13. 75. 28.


B. Kuru dynasty, Kuru family: Sūta traced the lineage of the Kuru to the Sun through five intervening generations (tebhyo 'yaṁ kuruvaṁśaś ca) 1. 1. 44; Vaiśaṁpāyana narrated to king Janamejaya a brief and a detailed account of the Kuru dynasty starting from the very beginning (vistaraṁ kuruvaṁśasya) 1. 1. 59; (kathitaṁ vai samāsena…kurūṇāṁ caritaṁ mahat) 1. 56. 1; kurūṇāṁ vaṁśam āditaḥ) 1. 62. 2; King Parikṣit was born in the line of the Kurus (kurukulotpanna) 1. 38. 36; after Parikṣit, Janamejaya got the kingdom which came to him in the line of the Kurus (rājyaṁ kurukulāgatam) 1. 45. 16; birth of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu necessary for the continuation of the line of the Kurus (asmākam api te janma viditaṁ…kurūṇāṁ vaṁśavṛddhaye) 1. 113. 23; Pāṇḍu brought fame to the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ akarod yaśaḥ) 1. 105. 12; Pāṇḍu told Kuntī that a son born to her by Dharma would be, among the Kurus, the one devoted to dharma (dhārmikaś ca kurūṇāṁ saḥ) 1. 113. 41; an incorporeal voice prophesied at Arjuna's birth that he would set right the emblem of the Kurus (kurulakṣma sudhāsyati) 1. 114. 31; the Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and others spoke about the extent of the glorious Kuru dynasty (yakṣarākṣasagandharvāḥ…vistaram kuruvaṁśasya śrīmataḥ kathayanti te//) 1. 159. 3; the Gandharva Aṅgāraparṇa himself had observed the prowess of the (Kuru)kula while wandering on the earth (svayaṁ cāpi mayā dṛṣṭaś…prabhāvaḥ svakulasya te) 1. 159. 5; sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra had crossed the limits of dharma of the Kuru dynasty (yatrābhyatītāṁ kurudharmavelām 2. 60. 33; if Yudhiṣṭhira got the kingdom of the illustrious Kurus, he could obtain great place (?) and perform sacrificial rites (prāpya rājyaṁ kurupuṁgavānām śakyaṁ mahat prāptum atha kriyāś ca) 3. 173. 12; the Kuru dynasty depended on Dhṛtarāṣṭra (tvayy ādhīnaṁ kurukulam) 5. 36. 71; it depended on Yudhiṣṭhira 15. 44. 25; the Kuru dynasty was glorious (kuruvaṁśasya śrīmataḥ) 1. 159. 3; it was considered the best of all the royal families (idam adya kulaṁ śreṣṭhaṁ sarvarājasu); it was learned, marked by good conduct and good qualities; it was distinguished for its compassion, sympathy, kindness, non-cruelty, straightforwardness, mercy, and truthfulness 5. 93. 5-6; according to the hereditary dharma of the Kuru family their kingdom was to be ruled according to succession (rājyaṁ kurūṇām anupūrvabhogyaṁ kramāgato naḥ kuladharma eṣaḥ) 5. 146. 29; Yudhiṣṭhira should be allowed to rule the kingdom of the Kurus that had legitimately gone to him (nyāyāgataṁ rājyam idaṁ kurūṇāṁ) 5. 146. 35; during the war, singers sang songs in praise of Kuru family (jagur gītāni gāyakāḥ/kuruvaṁśastavārthāni) 7. 58. 3; Arjuna desired to win back the kingdom of the Kurus (rājyaprepsuḥ savyasācī kurūṇāṁ) 7. 120. 85; Bhīṣma revived the Kuru dynasty which appeared to have ended (pranaṣṭaḥ kuruvaṁśaś ca punar yena samuddhṛtaḥ) 11. 23. 24; Bhagavān prophesied that when Tiṣya would arrive again high-souled Bhārata kings, called Kurus, would be born and would become famous on the earth; there would be feud for mutual destruction in the family of those born of Vyāsa (punas tiṣya ca saṁprāpte kuravo nāma bhāratāḥ/bhaviṣyanti …teṣāṁ tvattaḥ prasūtānāṁ kulabhedo bhaviṣyati) 12. 337. 42-43; bards and others praised Kṛṣṇa with songs proclaiming the praise of the Kuru family and by blessings (kuruvaṁśastavākhyābhir āśīrbhir…) 14. 69. 7; Yudhiṣṭhira had distinguished himself among the Kuru heroes by observing dharma (tvaṁ cādya kuruvīrāṇāṁ dharmeṇābhivirājase) 14. 70. 23; a Brāhmaṇa living in Hāstinapura, called Sāmba, told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that no king in the dynasty of the Kurus was at any time, as the protector of subjects, unpopular among them; he assured Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Yudhiṣṭhira would follow the footsteps of the ancient royal sages in his dynasty like Kuru, Saṁvaraṇa and Bharata (na jātv asya tu vaṁśasya rājñāṁ kaścit kadācana/rājāsīd yaḥ prajāpālaḥ prajānām apriyo 'bhavat// rājarṣīṇāṁ purāṇānām bhavatāṁ vaṁśadhāriṇām/…vṛttaṁ samanuyāty eṣa dharmātmā) 15. 15. 15; 23-24; Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī told Yudhiṣṭhira that the Śrāddha libation, fame and the lineage (of the Kurus) were established in him (tvayy adya piṇḍaḥ kīrtiś ca kulaṁ cedaṁ pratiṣṭhitam/ …tvayy adhīnaṁ kurukulaṁ piṇḍaś ca śvaśurasya me) 15. 44. 21, 25.


C. Members of the Kuru family, who lived at Hāstinapura (or outside it 2. 52. 8, 25) and who sided with the Kauravas: Dhṛtarāṣṭra told Vidura that he did not rejoice at the destruction of the Kurus (na ca prīye kurukṣaye) 1. 1. 97; Janamejaya wanted to know from Vyāsa the story of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas to which he was a witness (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavāṇāṁ ca bhavān pratyakṣadarśivān) 1. 54. 18; Vaiśaṁpāyana was to tell Janamejaya the account of the feud, loss of kingdom, and war between the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca yathā bhedo 'bhavat purā) 1. 54. 22; (bhedaṁ rājyavināśaṁ ca kurupāṇḍavayoḥ) 1. 54. 24; 1. 55. 4-5; the Kurus could not bear the glory, fame etc. of the Pāṇḍavas (nāmṛṣyan kuravo dṛṣṭvā pāṇḍavāñ śrīyaśobhṛtāḥ) 1. 55. 7; Bhīṣma asked all the Kuru chiefs to perform the funeral rites of Vicitravīrya (pretakāryāṇi…akārayat/ …bhīṣmaḥ sarvaiś ca kurupuṁgavaiḥ) 1. 96. 59; many Kurus got wells, gardens etc. constructed in the Kuru country 1. 102. 11; in the houses of the Kuru chiefs, gifts were given and food offered (gṛheṣu kurumukhyānām…dīyatām bhujyatāṁ ceti vāco 'śrūyanta sarvaśaḥ) 1. 102. 14; Gāndhārī, after her marriage, gave satisfaction to all the Kurus (tuṣṭiṁ kurūṇāṁ sarveṣām) 1. 103. 16; as the Kurus watched, the sages disappeared after telling them to perform the funeral rites of Pāṇḍu and Mādrī (evam uktvā kurūn sarvān ...kurūṇām eva paśyatām) 1. 117. 32; once the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas went out for hunting 1. 123. 15; Pāṇḍavas, while proceeding to Vāraṇāvata, bowed down to all elderly Kurus (kurūn vṛddhān) 1. 133. 3; Vidura and other distinguished Kurus followed them 1. 133. 5; the distinguished Kurus might get angry when they knew about the Vāraṇāvata incident 1. 134. 22; Kurus prospered due to the marriage of the Pāṇḍavas with Draupadī 1. 192. 17; the Pāṇḍavas were to be protected by all the Kurus--Bhīṣma told Dhṛtarāṣṭra (tathā kurūṇāṁ sarveṣām anyeṣām api bhārata) 1. 195. 3; Droṇa told Karṇa what was very much in the interest of the Kurus; if his advice was not followed, the Kurus would soon perish (hitaṁ tu paramaṁ karṇa bravīmi kuruvardhanaṁ…kuravo vinaśiṣyanti nācireṇa) 1. 196. 27-28; the Kurus were anxious to meet the Pāṇḍavas after their marriage with Draupadī 1. 198. 21; all Kurus gathered at Hāstinapura at the time of dyūta (samāgatāḥ kauravaś caiva sarve 2. 52. 8); Pāṇḍavas met the Kurus who had arrived from all sides (kurubhiś cāpi sarvaśaḥ) 2. 52. 25; according to Vidura many of the Kurus would follow Duḥśāsana to hell and that the end of the Kurus was at hand (tvām anvetāro bahavaḥ kurūṇām) 2. 59. 10; (anto nūnaṁ bhavitāyaṁ kurūṇām) 2. 59. 12; 3. 5. 9; 3. 48. 40; 3. 225. 24; according to Bhīṣma, the end of the Kurus was not far since all of them were under the influence of greed and delusion (nūnam antaḥ kulasyāsya bhavitā na cirād iva/tathā hi kuravaḥ sarve lobhamohaparāyaṇāḥ) 2. 62. 17; the second game of dice could mean the end of the Kurus 2. 67. 16; the priests of Kurus would recite Sāmans addressed to Yama and Rudra (2. 71. 7) when the Bhāratas would be killed in war (hateṣu bhārateṣv ājau kurūṇām guravas tadā/evaṁ sāmāni gāsyanti) 2. 71. 22; in the opinion of Vidura the Pāṇḍavas were stronger than the Kurus 2. 72. 33; Vyāsa knew where lay the happiness of the Kurus 3. 11. 2; Vyāsa, if he had any mercy for the Kurus, should advise Duryodhana (kauraveṣu dayā yadi) 3. 11. 3; Maitreya asked Duryodhana to do what was in the interest of the Kurus 3. 11. 20; if Kṛṣṇa could have spoken to Dhṛtarāṣṭra against dyūta, the dharma of the Kurus would not have suffered (anāmayam syāt dharmasya kurūṇām) 3. 14. 11; all Kurus, except four (the four include Karṇa and Śakuni), shed tears when Pāṇḍavas started for the forest 3. 28. 7; according to Draupadī that was not the time to show forgiveness to Kurus 3. 29. 34; Duryodhana exhorted all the Kurus against the Pāṇḍavas (udyojayām āsa kurūṁś ca sarvān) 3. 35. 13 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 3. 34. 14: udyojayām āsa utkarṣeṇa svecchayā teṣu teṣu durgadeśādipālanakāryeṣu iṣṭān yojitavān); Duryodhana, surrounded by Kurus, shone like the moon surrounded by the nakṣatras 3. 226. 10; soldiers of the Kurus (kurusainikāḥ) were halted by the Gandharvas 3. 230. 6; Pāṇḍavas, honoured by Kurus and their wives and children (sastrīkumāraiḥ kurubhiḥ), shone like fires in their midst (kurumadhye) 3. 235. 19; Draupadī complained to Bhīma that distress had overtaken her defeating all Kurus, Pāñcālas and Pāṇḍavas (kurūn paribhavan sarvān… saṁprāpto mama kleśo hy ariṁdama) 4. 19. 11; Balarāma wished that some one went to Hāstinapura to strive for conciliation between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (śamārthaṁ kurupāṇḍavānām) 5. 2. 4; according to Kṛṣṇa, the relations of Yādavas with Kurus and Pāṇḍavas ought to be the same, no matter how they behaved (saṁbandhakaṁ tulyam asmākaṁ kurupāṇḍuṣu) 5. 5. 3; if the chief of the Kurus (Dhṛtarāṣṭra ?) would behave justly, large scale destruction could be avoided by the good brotherliness between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (na bhavet kurupāṇḍūnām saubhrātreṇa mahān kṣayaḥ) 5. 5. 8; the whole earth was agitated due to (the feud between) the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (kurupāṇḍavakāraṇāt) 5. 5. 16; Drupada sent his priest to the Kurus 5. 5. 18; the Pāṇḍavas desired peace, and not conflict, with the Kurus 5. 20. 12, 64; Yudhiṣṭhira hoped that the Kurus did not talk ill of the Pāṇḍavas 5. 23. 19; what Saṁjaya wanted to say was for the prosperity of the Kurus 5. 25. 3, 8; according Saṁjaya if the Pāṇḍavas wanted to discipline the Kurus (by killing them), Pāṇḍavas' being alive would be as good as their death (te cet kurūn anuśāsya stha pārthāḥ…samaṁ vas taj jīvitaṁ mṛtyunā syāt) 5. 25. 9; according to Saṁjaya who could face the attack of the Kurus when protected by Droṇa Bhīṣma and others ? 5. 25. 11; Saṁjaya begged the Pāṇḍavas and others to see where lay the welfare of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas (kathaṁ svasti syāt kurusṛñjayānām) 5. 25. 14; Yudhiṣṭhira to Saṁjaya: Why should Dhṛtarāṣṭra desire to separate the Pāṇḍavas from the Kurus ? Vidura wished welfare of the Kurus, but Dhṛtarāṣṭra did not remember him from among the Kurus; while playing the game of dice, Vidura wondered if disaster was in store for the Kurus; when the Kurus followed the advice of Vidura, calamity did not strike the Kurus; on the other hand, their kingdom prospered; if Vidura was kept out, how could welfare come to the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas (kathaṁ svasti syāt kurusṛñjayānām); all the Kurus-including Karṇa, Duryodhan, Droṇa and Bhīṣma--knew that there was no archer like Arjuna 5. 26. 7, 12, 15-16, 18, 21-22; Kṛṣṇa to Saṁjaya: If all the Kurus, young and old, had prevented Duḥśāsana, it would have pleased Kṛṣṇa (sakumāravṛddhāḥ…kuravaḥ); if Kṛṣṇa could establish peace with the Kurus, they would be saved from the bond of death; he would approach the Kurus if they would be willing to respect him 5. 29. 32, 41-42; Yudhiṣṭhira wished well for the Kuru chiefs (kurumukhyā yuvānaḥ) as also for their Dāsas and the sons of Dāsas (dāsīputrā ye ca dāsāḥ kurūṇām) 5. 30. 22, 37; the Pāṇḍavas, though stronger than the Kurus, had patiently borne the hardships--this was known to the Kurus 5. 31. 14; the counsellors of the Kurus were convinced that a hell had been let loose for the destruction of the Kurus (kurukṣayārthe nirayo vyapādi) 5. 32. 20 (Nī. who reads niyamenodapādi (Bom. Ed. 5. 32. 21) paraphrases as niyamena utpannaḥ); Dhṛtarāṣṭra requested Vidura to tell him what was beneficial for the Kurus 5. 34. 2, 5; Dhṛtarāṣṭra was one on whom the Kuru family depended (tvayy ādhīnaṁ kurukulam) 5. 36. 71; the Kurus would witness the destruction of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra in case of war (pratyakṣaṁ vaḥ kuravaḥ) 5. 47. 90; all the Kurus would be longlived if they followed the advise of Bhīṣma and others 5. 47. 103; otherwise, annihilation was in store of the Kurus (no ced ayam abhāvaḥ syāt kurūṇām) 5. 48. 25; Jarāsandha could not subdue the Kurus 5. 50. 39; Dhṛtarāṣṭra felt that destruction of the Kurus was certain 5. 50. 36, 57, 59; he advised the Kurus not to confront the Pāṇḍavas if they wanted to avoid destruction of the whole family 5. 52. 14; many kings blamed Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and the Kurus, (vyagarhayaṁś ca saṁgamya bhavantaṁ kurubhiḥ saha) 5. 54. 4; Saṁjaya was to tell the Kurus and others to deal justly with Yudhiṣṭhira 5. 56. 56; all the Kurus were of the opinion that peace with the Pāṇḍavas meant acting according to dharma (etad dhi kuravaḥ sarve manyante dharmasaṁhitaṁ) 5. 57. 4; Kurus were inferior to the Pāṇḍavas in point of strength and lustre, both divine and human (devamānuṣayoḥ śaktyā tejasā caiva pāṇḍavān/kurūn śaktyālpatarayā) 5. 59. 4; Agni would help the Pāṇḍavas in war between them and the Kurus 5. 59. 8; brooding over peace between Kurus (and Pāṇḍavas) Dhṛtarāṣṭra passed sleepless nights; he felt destruction of the Kurus was at hand, for he always rated Pāṇḍavas stronger than Kurus 5. 59. 21-23; he wanted Duryodhana to listen to him whose advice was in the interest of the Kurus (kurūṇām arthavādinam) 5. 63. 12; Kṛṣṇa wished to release the agitated Kurus and Sṛñjayas from the noose of death (saṁrabdhān kurusṛñjayān) 5. 70. 81; Yudhiṣṭhira initially did not approve of Kṛṣṇa's approaching the Kurus 5. 70. 82; Kṛṣṇa would burn all the Kurus if they tried to do anything improper to him 5. 70. 87; if Kṛṣṇa, while striving for peace, did not get any response which would be in accord with dharma (na dharmaṁ tatra lapsyase), all kings would blame Kurus 5. 71. 30, 32; Kṛṣṇa warned Kauravas that fierce war was certain 5. 75. 17; Bhīma did not want Kṛṣṇa to incite the Kurus for war; he remembered that at one time they lived happily together with the Kurus and their sons (kuravaḥ sahaputrās tathā vayam); he wanted Kṛṣṇa to act in such a way that the Pāṇḍavas could remain neutral with the Kurus and that Kurus did not resort to an unjust course (apy udāsīnavṛttiḥ syād yathā naḥ kurubhiḥ saha/ vāsudeva tathā kāryaṁ na kurūn anayaḥ spṛśet) 5. 72. 1, 9, 21; Kṛṣṇa was a great friend of Kurus and Pāṇḍavas; he could lead them to well-being (nirāmayam) 5. 76. 7-8; 5. 81. 1; but Sahadeva wanted Kṛṣṇa to strive for war between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas even if the former sought peace 5. 79. 2; Kṛṣṇa would strive to do that what was just and beneficial to the Pāṇḍavas and well-being of the Kurus (dharmyam asmaddhitaṁ caiva kurūṇām yad anāmayam) 5. 81. 5; Kṛṣṇa left for Hāstinapura, the seat of the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ sadanaṁ) 5. 81. 29; (kurusadman) 5. 83. 18; Duryodhana in his house was surrounded by Kurus 5. 89. 4; there the Kurus waited on Kṛṣṇa 5. 89. 36; Kṛṣṇa approached by the Kurus in Vidura's house; they offered him their houses and treasures; when Kurus left, Vidura worshipped Kṛṣṇa 5. 89. 35-36, 38; Kṛṣṇa assured Vidura that he would try for conciliation between Kurus and Sṛñjayas who would (otherwise) perish in war 5. 91. 8; great calamity loomed large over the Kurus who followed Karṇa and Duryodhana 5. 91. 9; 5. 93. 11; Kṛṣṇa tried for conciliation lest he was blamed (by others) for not checking, though capable, the agitated Kurus and Pāṇḍavas 5. 91. 16; Kṛṣṇa wished that the Kurus honoured him 5. 91. 20; Kurus, led by Bhīṣma, reached the Sabhā 5. 92. 8; they surrounded Kṛṣṇa when he started for the Sabhā; the whole town of the Kurus desired to see Kṛṣṇa whose chariot moved on the road (puraṁ kurūṇāṁ saṁvṛttaṁ draṣṭukāmaṁ janārdanam 5. 92. 14, 24; Kṛṣṇa went to the Kuruassembly to establish peace between the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas 5. 93. 3; Dhṛtarāṣṭra, as the seniormost among the Kurus (śreṣṭhaḥ kurūṇāṁ), could control them if they misbehaved 5. 93. 8; if Dhṛtarāṣṭra could restrain his sons (5. 93. 13), he, supported by the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas, could become the lord of the world 5. 93. 22; Kaṇva advised Duryodhana to be reconciled to the Pāṇḍavas so that they and the Kurus might protect the earth 5. 95. 8; Gāndhārī advised Duryodhana not to be responsible for the killing of the Kurus 5. 127. 49; Dhṛtarāṣṭra desired and strove for conciliation between the Kurus (and the Pāṇḍavas) and that was known to all the Kurus 5. 129. 26, 28; Duryodhana should not think of war but should think of peace for the prosperity of the Kurus (alaṁ yuddhena…śāmya tvaṁ kuruvṛddhaye) 5. 137. 22; Karṇa felt that the war between the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas was certain and that there were astronomical conjunctions foreboding great danger for the Kurus (viśeṣeṇa hi vārṣṇeya citrāṁ pīḍayate grahaḥ) 5. 141. 3, 9; Vidura wondered that when the dharma was being forcibly driven away by the Kurus, who could not be afflicted; the unlawful act of the Kurus would cause destruction of the heroes 5. 142. 8-9; Kuntī wished that the Kurus saw the coming together of Karṇa and Arjuna as good brothers 5. 143. 9; according to Karṇa, Bhīṣma always wished ill of the Kurus, but Duryodhana did not realize it (kurūṇām ahito nityam na ca rājāvabudhyate) 5. 165. 12; Bhīṣma felt that by their association with Karṇa, the Kurus had very much gone astray (kurūṇām anayo mahān) 5. 166. 8; Vyāsa assured Dhṛtarāṣṭra that he would make known the fame of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas 6. 2. 13; he told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that there was nothing like permanent for his kinsmen, (as well as) for the Kurus (neha vidyati śāśvatam/jñātīnāṁ ca kurūṇāṁ ca) 6. 4. 3; for the Kurus as well as for the Pāṇḍavas, Vyāsa was their dharma, purification, glory, fame, forebearance, and smṛti; he was their respected grand-sire (tvaṁ hi dharmaḥ pavitraṁ ca yaśaḥ kīrtir dhṛtiḥ smṛtiḥ/ kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca mānyaś cāsi pitāmahaḥ//) 6. 4. 13; the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas were striving for the sovereignty of the earth by all sorts of means 6. 10. 73; during the battle between Arjuna and Bhīṣma-Droṇa, huge dust arose in the sky which looked like an excessive and frightfully unjust conduct of the Kurus (kurūṇām anayas tīvraḥ samadṛśyata dāruṇaḥ) 6. 51. 21; if Dhṛtarāṣṭra had urged the Kurus to arrest Duryodhana before the war, he would not have faced calamity 7. 62. 6; when calamity was in store for the Kurus, Balarāma started on a pilgrimage (kurūṇāṁ vaiśase) 9. 34. 18; when Dhṛtarāṣṭra and others started for the battlefield a big cry arose from all the houses of the Kurus (praṇādaḥ saṁjajñe sarveṣu kuruveśmasu) 11. 9. 8; according to Gāndhārī, Kṛṣṇa neglected the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas, who were relatives, killing each other (jñātayaḥ kurupāṇḍavāḥ) 11. 25. 40; with Kṛṣṇa as a boat, the Pāṇḍavas were able to cross the ocean of the Kurus (tīrṇāḥ sma kurusāgaram) 14. 51. 7; Uttaṅka wanted to know if Kṛṣṇa went to the seat of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (?) to strive for conciliation (kaccic chaure tvayā gatvā kurupāṇḍavasadma tat); Uttaṅka wanted to curse Kṛṣṇa since the latter failed to save Kurus and Pāṇḍavas although he could do that; he also blamed Kṛṣṇa for acting falsely with the best of the Kurus since he remained indifferent to them; he was capable of doing (otherwise) (tvayā hi śaktena satā… upacīrṇāḥ kuruśreṣṭhā yas tv etān samupekṣathāḥ) 14. 52. 22 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 14. 53. 22: mithyācāreṇa kapaṭapūrvakaṁ avirodhacchalena virodhaṁ draḍhayatā); Vṛṣṇi and Andhaka chiefs were honoured by the Kuru chiefs (kurūdvahāḥ) of Hāstinapura 14. 70. 11; Vaiśaṁpāyana narrated to Janamejaya in details all the deeds of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (kurūṇāṁ caritaṁ kṛtsnaṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 18. 5. 25.


D. People in general of the Kuru country or of Hāstinapura: At the śrāddha ceremony of Pāṇḍu, Bhīṣma fed the people of the Kuru country and also the principal Brāhmaṇas by thousands (kurūṁś ca vipramukhyāṁś ca bhojayitvā sahasraśaḥ) 1. 119. 2; at the birth of Arjuna, an incorporeal voice prophesied that he would subdue the Kurus and others 1. 114. 31; all the people of the Kuru country prospered when the Pāṇḍavas followed dharma; the people became free from blemish and were happy (vyavardhan kuravaḥ sarve hīnadoṣāḥ sukhānvitāḥ) 1. 205. 4; if Dhṛtarāṣṭra could check Duryodhana, all the Kuru people would be happy 2. 55. 8; Kurus, when ruled by Yudhiṣṭhira, would not be lamented (aśocyāḥ kuravo rājan) 2. 65. 13; Kuru people waited on Yudhiṣṭhira as do the servants (kuravaḥ kiṅkarā yathā) 4. 65. 14; Saṁjaya informed Yudhiṣṭhira that the spirited Kuru people were all well (kurūn kuruśreṣṭha janaṁ ca pṛcchasi/anāmayās tāta manasvinas te) 5. 24. 1; Yudhiṣṭhira wished that the Kuru and the Pāñcāla people came together with smiles and not cause injury to each other (smayamānāḥ samāyāntu pāñcālāḥ kurubhiḥ saha//akṣatān kurupāñcālān paśyema) 5. 31. 21-22; the conflict among the Bhāratas would mean an end of the people and the burning up of the Kurus (anto nūnaṁ bhavitāyaṁ prajānām/no ced…kurūn dahet) 5. 32. 27; the Kuru people did not welcome war (kuravaḥ… yuddhaṁ nābhinandanti) 5. 57. 8; Kuru people counted among those who knew well the eternal dharma and they followed it (kuravaḥ…dharmaṁ jānanti śāśvatam) 8. 30. 60-61, 75; kurupāñcāladeśyāḥ… dharmaṁ purāṇam upajīvanti santo…) 8. 30. 62; the people of the Kuru and the Pāñcāla country understood fully when only a part was told to them (ardhoktāḥ kurupāñcālāḥ kṛtsnaṁ jānanti) 8. 30. 79; according to Citrāṅgadā, the life of the Kuru people (kurūṇāṁ) depended on Arjuna 14. 79. 11; the people of the Kurujāṅgala and of the Kuru country had lived together for long; they were friends of one another and worked for mutual welfare (bhavantaḥ kuravaś caiva bahukālaṁ sahoṣitāḥ) 15. 13. 14.


E. Kurus in the Sabhā: 1. Kurus seated in the Sabhā of the dicegame: Duryodhana cheated Yudhiṣṭhira at the game of dice in the presence of Bhīṣma, Droṇa, Vidura and the other Kuru chiefs (paśyatāṁ kurumukhyānām…dyūtenāvañcayat tadā) 5. 71. 11-12; Draupadī was to receive the answer to her question directly from the Kurus (pratyakṣam asyāḥ kuravo bruvantu) 2. 60. 16; it was improper to drag Draupadī to face the Kuru heroes when she was rajasvalā (idaṁ tv anāryaṁ kuruvīramadhye rajasvalāṁ yat parikarṣase mām) 2. 60. 32; (kurusaṁsadi) 3. 13. 54: (kuravaḥ) 5. 88. 50, 56; Kurus, including Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Bāhlika, (Kṛpa), and Somadatta, were then dejected 5. 88. 51; Duḥśāsana asked Draupadī to wait on the Kurus (kurūn bhajasva) 2. 60. 20; Draupadī blamed the Kurus present in the assembly as they simply watched the transgression of the limits of the Kuru dharma (and did not intervene) (yatrābhyatītāṁ kurudharmavelāṁ prekṣanti sarve kuravaḥ sabhāyām) 2. 60. 33; Draupadī asked the elderly Kurus in the Sabhā to answer her question (ime kuravaḥ sabhāyām) 2. 60. 45; she bowed down to the elders in the Kuru assembly (gurūṇāṁ kurusaṁsadi) 2. 62. 2; she lamented in the Sabhā as follows: she who was not seen before in the open had been brought to the Kurusabhā; she whom neither wind nor the sun saw in her house could now be seen in the Kuru assembly; that the Kurus tolerated all this showed that the times had changed (mṛṣyante kuravaś ceme manye kālasya paryayam); although she was a chaste woman she was standing in the Sabhā (of the Kurus) 2. 62. 2-5, 7-8; Vidura felt that what the Kurus in the assembly talked about was sinful (pāpān mantrān kuravo mantrayanti); the Kurus should quickly recognize what was the dharma (of the game of dice); otherwise, the Sabhā would be at fault; the Kurus should not deviate from the proper course of dharma 2. 63. 17-19; Arjuna told the Kurus to recognize that Yudhiṣṭhira, once he had lost himself, could not be the master of any one (īśas tv ayaṁ kasya parājitātmā taj jānīdhvaṁ kuravaḥ sarva eva) 2. 63. 21; Dhṛtarāṣṭra blamed Duryodhana for having argued with Draupadī in the Sabhā of the Kuru chiefs (sabhāyāṁ kurupuṁgavānām) 2. 63. 25; Bhīma was angry to hear what Karṇa said to Draupadī amidst the Kurus 2. 64. 4; Duḥśāsana asked Draupadī to choose as her husband any one from among the Kurus who had assembled in the Sabhā (ete hi sarve kuravaḥ sametāḥ) 2. 68. 12; 7. 107. 13; in the Kuru assembly, Karṇa reviled Draupadī as the wife of the Dāsas (sabhāmadhye…dāsabhāryeti pāñcālīm abravīt kurusaṁsadi) 8. 5. 79; Karṇa spoke bad words to Draupadī in the presence of the Kuru heroes in the assembly (sabhāyāṁ kuruvīramadhye) 8. 46. 39; the Kurus, including Dhṛtarāṣṭra, were dejected when Draupadī sought help (in the Sabhā) 15. 23. 12; Dhṛtarāṣṭra remembered what Bhīma vowed to do within the hearing of the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ śṛṇvatāṁ tadā) 7. 110. 16; Duryodhana vowed in the midst of the assembly that the kingdom of five rivers would be of Yudhiṣṭhira if he carried out the terms of the second game of dice, and if the Kauravas were defeated they would live out for the same period (bravīmi satyaṁ kurusaṁsadīha tavaiva tā bhārata pañca nadyaḥ) 3. 35. 10-11; it was not proper to act contrary to what was agreed upon in the midst of the Kuru heroes (kuruvī ramadhye) 3. 35. 18; Duḥśāsana addressed the Pāṇḍavas as ‘cow, cow’ in the midst of the Kurus (madhye kurūṇāṁ…gaur gaur iti smāhvayan muktalajjaḥ) 2. 68. 19; 5. 126. 10; 5. 135. 21; 9. 58. 7 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 2. 77. 19: madhuparke gaur gaur iti trir niveditāyā gor vadha utsargaś ca dṛṣṭaḥ/tatsāmānyāt antakarūpāyātithaye niveditāḥ/pāṇḍavapaśava utsṛṣṭāḥ/); the Kurus in the Sabhā were fortunate that they were not burnt down by Draupadī (by the fire of her anger) 2. 70. 6; Nārada cursed the Kauravas in the midst of the Kuru assembly (sabhā madhye kurūṇāṁ agrataḥ sthitaḥ) 2. 71. 29; Duryodhana and Karṇa spoke harsh words to Draupadī in the Kuru saṁsad 2. 72. 17; that the Kurus were not killed before, tormented Bhīma's heart 4. 20. 3; Arjuna challenged Karṇa to carry out everything of which he boasted in the midst of the Kurus 4. 55. 3; the Kurus in the assembly did very sinful things (karma pāpīya eva sabhāmadhye…kurūṇāṁ) 5. 29. 30; the Kurus, chief among whom was Bhīṣma, ignored the harassment of Draupadī (in the assembly) 5. 29. 31; Duryodhana offended Bhīma in the presence of the Kuru chiefs (paśyatāṁ kurumukhyānām) 5. 88. 82; the pieces of dice which Śakuni threw in the Kuru assembly were, in fact, arrows and the Kurus assembled there, as gamblers, formed the army of Duryodhana (kuravaḥ paryavasthitāḥ/senāṁ durodaraṁ viddhi) 7. 105. 16-17 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 130. 18: durodaraṁ dyūtakāriṇam); Duryodhana and Śakuni had invited the wrath of the Pāṇḍavas in the Kuru saṁsad 7. 126. 18; 2. Kurus in their general Sabhā at Hāstinapura: Dhṛtarāṣṭra seated among the Kurus (in the Sabhā) was to be informed that the Pāṇḍavas lived happily due to his prowess (āsīnaṁ kurubhiḥ parivāritaṁ/tavaiva rājan vīryeṇa sukhaṁ jīvanti pāṇḍavāḥ//) 5. 31. 5; also Duryodhana seated with the Kurus (in the Sabhā) to be told not to force the Pāṇḍavas to kill the Kurus (madhye kurūṇāṁ āsīnam… mā vadhīṣma kurūn iti) 5. 31. 12-13; Kurus were to hear Yudhiṣṭhira's message brought by Saṁjaya in the Sabhā (prātaḥ śrotāraḥ kuravaḥ sabhāyām) 5. 32. 30; Pāṇḍavas, through Saṁjaya, greeted all the Kurus in the order of their age 5. 46. 15; Arjuna's message to be conveyed to Duryodhana in the midst of the Kurus 5. 47. 3; when Dhṛtarāṣṭra paid no heed to what Bhīṣma and Droṇa said, all the Kurus (in the Sabhā) lost hope of their lives 5. 48. 47; Saṁjaya was asked in the Sabhā of the Kuru assembly who were the allies of the Pāṇḍavas (sabhāyāṁ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 49. 10; Saṁjaya addressed Dhṛtarāṣṭra in the Sabhā of the Kurus 5. 49. 13; Bhīṣma spoke to Duryodhana among the Kurus (madhye kurūṇāṁ) 5. 61. 14; Kṛṣṇa agreed to go to the assembly of the Kurus (yāsyāmi kurusaṁsadam) 5. 70. 79; Kṛṣṇa to address Duryodhana in the midst of the Kurus (kurumadhye) 5. 78. 11; the divine sages and the royal sages desired to listen to the words which Kṛṣṇa would speak to the kings among the Kurus (kuruṣu rājamadhye) 5. 81. 69; Kṛṣṇa joked with the Kurus and, surrounded by them, established contact with them (sarvān parihasan kurūn/āste saṁbandhakaṁ kurvan kurubhiḥ parivāritaḥ) 5. 87. 20 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 5. 89. 20: parihasan narma kurvan sāmbandhikaṁ dhanañjayādisambandhahetukaṁ vyavahāram); Kṛṣṇa had his initial contact with the Kurus in their assembly after his arrival at Hāstinapura (kurubhiḥ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 87. 22; Kṛṣṇa assured Vidura that he would try for conciliation between Kurus and Sṛñjayas who would otherwise perish in war (kurūṇāṁ sṛñjayānāṁ ca saṁgrāme vinaśiṣyatām) 5. 91. 8; Kṛṣṇa honoured by the Kurus while proceeding to the Sabhā; he honoured them duly in return (saṁpūjyamānaḥ kurubhiḥ…yathārhaṁ pratisatkurvan) 5. 92. 26; Kṛṣṇa covered the Kurus in the Sabhā with his lustre 5. 92. 32; Kurus honoured Kṛṣṇa 5. 92. 39; after Kṛṣṇa, Jāmadagnya and Kaṇva addressed the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 94. 3; 5. 95. 1; Duryodhana replied to Kṛṣṇa in the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 125. 1; Krṣṇa's rejoinder in the Kuru assembly 5. 126. 1; later in the epic, Kṛṣṇa reported to Uttaṅka that he had tried to frighten the Kurus pointing out the great danger they faced 14. 53. 20; Duḥśāsana spoke to Duryodhana in the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 126. 21; according to Kṛṣṇa, all the Kuru elders had seriously transgressed (the correct path) (sarveṣāṁ kuruvṛddhānāṁ mahān ayam atikramaḥ) 5. 126. 33; Vidura alerted Dhṛtarāṣṭra in the Kuru assembly (kurusaṁsadi) 5. 128. 17; Dhṛtarāṣṭra and others were witness to what transpired in the Kuru assembly (pratyakṣam etad bhavatāṁ yad vṛttaṁ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 129. 30; in the presence of the Kurus (of the Sabhā) Kṛṣṇa left to meet Kuntī 5. 129. 34; Kṛṣṇa reported to her what transpired in the Kuru assembly 5. 130. 1; when Kṛṣṇa left, the Kurus of the assembly talked among themselves about the great wonder shown by Kṛṣṇa in the Sabhā 5. 135. 25; when Kṛṣṇa proceeded from the Kurus to the Pāṇḍavas, Vidura lamented in the presence of Kuntī 5. 142. 1; Kṛṣṇa reported to Yudhiṣṭhira what transpired in the Sabhā of Kurus and also what Bhīṣma said (madhye kurūṇāṁ…sabhāyām 5. 145. 13; (yad vṛttam kurusaṁsadi) 5. 148. 6, 18; Ulūka said that time had come for Arjuna to prove his boast reported by Saṁjaya to the Kurus 5. 157. 5; he also reported what Duryodhana had asked him, within the hearing of the Kuru heroes, to convey to the Pāṇḍavas (śṛṇvatāṁ kuruvīrāṇām) 5. 158. 6; 5. 160. 10; Duryodhana's consultations with Karṇa and others in the Kuru assembly (karṇaḥ saṁpṛṣṭaḥ kurusaṁsadi) 5. 195. 6; since the Kurus did not agree to what Kṛṣṇa told them, he asked the Pāṇḍavas to move out to the battlefield with him under the Puṣya constellation (na kurvanti vaco mahyaṁ kuravaḥ kālacoditāḥ/nirgacchadhvaṁ pāṇḍaveyāḥ puṣyeṇa sahitā mayā//) 9. 34. 9. 3. Kurus in their Sabhā referred to in some other context: A certain Brāhmaṇa reviled the Āraṭṭa (Bāhlīka) country in the assembly of the Kurus (yad anyo 'py uktavān asmān brāhmaṇaḥ kurusaṁsadi) 8. 30. 34, 41. 4. On one occasion, not a regular meeting of the Sabhā, but a meeting of the heroes on the side of the Kauravas on the battlefield is referred to as Kuru assembly: Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya to tell him the reply of Droṇa to Duryodhana in the meeting of the Kurus (droṇas tathoktaḥ kurusaṁsadi/kim uktavān) 7. 126. 2.


F. The term Kuru includes, besides those on the side of the Kauravas, also the Pāṇḍavas, or, the term Kuru refers only to the Pāṇḍavas: When the number of Kurus was diminished, Uttarā gave birth to Parikṣit (parikṣīṇeṣu kuruṣu) 1. 45. 13; 14. 66. 2; Janamejaya ruled the kingdom which came to him in the line of the Kurus (rājyaṁ kurukulāgatam) 1. 45. 16; in the line of the Kurus, no king was born who was not attentive to his subjects and was not dear to them 1. 45. 17; the eminent Kurus (kurūdvahāḥ) were tired at the end of the day of sports at Pramāṇakoṭi 1. 119. 31; since a teacher who was not qualified could not teach the use of missiles to the mighty Kurus, Bhīṣma looked for a special teacher (nālpadhīr…vinayet kurūn astre mahābalān) 1. 121. 2; the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas), delighted, greeted Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma 1. 183. 5; the eminent Kurus (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) went to the residence of Drupada 1. 186. 3; the eminent among the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) and the Vṛṣṇis and Andhakas, enjoyed their time at Indraprastha; honoured by the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) the Vṛṣṇi and the Andhaka chiefs returned to Dvāravatī taking with them the jewels given by the best among the Kurus (kurusattamaiḥ i. e. by the Pāṇḍavas) 1. 213. 53-56; according to Śiśupāla, the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) were clearly cheating Kṛṣṇa when they honoured him first (tvām eva kuravo vyaktaṁ pralambhante janārdana) 2. 34. 20 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 2. 37. 28; pralambhante avalambante); Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Maitreya whether the good-brotherliness of the Kurus would remain undisturbed (kaccit kurūṇāṁ saubhrātram avyucchinnaṁ bhaviṣyati) 3. 11. 10; the Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) helped by Arjuna would not be afraid to fight even with gods 3. 79. 20; Kurus (i. e. the Pāṇḍavas) were happy to spend in forest the approaching twelfth year (te dvādaśaṁ varṣam athopayāntaṁ vane vihartuṁ kuravaḥ pratītāḥ) 3. 174. 20; Draupadī and Satyabhāmā told each other stories of Kurus and Yadus 3. 222. 2; the Kuru warriors (kurupuṅgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) followed Virāṭa who started to fight with Suśarman 4. 30. 25; Vidura told Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Dhārtarāṣṭras and Pāṇḍavas should protect each other; the Kurus should have common enemies and common friends and should hold mutual consultations (ekārimitrāḥ kuravo hy ekamantrāḥ) 5. 36. 70; Bhīma wondered whether Duryodhana was going to act as fire, caused by Time, for all the Kurus (including Pāṇḍavas) (apyayaṁ naḥ kurūṇāṁ syād yugānte kālasaṁbhṛtaḥ…kulāṅgāro) 5. 72. 18; Arjuna established suzerainty of the Kurus over kings (ādhirājyaṁ…āhṛtaṁ yena…kurūṇāṁ sarvarājasu) 5. 88. 31; Kṛṣṇa employed the policy of conciliation wishing to establish good brotherliness and avoid a rift in the Kuru family; he again employed it for the same purpose by offering (five villages) (sāma ādau prayuktaṁ me…saubhrātram icchatā/ abhedāt kuruvaṁśasya) 5. 148. 7; (punaḥ sāmābhisaṁyuktaṁ saṁpradānam athābruvam/abhedāt kuruvaṁśasya) 5. 148. 13; in the city Udayendu of the Kurus (i. e. Pāṇḍavas), Sutasoma (son of Arjuna) was born (pure kurūṇāṁ udayendunāmni) 7. 22. 22 (Nī. on Bom. Ed. 7. 23. 29: udyendunāmni udayenduparyāye pure śakraprastha eva); Ghaṭotkaca born of Bhīma in the large family of the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ vipule kule) 7. 131. 60; Kuru chiefs (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) attacked Śalya 9. 15. 29; when the Kurus were diminished, Uttarā would give birth to a son (parikṣīṇeṣu kuruṣu putras tava janiṣyati) 10. 16. 3; the Kuru chiefs (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) went to meet Gāndhārī 11. 13. 1; after Bhīṣma went to heaven, there would be no one whom Kurus could consult in matters related to dharma (dharmeṣu kuravaḥ kaṁ nu pariprakṣyanti) 11. 23. 25; of the Pāñcālas and the Kurus, those that were killed and those that were not killed would go to the lowest regions due to their (evil) acts (pāñcālānāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca hatā eva hi ye 'hatāḥ/te vayaṁ tv adhamāĩ lokān prapadyema svakarmabhiḥ) 12. 7. 20; no one among all the illustrious Kurus who followed dharma was equal to Yudhiṣṭhira (sarveṣāṁ dīptayaśasāṁ kurūṇāṁ dharmacāriṇāṁ) 12. 55. 4; the Kuru chiefs (kurupuṁgavāḥ i. e. Pāṇḍavas) were pleased to listen to Bhīṣma's exposition of fruits of good deeds 13. 7. 27; after the funeral of Bhīṣma, the chiefs of the Kurus (kurusattamāḥ, kurūdvahāḥ which term includes Pāṇḍavas, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Vidura and Yuyutsu 13. 153. 9-10) went to the river Bhāgīrathī 13. 154. 15; Arjuna and the other Kurus (i. e. Pāṇḍavas) should not grieve over the death of Abhimanyu (na sa śocyas tvayā tāta na cānyaiḥ kurubhis tathā) 14. 61. 15; Vyāsa, desirous of the welfare of the Kurus, had advised Yudhiṣṭhira to perform Aśvamedha (kurūṇāṁ hitakāmena) 14. 62. 4; Bhīma and other Kurus, were delighted to hear the stories about Arjuna (bhīmādayas te tu kuravaḥ) 14. 89. 11; when Babhruvāhana, came to the Kuru country for Aśvamedha, he was greeted by the Kurus 14. 89. 26; due to the miracle performed by Vyāsa, Kurus (who arose from the waters of Bhāgīrathī) met one another 15. 41. 7.


G. Kuru warriors on the battlefield (in this context, the term Kuru sometimes includes even Droṇa, Karṇa, Śalya and such other non-Kurus who were in the army of the Kauravas):


I. Battle fought at Kurukṣetra: Destruction of Kuru chiefs is narrated in the Śalyaparvan (vināśaḥ kurumukhyānāṁ śalyaparvaṇi kīrtyate) 1. 2. 174; performance of the funeral rites of the Kurus is mentioned in the Śrāddhaparvan 1. 2. 62; a noncorporeal voice foretold a week after the birth of Arjuna that he was to vanquish Madras, Kaliṅgas, Kekayas and Kurus 8. 48. 7, according to a heavenly voice heard at night (naktam) at Arjuna's birth, he was to kill the Kurus in battle 5. 28, 88. 65; 5. 135. 3-4 (a reference to 1. 114. 28, 31 where it is said that the voice was heard immediately after the birth of Arjuna); Bhīma desired to kill all the Kurus (in the war) 3. 28. 22; the Yādavas ready to subdue the Kurus 3. 180. 21; Sātyaki ready to kill Duryodhana and all the Kuru chiefs (duryodhanaṁ cāpi kurūṁś ca sarvān… kuruyodhamukhyān) 3. 120. 9-10; the army which gathered round the Pāṇḍavas desirous to fight with the Kurus (yuyutsamānāḥ kurubhiḥ) awaited orders 5. 19. 13; 5. 20. 16; Pāṇḍavas did not wish to kill the Kurus at an improper time 5. 31. 13, 15; (akālikaṁ kuravo nābhaviṣyan) 5. 32. 21; Duryodhana would repent if Yudhiṣṭhira released his wrath on the Kurus 5. 47. 12; the Pāñcālas with Śikhaṇḍin wished to confront the Kurus 5. 49. 33; Draupadī told Kṛṣṇa that if Bhīma and Arjuna did not opt for war, Drupada, with his sons and Draupadī's sons, led by Abhimanyu, would wage war with the Kurus (yotsyanti kurubhiḥ saha) 5. 80. 38; if Kṛṣṇa were to succeed in his mission, the Kurus would be spared from the noose of Death (śamaṁ kurūṇāṁ yadi cācareyam/ mucyeraṁś ca kuravo mṛtyupāśāt) 5. 91. 19; Kṛṣṇa did not want the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas (i. e. those fighting on the side of the Pāṇḍavas) to get diminished in war (na paśyema kurūn sarvān pāṇḍavāṁś caiva saṁyuge/kṣīṇān) 5. 93. 31; Kṛṣṇa, along with the Pāṇḍavas, left under the Puṣya nakṣatra to face the Kurus (yayāv abhimukhaḥ kurūn/…puṣyeṇa madhusūdanaḥ) 9. 34. 14; Janamejaya asked Vaiśaṁpāyana all that the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas did at Kurukṣetra (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānām ca yad yad āsīd viceṣṭitam) 5. 150. 7; 5. 156. 1; Kurus to see the Indra-like valour of Sudakṣiṇa, a Kāmboja, in war (parākramaṁ yathendrasya drakṣyanti kuravo yudhi) 5. 163. 2; the Kurus, Pāṇḍavas and Somakas decided on the rules of the war (tatas te samayaṁ cakruḥ kurupāṇḍavasomakāḥ) 6. 1. 26, 33; association of Dhūmaketu with Puṣya foretold the annihilation, especially of Kurus (abhāvaṁ hi viśeṣeṇa kurūṇām pratipaśyati/dhūmaketur…puṣyam ākramya tiṣṭhati) 6. 3. 12; Kurus depended on Bhīṣma for war (yasmin dvīpe samāśritya yudhyanti kuravaḥ) 6. 15. 36; the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas saw Bhīṣma in his chariot 6. 16. 41; the Kuru army (referred to also as dhārtarāṣṭrāṇy anīkāni) moved to form a vyūha 6. 19. 17, 3); on the first day of the war, the Kurus faced west (paścānmukhāḥ kuravo…), with Duryodhana on an elephant, in the middle of the Kurus (madhyagataḥ kurūṇāṁ) 6. 20. 5, 7; Kṛṣṇa drew Arjuna's attention to the Kurus on the battle-field 6. 23. 25; Pāṇḍavas, as though possessed by some spirit fought with the Kurus (āviṣṭā iva yudhyante pāṇḍavāḥ kurubhiḥ saha) 6. 44. 3; when Kurus battled with Pāṇḍavas a friend fought with a friend, a relative with a relative (sakhāyaṁ ca sakhā rājan saṁbadhī bāndhavaṁ tathā/evaṁ yuyudhire tatra kuravaḥ pāṇḍavaiḥ saha) 6. 44. 46; the Kurus should see the Krauñcavyūha of the Pāṇḍavas 6. 46. 40; the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas got ready for the battle of the second day 6. 47. 30; seeing Kurus attacking from all sides, Kṛṣṇa assured Sātyaki that he (Kṛṣṇa) would fell down Bhīṣma and Droṇa (dṛṣṭvā kurūn āpatataḥ samantāt) 6. 55. 81; when Kṛṣṇa, holding cakra in his hand, rushed towards Bhīṣma, all beings raised their voice apprehending the destruction of the Kurus 6. 55. 91; Arjuna promised Kṛṣṇa that he would bring about the end of the Kurus 6. 55. 100; the Kuru chief warriors (kurupravīrāḥ) again raised their voice when Kṛṣṇa was back in his chariot; their voice was mixed with the loud sound of the mṛdaṅga, bherī, paṭaha, and dundubhi, and also the one made by the chariotrims 6. 55. 103-104; the Kurus along with Bhīṣma and others retired from the battlefield at sun-set 6. 55. 128; seeing Arjuna retire, a loud sound in the evening went up from the side of the Kurus, and they retired 6. 55. 129, 132; on the fourth day of the war, the army of the Kurus, very dreadful and protected by Bhīṣma, suddenly rushed towards Arjuna (senā mahogrā sahasā kurūṇāṁ…prayātā praty arjunaṁ) 6. 56. 6; the Kurus and Sṛñjayas watched the duel between Bhīṣma and Dhanaṁjaya 6. 56. 28; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas watched the duel between Sāṁyamani and Dhṛṣṭadyumna 6. 57. 34; Sātyaki routed the principal Kuru warriors 6. 59. 27; Kurus and Pāṇḍaveyas killed one another (kuravaḥ pāṇḍaveyāś ca) 6. 68. 12; Sṛñjayas, with their hair loose and deprived of their armour, chariot and bows, wrestled with the Kurus (bāhubhiḥ samayudhyanta sṛñjayāḥ kurubhiḥ saha) 6. 69. 39; the armies of the Pāṇḍavas and Kurus retired to their camps (at the end of the fifth day of the war) 6. 70. 36-37; next day, they came out again for battle 6. 71. 1; when Dhṛṣṭadyumna fixed saṁmohanāstra on his bow, all Kurus fled with their horses, elephants and chariots 6. 73. 43; many headless trunks appeared all around in the armies of the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (uttasthuḥ samare tatra kabandhāni samantataḥ) 6. 74. 31; when Bhīma raised his gadā, Kurus fled in all directions 6. 81. 33; the Pāṇḍavas and Kurus retired to their camps (at the end of the seventh day of war); next day, they again came out for battle 6. 82. 52; 6. 83. 1; Kuru and Pāṇḍava forces killed one another with all sorts of fierce weapons 6. 83. 36; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas withdrew their armies for the day (at the end of the eighth day) and retired to their camps (tato 'vahāraṁ sainyānāṁ pracakruḥ kurupāṇḍavāḥ) 6. 92. 78-79; Duryodhana, respected by the Kurus, left for the camp of Bhīṣma 6. 93. 26; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas fought one another at midday (of the ninth day of war) 6. 100. 15; Arjuna and Bhīṣma routed respectively the armies of Kurus and Pāṇḍavas (yathā kurūṇāṁ sainyāni babhañja yudhi pāṇḍavaḥ/tathā pāṇḍavasainyāni babhañja yudhi te pitā//) 6. 102. 73; Bhīṣma retired to his camp along with the delighted Kurus (at the end of the ninth day) 6. 103. 9; placing Bhīṣma in the forefront, Kurus marched against the Pāṇḍavas (on the tenth day) 6. 104. 11; Arjuna assured Śikhaṇḍin that he would check all the Kurus (the term includes Droṇa, Aśvatthāman, Kṛpa, Duryodhana, Citrasena, Vikarṇa, Jayadratha (a Saindhava), Vinda and Anuvinda (both Āvantyas), Sudakṣiṇa (a Kāmboja), Bhagadatta, a Māgadha (not named), Saumadatti, Ārśyaśṛṅgi (a Rākṣasa), Trigartarāja and their armies) 6. 104. 55-58; seeing the battle between Bhīṣma, helped by Kurus, and Śikhaṇḍin, helped by Arjuna, the warriors doubted (the outcome of the battle) 6. 111. 6; Bhīṣma's śakti cut by Arjuna into three pieces while all the Kuru heroes watched (paśyatāṁ kuruvīrāṇāṁ sarveṣām) 6. 114. 63; the twelve Janapadas, Sauvīras and Kitavas persecuted the fleeing Kurus and showered arrows on them to force them to return to the battlefield 6. 114. 78; when Bhīṣma fell, the Kurus were highly confounded 6. 114. 102; 6. 115. 19; they felt a great void (abhāvaḥ sumahān rājan kurūn āgāt) 6. 114. 105; Dhṛtarāṣṭra felt as though all Kurus were dead the moment he heard that Bhīṣma did not attack Śikhaṇḍin 6. 115. 2; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas gathered round fallen Bhīṣma 6. 115. 10; Kurus surrounded Duḥśāsana wondering what news he had brought (to Droṇa) 6. 115. 23; the Kurus stopped fighting (as ordered by Droṇa after the fall of Bhīṣma) 6. 115. 26; Pāṇḍavas and Kurus went near Bhīṣma and bowed down to him 6. 115. 29; they arranged for his pillow (upadhānaṁ tato dattvā) 6. 115. 57; the next day, the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas, without weapons and armours, went to Bhīṣma 6. 116. 5; all the Kurus were thrilled to see Arjuna forcing out a stream of water (saṁprāvepanta kuravaḥ) 6. 116. 26; Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya what the Kurus did after making arrangements (for the protection ?) of Bhīṣma (saṁsādhya tu mahātmānaṁ bhīṣmaṁ…kim akārṣuḥ paraṁ tāta kuravaḥ) 7. 1. 9, 10; the Kurus then remembered Karṇa 7. 1. 30; Bhīṣma's death was, for the Kurus, like the breaking of a boat in a fathomless (ocean) (bhinnāṁ nāvam ivātyagādhe kurūṇāṁ) 7. 2. 1, 3; their condition became lamentable 7. 2. 7; Karṇa was prepared to protect the army of the Kurus 7. 2. 13, 22; Karṇa, honoured by Kurus (saṁpūjyamānaḥ kurubhiḥ), went to Bhīṣma (7. 2. 35) and told him that since there was no one like him to save the Kurus, the Pāṇḍavas would destroy them; the Kurus would be frightened hearing the sound of Gāṇḍīva 7. 3. 12-14; but Bhīṣma asked Karṇa to guide the Kurus while fighting and bring victory to Duryodhana (anuśādhi kurūn saṁkhye) 7. 4. 9; the Kurus, seeing Karṇa prepared for the battle, applauded him with loud shouts and twang of their bows 7. 4. 15; the kings and Kurus then became free from grief 7. 6. 10; Dhṛṣṭadyumna killed the Kurus 7. 6. 38; Dhṛtarāṣṭra admitted to Saṁjaya that he himself was responsible for the destruction of Kurus 7. 10. 47; watching the duel between Bhīma and Śalya, the Pāṇḍavas and Kurus shouted ‘well done’ 7. 14. 10; Arjuna routed the Kurus (kurūn vidrāvya) 7. 15. 43; description of the river (of blood) (7. 20. 31-36) on the battlefield caused by Droṇa which carried the bodies both of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas (kurusṛñjayavāhinīm nadīm) 7. 20. 34; Droṇa with the help of Kurus (kurubhiḥ parivāritaḥ) defeated Sātyaki and other heroes, as also many kings of different Janapadas 7. 20. 51; the chief Kuru warriors (kurupuṁgavāḥ) gathered round Droṇa trying to reach Bhīma 7. 21. 25; when the Pāñcāla warriors attacked Droṇa as their only target, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra urged all the Kurus to foil their attempt (mā droṇam iti putrās te kurūn sarvān acodayan) 7. 30. 6; it was as if a game of dice between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas with Droṇa as a stake (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca droṇadyū {??}am avartata) 7. 30. 7; king Nala burnt the army of the Kurus 7. 30. 19; Arjuna tormented the Kurus with the lustre of his weapons; the Kurus then shouted to get help from Karṇa 7. 31. 44-45, 49; Dhṛtarāṣṭra told Saṁjaya that the Kurus, Pāṇḍavas and Sṛñjayas were not eternal (kuravaḥ …adhruvāḥ 7. 52. 30): Dhṛtarāṣṭra wanted to know from Saṁjaya how the Kurus managed to be fearless when they knew the feats of Arjuna 7. 61. 2; Aśvatthāman used to be respected (upāsyamānaḥ) by Kuru, Pāṇḍava and Sātvata warriors 7. 61. 14; Dhṛtarāṣṭra was to listen to the description of the war between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas 7. 62. 23; Kurus delighted to see Droṇa's chariot 7. 63. 30; Arjuna tormented the chief Kuru warriors (kurupravīrān) with his arrows 7. 66. 21; looking at the refreshed horses of Arjuna's chariot, the seniormost warriors in the Kuru army (kurubalaśreṣṭhāḥ) became dejected 7. 75. 18; other fighters then urged Kurus to hasten to kill Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna 7. 75. 22; seeing Duryodhana battle with Arjuna, all Kurus were very much grieved 7. 77. 32; chief Kuru warriors (kuruyodhavīrāḥ) rushed towards Arjuna's chariot wishing to help Duryodhana 7. 79. 9; Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked what the Kurus did when Arjuna and Sātyaki penetrated Kauravas' vyūha 7. 89. 18; Dhṛtarāṣṭra believed that his sons must be grieving seeing Kurus run away 7. 89. 31; the chief Kuru warriors, angry, surrounded Sātyaki 7. 91. 53; Duḥśāsana exhorted Kurus, who were not expert in fighting with rocks, to return and not be afraid of Sātyaki (kuravaḥ sarve nāśmayuddhaviśāradāḥ) 7. 97. 31; if Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna died, the Kurus would have achieved their objective and the Pāṇḍavas would be defeated (kuravaḥ kṛtārthāḥ syuḥ) 7. 100. 14; Yudhiṣṭhira feared that since Arjuna was in danger, Kṛṣṇa himself had started fighting with Kurus 7. 102. 60; the excellent Kuru warriors (who included Bhūriśravas, Kṛpa, Aśvatthāman, Śalya and Jayadratha) roared ‘well done’ seeing Karṇa fight with Bhīma 7. 112. 16; when Bhīma held the flagstaff of Karṇa, all the Kurus on the battlefield and Cāraṇas praised him 7. 114. 57; Arjuna was assailed by Kurus (who included Aśvatthāman, Kṛpa, Śalya, Jayadratha and Vṛṣasena 7. 120. 77-79) with arrows 7. 120. 83; Arjuna killed with arrows many chief Kuru warriors (kurupravīrān) 7. 120. 87; Kuru chiefs would face grave danger due to Duryodhana (kurumukhyānāṁ mahad utpatsyate bhayam) 7. 122. 14; death of Jayadratha meant calamity for the Kurus 7. 125. 9; Droṇa decided that Kurus and Sṛñjayas would continue fighting during the night 7. 126. 38; so the Pāñcālas and Kurus continued fighting and could distinguish the one from the other only by hearing the gotra, family, or personal names (gotrāṇāṁ nāmadheyānāṁ kulānāṁ caiva māriṣa/śravaṇād dhi vijānī maḥ pāñcālān kurubhiḥ saha//) 7. 128. 8; Dhṛtarāṣṭra wondered how the Kurus distinguished themselves from the Pārthas (i. e. Pāṇḍavas) 7. 130. 10; Karṇa asked Sahadeva to go to Arjuna for shelter who was then fighting with Kurus 7. 142. 15; Ghaṭotkaca, without taking anybody's help, attacked the Kurus and destroyed their army 7. 149. 10, 17-18; Sātyaki fought with Kuru chief warriors 7. 145. 56; Kuru chief warriors shouted thinking Ghaṭotkaca was dead 7. 150. 57; seeing Alāyudha arrive to help Duryodhana, all Kurus were delighted 7. 152. 1; when Ghaṭotkaca became invisible, Kurus cried aloud fearing he might kill Karṇa 7. 154. 21; the Kauravas (= Kurus) cried aloud when the Kurus were being destroyed on a large scale (kuruvīrāvamarde); they began to flee; when the army was routed it was difficult to know who were Kurus and who not (na jñāyante kuravo netare vā) 7. 154. 40-42, 47; all Kurus then pressed Karṇa to use his śakti against Ghaṭotkaca, since all Kurus were being killed 7. 154. 48-50; Ghaṭotkca killed many Kuru warriors (kauravān) by assuming large body 7. 154. 61; the rest of the Kurus (kauraveyāḥ) were delighted by the death of Ghaṭotkaca and they shouted like lions; the Kurus then honoured Karṇa 7. 154. 61-63; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas continued fighting when only three parts of the night remained (tribhāgamātraśeṣāyāṁ rātryāṁ yuddham avartata/kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 7. 161. 1; Kṛṣṇa wanted to keep the Kuru army, divided into two by Droṇa, to Arjuna's left (dvaidhībhūtān kurūn dṛṣṭvā…sapatnān savyataḥ kurmi) 7. 161. 4; before the release of brahmāstra by Droṇa, Kurus and Somakas had got mixed up and, shouting, they killed each other with weapons 7. 165. 99; when Droṇa released brahmāstra, the armies of both Kurus and Pāṇḍavas, were afflicted 7. 163. 45; Bhīma, Nakula and Sahadeva urged Arjuna to attack Kurus and separate them from Droṇa 7. 164. 56; when Droṇa was killed, the Pāṇḍavas and Sṛñjayas attacked Kurus who, losing their enthusiasm, (nirutsāhān kurūn) fled 7. 165. 58; Kurus afflicted by weapons, routed, with their chief heroes dead, were very much grieved (kuravaḥ śastrapīḍitāḥ/hatapravīrā vidhvastā bhṛśaṁ śokaparāyaṇāḥ) 7. 165. 68; Kurus, not hoping for victory and with their spirits low, fled to protect themselves 7. 167. 11; Dhṛtarāṣṭra wanted to know how did the Pāṇḍavas plan to protect Dhṛṣṭadyumna when the Kurus, encouraged by Aśvatthāman, returned to attack their enemies 7. 167. 8; Bhīma ready to fight with Aśvatthāman as the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas looked on (paśyatsu kurupāṇḍuṣu) 7. 170. 51; Dhṛtarāṣṭra was curious to know who from among the Kurus were alive 8. 4. 3 (in Saṁjaya's list of those of the Kurus who were dead are to be found not only Bhīṣma, Duḥśāsana, Vikarṇa, Bhūriśravas, the sons of Duryodhana and Duḥśāsana, but also Droṇa, Karṇa, Jayadratha, Vinda and Anuvinda, and others who were not Kurus but who fought on the side of the Kurus); Kurus, Pāṇḍavas and Sṛñjayas fought each other 8. 16. 24; Nakula blamed Karṇa for the destruction of Kurus (tvaddoṣāt kuravo kṣīṇāḥ) 8. 17. 51; Bhīmasena killed many Kuru warriors 8. 19. 74; Kurus, delighted to see Karṇa ready to fight, shouted loudly 8. 26. 31; no one except Karṇa from among the Kurus was capable of resisting Arjuna 8. 26. 45; Karṇa fled from the battle notwithstanding the Kurus watching him (paśyatāṁ kuruvīrāṇāṁ) 8. 28. 58-59; Kurus followed Duryodhana in their Bārhaspatyavyūha 8. 31. 22, 26; Karṇa, together with Kuru warriors, attacked the fleeing army of Yudhiṣṭhira 8. 33. 42; Kurus, with upraised weapons, attacked Bhīma from all sides of the Vyūha (tataḥ pakṣāt prapakṣāc ca prapakṣaiś cāpi dakṣiṇāt/udastaśastrāḥ kuravaḥ) 8. 34. 2; Kurus returned to the battlefield seeing Śakuni and others engaged in battles 8. 35. 48; there was great battle between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas in which Kurus named their opponents (kurūṇāṁ…giraḥ/śrūyante… nāmāny uddiśya) 8. 35. 55-56; Bhīma fought with the Kurus 8. 40. 69, 77, 130; Kurus and Sṛñjayas, not afraid and led by Karṇa and Yudhiṣṭhira respectively, met each other 8. 42. 1; the Kuru army was put to flight 8. 44. 2; Bhīma checked the advance of Kurus and sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra 8. 44. 15; Kuru warriors, wonderstruck, watched Aśvatthāman covering Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna with arrows 8. 45. 4; Aśvatthāman, with Kurus, intervened in Arjuna's battle with the Saṁśaptakas 8. 47. 2; Kurus as good as defeated if Karṇa was killed 8. 49. 65; many peoples like Tukhāras, Yavanas, Khaśas had gone to the side of the Kurus to fight for Duryodhana 8. 51. 18, 20; Arjuna alone would attack and burn all the Kurus and Bāhlīkas 8. 52. 32; the other Kurus led the attack on Bhīma from all sides and attacked his fast front horse with arrows (tato 'pare…pratyudyayuḥ kuravas taṁ samantāt/bhīmasya vāhāgryam udāravegam samantato bāṇagaṇair nijaghnuḥ) 8. 54. 3; Bhīma told his charioteer that the whole world would know that either Bhīma had defeated Kurus and killed them or they had killed him 8. 54. 18-19; for all the Kurus, Karṇa was their resort, armour, foundation and hope of life (kurūṇām api sarveṣām karṇaḥ…śarma varma pratiṣṭhā ca jīvitāśā ca) 8. 56. 4; all Kurus looked upon Karṇa as their saviour in battle (ete tvāṁ kuravaḥ sarve dvīpam āsādya saṁyuge/viṣṭhitāḥ…śaraṇakāṅkṣiṇaḥ) 8. 57. 30; Kuru chiefs (kurupravīrāḥ) and Sṛñjayas struck each other with straightgoing and sharp arrows (śarais tadāñjogatibhiḥ sutejanaiḥ) 8. 57. 67; excellent armies of Kurus attacked Bhīma (kurūṇāṁ pravarair balair) 8. 58. 1; Arjuna acted as god Yama to Kurus 8. 58. 4; Kurus turned back when they were burnt (nirdagdhāḥ) by Arjuna 8. 58. 18-19; ninety chariot-fighters of Kurus (here the term Kuru refers to Saṁśaptakas 8. 59. 3) chased Arjuna as he was rushing towards Karṇa; Arjuna killed them 8. 59. 1, 4; other Kuru warriors (in this episode, Kuru refers to Dhṛtarāṣṭra's sons 8. 59. 7), undaunted, assailed Arjuna 8. 59. 6; they obstructed Arjuna's onward march and struck him with śaktis, ṛṣṭis and other weapons 8. 59. 8; Kurus uttered sounds of grief when struck by Arjuna with arrows; Kurus lost hope about Karṇa; defeated, they turned back and fled in all directions; persecuted by Arjuna, they took refuge with Karṇa who granted them freedom from fear 8. 59. 29-30, 33-34, 3741; Kurus thought highly of Vṛṣasena's (Karṇa's son) heroism, but knowing the prowess of Arjuna they thought Vṛṣasena was as good as dead 8. 62. 54; when Karṇa faced Arjuna, Kurus gathered together with musical instruments and, to encourage Karṇa, they blew their conches 8. 63. 10; Kuru and Pāṇḍava warriors (kurupāṇḍuyodhāḥ) filled the earth and directions with sounds of instruments, arrows and lion-like roars, and killed their opponents; when their elephants, footsoldiers, horses and chariot-fighters were afflicted by the arrows of Karṇa and Arjuna, they fled 8. 64. 3, 13; Arjuna alone killed two thousand chief warriors of Kurus together with their chariots, horses and charioteers (kurupravīrān…kurūṇāṁ …sarathāśvasūtān); then the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and the remaining Kurus (tavātmajāḥ kuravaś cāvaśiṣṭāḥ) ran away abandoning Karṇa; Karṇa, left alone by the shattered Kurus since they were afraid, was not afflicted 8. 65. 43-45; Kurus, whose armies were routed (kuravo bhinnasenāḥ) and stood at a distance of only an arrow-shot from Karṇa (śarapātamātram avasthitāḥ), saw the missile released by Arjuna 8. 66. 1; when Arjuna broke the flag-staff of Karṇa, the hearts of Kurus sank and they uttered a loud sound of grief (tadā kurūṇāṁ hṛdayāni cāpatan babhūva hāheti ca nisvano mahān) 8. 67. 15; when Karṇa was killed, Kurus, afraid and deeply wounded in battle, fled looking again and again at the shining banner of Arjuna; they all left for their camp 8. 67. 36; 8. 68. 5, 35-36; Janamejaya asked what did the Kurus, whose number had diminished, do after the death of Karṇa (alpāvaśiṣṭāḥ kuravaḥ) 9. 1. 1; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas confronted each other and perished in large number 9. 3. 1; on the eighteenth day, Duryodhana was protected by Kuru chief warriors (rakṣitaḥ kurupuṁgavaiḥ) 9. 7. 25; seeing Śalya stoutly facing the enemies, Kurus returned to the battlefield determined to fight till death (kuravaḥ saṁnyavartanta mṛtyuṁ kṛtvā nivartanam) 9. 9. 7; Pāṇḍava warriors, being killed by Kurus, fled 9. 15. 3; all Kurus together saw the śakti hurled by Yudhiṣṭhira at Śalya 9. 16. 41; when Śalya fell, Kurus fled shouting words of grief (hāhākāraṁ vikurvāṇāḥ kuravo vipradudruvuḥ) 9. 16. 65; Kurus again returned determined to fight till the end and started fighting with Pāṇḍavas 9. 20. 4; Pāṇḍavas and Pāñcālas killed seven hundred desperate Kuru-chariotfighters (rathān saptaśatān hatvā kurūṇām ātatāyinām) 9. 22. 14; Kurus and Pāṇḍavas watched the śaktis hurled by heroic Pāṇḍava warriors and by those of Śakuni, as heavenly bodies 9. 22. 43; Bhīma put to flight all the Kurus 9. 25. 36; Yuyutsu was grieved since all the Kurus, led by Bhīṣma and Droṇa, had perished; he alone survived the holocaust of the Kurus (hastāś ca kuravaḥ sarve bhīṣmadroṇapuraḥsarāḥ aham eko vimuktas tu…/…asmin kurukṣaye vṛtte) 9. 28. 76-77, 84; Kurus, Kaliṅgas and others perished by confronting Bhīma 9. 32. 42; Balarāma and other sages asked Nārada news about the Kurus (yathāvṛttam kurūn prati); Nārada reported to them the great destruction of Kurus just as it took place (sarvam eva yathāvṛttaṁ atītaṁ kurusaṁkṣayam) 9. 53. 19-20; Pāṇḍavas had accomplished a great feat by killing Kurus led by Bhīṣma (kṛtvā sumahat karma hatvā…bhīṣmamukhān kurūn) 9. 57. 10; destruction of Kuru and Pāṇḍava warriors (kurupāṇḍavayoḥ kṣayam) lamented by Aśvatthāman 10. 1. 29; since the start of the war a certain kṛtyā used to appear at nights between the armies of Kurus and Pāṇḍavas 10. 6. 67; a great calamity was destined to overtake Kurus--Vyāsa told lamenting Dhṛtarāṣṭra (avaśyaṁ bhavitavye ca kurūṇāṁ vaiśase) 11. 8. 16; women of Hāstinapura lamented the destruction of Kurus 11. 9. 19, 21; 11. 13. 14; Gāndhārī with her divine sight, saw all around the destruction of Kurus (gāndhārī kurūṇāṁ āvikartanam/apaśyat…divyena cakṣuṣā) 11. 16. 1: (however, Nī. who reads avakartanam, Bom. Ed. 11. 16. 1, explains it as yuddhasthānam); having witnessed the calamity that had overtaken the Kurus (kurūṇāṁ vaiśasam), Gāndhārī spoke to Kṛṣṇa 11. 16. 17; she said she did not imagine that such a calamity would overtake Pāñcālas and Kurus 11. 16. 26; Gāndhārī pointed towards Droṇa whom Kurus appointed their leader and challenged the Pāṇḍavas (kurava āhvayanti sma pāṇḍavān) 11. 23. 29; Somadatta's wife said fortunately her husband was not alive to see the terrible destruction of the Kurus which was as good as yugānta (kurusaṁkrandanaṁ ghoraṁ yugāntam) 11. 24. 4; Gāndhārī cursed Kṛṣṇa for being deliberately indifferent to the destruction of the Kurus (icchatopekṣito nāśaḥ kurūṇām) 11. 25. 38; but according to Kṛṣṇa, the Kurus were killed due to the fault of Gāndhārī 11. 26. 1; the Kurus who somehow got killed between battles had obtained the world of the Uttarakurus (ye tatra nihatā rājann antarāyodhanaṁ prati/yathākathaṁcit te… saṁprāptā uttarān kurūn) 11. 26. 17; Yudhiṣṭhira blamed Kuntī for the grief he and his brothers felt at the death of Abhimanyu and others and at the fall of Kurus (kurūṇāṁ patanena ca) 11. 27. 18; Kurus, the enemies of Pāṇḍavas, acted and (as warriors) fully accomplished their objective (amitrā naḥ samṛddhārthāḥ vṛttārthāḥ kuravaḥ kila) 12. 7. 4 (Nī., however, on Bom. Ed. 12. 7. 4; yato vayaṁ vṛttārthāḥ saṁkṣiptapuruṣārthā jñātivadhena hatabhāgyāḥ sma tato hetor naḥ asmākam amitrāḥ samṛddhārthā ity arthaḥ); Yudhiṣṭhira, along with Dhṛtarāṣṭra, performed the obsequies of Kurus prominent among whom were Bhīṣma and Karṇa (bhīṣmakarṇapurogāṇāṁ kurūṇāṁ) 14. 14. 15; Kṛṣṇa reported to Vasudeva and Devakī the death of Kuru warriors 14. 59. 5; destruction of Kurus due to Dhṛtarāṣṭra's fault 15. 5. 1; destruction of Kurus as destined by fate 15. 16. 1; Kṛṣṇa witnessed the annihilation of Yādavas as he did before of kings and of pominent Kurus (rājñāṁ ca pūrvaṁ kurupuṁgavānām) 16. 5. 8; Kṛṣṇa contemplated on the destruction of the Vṛṣṇis, Andhakas and Kurus and realized that it was time for him to depart 16. 5. 18. II. Kurus in the battle of the cow-raid: The victory of Arjuna over Kurus in this battle mentioned in the contents of the Virāṭaparvan (gograhe yatra pārthena nirjitāḥ kuravo yudhi) 1. 2. 132; Kurus drove away sixty thousand cows of Virāṭa 4. 33. 5, 10; 4. 35. 3, 6, 12; Bhūmiṁjaya (Uttara) was to defeat the Kurus and turn back the cattle 4. 33. 14, 19; Uttara boasted that he could defeat the Kurus if he had the help of a good charioteer 4. 34. 5, 17; Kurus succeeded in capturing the cows since there was no one to protect them (śūnyam āsādya kuravaḥ prayānty ādāya godhanam) 4. 34. 8; Uttara wanted the Kurus to see his heroism 4. 34. 9; Uttarā asked Bṛhannaḍā to get for her the thin (upper) garments of the Kurus led by Bhīṣma and Droṇa, when they were defeated 4. 35. 23; Bṛhannaḍā drove the chariot towards the Kurus 4. 35. 26; Uttara's chariot to be driven in the direction of the fleeing Kurus 4. 36. 1; he wanted to defeat the Kurus 4. 36. 2; strong Kurus and their army within sight near the cremation ground 4. 36. 4; Uttara afraid to fight with the Kurus since their army had many excellent heroes, was very fierce, unassailable even by gods and was endless (bahupravīram atyugraṁ devair api durāsadam…kurusainyam anantakam) 4. 36. 9, 13; Bṛhannaḍā, however, was determined to take Uttara in the midst of the Kurus who were ready to kill their opponents (madhyam…kurūṇāṁ ātatāyinām/neṣyāmi) 4. 36. 19; if not Uttara, Bṛhannaḍā was ready to fight with the Kurus 4. 36. 23; Uttara unwilling to face the Kurus even if the Kurus plundered more wealth of the Matsyas 4. 36. 24; the Kurus seeing Bṛhannaḍā run after Uttara wondered who he was; they discussed but came to no conclusion 4. 36. 29, 36; Bṛhannaḍā again assured Uttara that he would fight with the Kurus and asked Uttara to drive his chariot close to their army 4. 36. 44-45; 4. 40. 4; the sound which Arjuna produced with his bow was thought by the Kurus to be the sound produced by the splitting of the lightning (taṁ śabdaṁ kuravo 'jānan visphoṭam aśaner iva) 4. 40. 27; Karṇa said that the Kurus may return with the booty or, seated in their chariots, watch him fight alone with Arjuna 4. 43. 21; Kṛpa reminded the Kurus that they were rescued from the Gandharvas by Arjuna single-handed 4. 44. 5; Uttara drove Arjuna's chariot in the direction of the Kurus and Duryodhana 4. 48. 13; Arjuna's chariot moved all around in the army of the Kurus 4. 49. 12; all groups of gods, Siddhas and great sages gathered in the air to witness the battle between Arjuna and Kurus 4. 51. 13; all Kurus were struck with wonder to see the battle between Arjuna and Aśvatthāman 4. 54. 11; Arjuna said that let the Kurus and their forces act as spectators when he fought with Karṇa 4. 55. 6; Kurus would get a sight of Arjuna's Gāṇḍīva and would keep wondering whether he shot arrows with his right or left hand 4. 56. 4; Arjuna wanted to burn with the lustre of his missiles the forest of the Kuru army, with trees in the form of banners, grass in the form of footsoldiers and lions in the form of chariot(fighters) (dhvajavṛkṣaṁ pattitṛṇaṁ rathasiṁhagaṇāyutam/vanam ādīpayiṣyāmi kurūṇām astratejasā//) 4. 56. 12; Arjuna, when he employed Aindra astra, covered all the Kurus (with its lustre) 4. 58. 9; Arjuna warded off every missile of the Kuru stalwarts with a corresponding missile 4. 61. 8; when Arjuna used his Saṁmohana astra he struck the minds of (Kurus) with fear and when he blew the conch, the chief Kuru warriors were stupefied by the loud sound of the conch 4. 61. 8-11; Arjuna asked Uttara to go to the unconscious Kurus to get their (upper) garments 4. 61. 12; when Arjuna saw the chief Kuru heroes returning to Hāstinapura he was satisfied 4. 61. 25, 29; Arjuna defeated the Kurus in the battle who left (for Hāstinapura) 4. 62. 1, 7; when the defeated sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra had left, their soldiers (kurusainikāḥ) came out of hiding from the dense forest 4. 62. 2; Virāṭa informed about the cattleraid of the Kurus 4. 63. 6; he knew that when the Kurus came to know about the defeat of the Trigartas, they would not keep quiet (kuruvas te hi…na sthāsyanti kadācana) 4. 63. 10; Virāṭa was grieved and tormented when he knew that his son had gone to fight with the Kurus 4. 63. 15; Yudhiṣṭhira assured Virāṭa that Uttara would be able to defeat the Kurus and other kings 4. 63. 16; the minister reported the defeat of the Kurus and the winning back of the cows 4. 63. 18-21, 36; Uttara told that the Kurus were defeated and their (upper) garments taken away by a Devaputra 4. 64. 21, 28, 30; later it was known that it was Arjuna who won back the cows and defeated the Kurus 4. 66. 14.


H. The word Kuru refers to the army of the Kurus (fighting for the Kauravas): Many hundreds and thousands of kings joined the Kurus in their conflict (with the Pāṇḍavas) (kurūṇāṁ vigrahe tasmin samāgacchan bahūny atha/rājñāṁ śatasahasrāṇi) 1. 57. 105; the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas together made eighteen akṣauhiṇīs (akṣauhiṇyo…aṣṭādaśaiva tāḥ/etayā saṁkhyayā hy āsan kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 1. 2. 24; Bhīṣma fought for ten days for the Kuru army, while Droṇa protected it for five days (kuruvāhinīm) 1. 2. 26; march of the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas towards Kurukṣetra described in the (abhi-) niryāṇa parvan (niryāṇaṁ parva ca tataḥ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 1. 2. 52 (reference to 5. 149-152); the army of the Kurus will be destroyed in war (balaṁ kurūṇāṁ) 5. 57. 28; (ete naśyanti kuravo…) 5. 146. 21, 25; the army got ready for battle at day-break (udatiṣṭhan…sūryodaye mahat sainyaṁ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 6. 16. 24; army, large like an ocean (kurūṇāṁ…sainyaṁ sāgarapratimaṁ mahat) 7. 85. 81; army looked upon as a dice-player (senāṁ durodaraṁ viddhi) 7. 105. 17; looked upon as a herd of bulls (kurusainyād vimukto vai siṁho madhyād gavām iva) 7. 116. 22; other references to the army: senāniveśe…kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 5. 156. 3; 6. 42. 25; 7. 4. 12; 7. 120. 4; 12. 336. 8; destruction of the army of the Kurus, Sauvīras and Saindhavas, (kurusauvīrasaindhavānāṁ balakṣayam) 7. 114. 17; (ghnantaṁ kurūṇām iṣubhir balānī) 7. 115. 20; 7. 133. 63; 9. 7. 34.


I. References to the war between Kurus (i. e. those who fought for the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) and the Pāṇḍavas: 1. Inquiries about the war: (i) Janamejaya asked Vaiśaṁpāyana how the two armies fought with each other (kathaṁ yuyudhire vīrāḥ kurupāṇḍavasomakāḥ) 6. 1. 1, 2; (ii) Dhṛtarāṣṭra asked Saṁjaya (yathā tad abhavad yuddhaṁ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 6. 15. 75; (ke pūrvaṁ prāharaṁs tatra kuravaḥ pāṇḍavās tathā) 6. 42. 1; 6. 111. 2; (Saṁjaya replied) 6. 111. 3; (kurūṇāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 7. 71. 1; 7. 158. 12; (pāñcālāḥ kurubhiḥ sārdham) 7. 81. 1, 4; 2. The war variously described: dreadful (ghora, sughora, ghorarūpa) 5. 141. 3 (yuddhaṁ…pāṇḍavāṇāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca); 7. 70. 3; 7. 81. 4; 7. 91. 54; 7. 154. 40; 9. 8. 1; 6. 99. 24; 6. 85. 26; intense (tīvra) 7. 170. 9; 8. 35. 53; fierce (raudra) 9. 22. 13; tumultuous (tumula, sutumula) 6. 66. 12; 6. 100. 37; 7. 12. 18; 7. 70. 3; 7. 81. 4; 8. 1. 14; 9. 1. 9; bitter (kaṭuka) 6. 66. 12; great (mahat, sumahat) 5. 141. 3; 6. 16. 24; 6. 85. 26; 6. 111. 42; 7. 90. 3; 14. 59. 10; very much confused (bhṛśākula) 8. 62. 40; very cruel (atīva dāruṇa) 8. 62. 40 (punaḥ kurūṇāṁ saha pāṇḍusṛñjayaiḥ); full of surprise, its sight caused surprise (adbhuta, adbhutadarśana) 7. 70. 3; 8. 1. 15; (āścaryabhūtaṁ lokeṣu) 7. 14. 2; causing hair to stand (lomaharṣaṇa, romaharṣaṇa) 6. 100. 37; 7. 12. 18; 7. 70. 3; 7. 81. 2 (pāñcālānāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca) 8. 18. 56 (romaº); 14. 59. 10 (romaº); causing fear (bhayavardhana, lokabhayaṁkara) 9. 8. 1; 5. 157. 4; depriving men, horses and elephants of their lives (narāśvanāgāsuhara, yamarāṣṭravivardhana) 8. 62. 40; 8. 16. 8; 9. 22. 13; which tired the horses and warriors (śrāntavāhanasainika) 7. 159. 11; loud lionlike roar during the battle resounding heaven and earth (kurūṇāṁ pānḍavānāṁ ca saṁgrāme…/siṁhānām iva saṁhrādo divam ūrvīṁ ca nādayan//) 6. 43. 2; 7. 6. 30; 7. 78. 44; the sounds of horses, elephants, chariots (ete śabdāḥ…pravṛttāḥ kurusāgare) 7. 167. 20; (the sound of conches and bheris) 7. 170. 13; later the loud noise of the armies of the Kurus and the Pāṇḍavas arose inside the water of the Gaṅgā as it did formerly during the war (tataḥ sa tumulaḥ śabdo jalāntar janamejaya/prādurāsīd yathā pūrvam kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 15. 40. 6;

(3) War described with various similes:

(1) With the war between gods and demons (devāsuropama, devāsuraraṇopama) 7. 14. 2; 7. 81. 4; 7. 91. 54; 9. 8. 1; 9. 1. 9;

(2) Coming together of two oceans at the time of high tide (samāgamo rājan kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ/…pūrṇasāgarayor iva) 7. 170. 9, or even of two mountains (yathā śiloccaye śailaḥ sāgare sāgaro yathā/pratihanyeta rājendra tathāsan kurupāṇḍavāḥ//) 7. 170. 12;

(3) The army of Kurus, when Bhīṣma fell down, became like the sky without the Nakṣatras or the atmosphere without wind (babhūva kuruvāhinī/dyaur ivāpetanakṣatrā hīnaṁ kham iva vāyunā) 7. 1. 24;

(4) War led to the rise of a river of blood (prāvartayata saṁgrāme śoṇitodāṁ mahānadīm/madhyena kurusainyānāṁ pāṇḍavānāṁ ca) 6. 112. 124; 6. 114. 74; (saṁjajñe raṇabhūmau tu paralokavahā nadī/śoṇitodā rathāvartā…prāvartata nadī raudrā kurusṛñjayasaṁkulā//); the river is also described as very frightful, causing delight to brave, fear to timid śūrāṇāṁ harṣajananī bhīrūṇāṁ bhayavardhinī/…atibhairavām) 9. 8. 29-33; the simile with a river is implied in terms like ‘mire of blood’ (rudhirakardama) 5. 141. 3 and ‘blood in the form of water’ (śoṇitodaka) 6. 66. 12;

(5) Other simple references to war between Kurus and Pāṇḍavas or Somakas (yuddhaṁ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ) 1. 2. 9; (kurūṇāṁ vigrahe tasmin) 1. 57. 105; (virāṭanagare kurubhiḥ saha saṁgare) 5. 155. 28; (pāṇḍavānāṁ sasainyānāṁ kurūṇāṁ ca samāgamaḥ) 6. 16. 13; 6. 70. 12; 6. 92. 3. 7. 6. 30; 7. 15. 13; 7. 72. 4; 7. 159. 11, 25; 7. 161. 1; 8. 32. 84; 8. 35. 55.


J. References to Kuru women of Hāstinapura (mostly of the royal family): Bhīṣma, Vidura, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and all Kuru women offered water libations to Pāṇḍu (udakaṁ cakrire tasya sarvāś ca kuruyoṣitāḥ) 1. 118. 27; all high-ranking women of the Kurus (sarvāḥ kuruvarastriyaḥ) were anxious to meet newly-married Draupadī 1. 198. 23; the desires of Kuru women would remain unfulfilled after the death of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (hatasaṁkalpāḥ…kurustriyaḥ) 3. 224. 8; servants of Kauravas requested help from Pāṇḍavas lest the wives of the Kurus were molested (parāmarśo mā bhaviṣyat kurudāreṣu) 3. 237. 7; Gāndhārī and all Kuru women became unconscious hearing Saṁjaya say that all except ten perished in battle (sarvāś ca kuruyoṣitaḥ) 9. 1. 39; Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍavas and Kṛṣṇa met Kuru women (kurustriyaḥ samāsādya) and they all went to Kurukṣetra; there, those women whose husbands were killed (tāḥ striyo nihateśvarāḥ) saw their dead sons, brothers, fathers, husbands; seeing the sight they, lamenting, fell down from their vehicles (striyaḥ…yānebhyo vikrośantyo nipetire); that was a very pitiable condition of Pāñcāla and Kuru women (pāñcālakuruyoṣāṇāṁ kṛpaṇaṁ tad abhūn mahat); Gāndhārī showed to Kṛṣṇa daughters-in-law who were lamenting like kurarīs (snuṣā me…prakīrṇakeśāḥ krośantīḥ kurarīr iva mādhava); they remembered their near ones and ran to them separately; those women from noble families (paramāṅganāḥ), afflicted by sorrow and grief, lamented; their faces had dried up (mukhāni paramastrīṇām; vaktrāṇi kuruyoṣitām); grieving Kuru women described by Gāndhārī 11. 16. 1011, 13, 15, 18-19, 42-58; Kuru women, took away their ornaments, upper garments, girdles and, weeping due to excessive grief, knowing their dharma, gave water libations to their relatives and friends; when they were performing these rites, the river became fordable and then again spread out widely (bhūṣaṇāny uttarīyāṇi veṣṭanāny avamucya ca/…kurustriyaḥ/udakaṁ cakrire sarvā rudantyo bhṛśaduḥkhitāḥ/…dharmajñāḥ pracakruḥ salilakriyāḥ//) 11. 27. 2-4; all Kuru women, Kuntī and Draupadī, mounted different vehicles and went to Hāstinapura led by Vidura 12. 38. 41; Kuru women (kuruyoṣitaḥ) held Subhadrā, grieving over Abhimanyu's death, in their arms and lamented 14. 60. 26; Citrāṅgadā and Ulupī approached Draupadī, Subhadrā and other Kuru women (yāś cānyāḥ kuruyoṣitaḥ) with modesty 14. 90. 2; knowing Kuntī's firm resolve to retire to forest and seeing the Pāṇḍavas return without her, Kuru women wept loudly (kurustriyaḥ/…prarurudus tadā//) 15. 24. 11; wives of Kuru chiefs followed Pāṇḍavas on foot when they too on foot started towards the āśrama of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (striyaś ca kurumukhyānāṁ padbhir evānvayus tadā) 15. 31. 2; Saṁjaya introduced by name Draupadī and all other Kuru women to the ascetics in the āśrama (sarvān nāmābhināmataḥ/ …sarvāś cānyāḥ kurustriyaḥ) 15. 32. 4.


K. Different persons on the side of Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas variously referred to as born in the family of Kurus, eminent or best among Kurus, chief or king (prince) of Kurus, bringing good name (or in a few cases bad name) to the family of Kurus, etc.: kurukulādhama:

(1) Duryodhana 4. 48. 8; 9. 55. 17;

(2) Parikṣit 1. 37. 18;

(3) Bhīṣma 2. 38. 12; kurukulotpanna: Parikṣit 1. 38. 36; 1. 45. 16; kurukulodbhava: Bhīṣma 13. 154. 11; kurukulodvaha:

(1) Arjuna 3. 38. 37; 14. 50. 43, 46; 14. 77. 32;

(2) Janamejaya 9. 47. 4; 14. 62. 10;

(3) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 6. 12. 31; 6. 13. 21; 7. 172. 44; 15. 3. 1;

(4) Pāṇḍu 1. 117. 31;

(5) Bhīmasena 3. 148. 8;

(6) Bhīṣma 3. 81. 133; 5. 177. 16; 12. 291. 6; 13. 84. 4; 13. 86. 4;

(7) Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 18. 9; 3. 23. 3; 3. 188. 60; 14. 71. 21; 15. 7. 5; 17. 3. 24;

(8) Vicitravīrya 5. 145. 20; kurunandana:

(1) Abhimanyu 6. 97. 23;

(2) Arjuna 1. 164. 10; 1. 168. 20; 1. 184. 1; 1. 187. 19; 1. 206. 20; 1. 208. 5, 6; 1. 213. 15; 1. 214. 26; 1. 225. 11; 2. 24. 18, 20; 2. 25. 4; 3. 40. 41; 3. 42. 19; 3. 42. 34; 3. 43. 20; 3. 43. 27; 3. 44. 15; 3. 172. 19; 3. 234. 17; 4. 2. 10; 5. 7. 5; 5. 149. 18; 6. 24. 41; 6. 28. 43; 6. 36. 13; 6. 106. 20; 8. 59. 8; 14. 61. 14; 14. 78. 35; 14. 79. 11;

(3) Janamejaya 1. 99. 21, 22; 2. 33. 13; 3. 42. 24; 5. 19. 16; 12. 336. 58;

(4) Duryodhana 1. 195. 17; 2. 43. 2; 2. 57. 21; 3. 229. 6; 3. 235. 22; 3. 236. 10; 4. 25. 17; 5. 7. 5, 24, 30; 5. 83. 3; 5. 104. 6; 5. 189. 11; 5. 193. 41; 7. 53. 16; 8. 23. 24; 9. 60. 3;

(5) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 1. 197. 9; 2. 51. 7; 3. 11. 17; 5. 93. 33; 5. 153. 22; 6. 6. 12; 6. 12. 8; 6. 13. 43; 6. 41. 15; 6. 105. 30; 10. 8. 146; 15. 15. 26;

(6) Parikṣit 1. 38. 22;

(7) Pāṇḍu 1. 105. 3; 1. 112. 4; 1. 115. 3; 1. 116. 12; 1. 133. 10;

(8) Pāṇḍavas 4. 1. 15; 4. 1. 19; 4. 12. 2; 5. 21. 3;

(9) Pratīpa 1. 92. 17;

(10) Bhīmasena 1. 184. 1; 2. 21. 23; 2. 26. 9; 3. 147. 40; 3. 232. 15;

(11) Bhīṣma 2. 33. 26; 2. 34. 9; 3. 80. 42, 84; 3. 81. 63; 3. 82. 66; 3. 83. 9, 15; 5. 178. 18; 5. 180. 4; 12. 291. 2; 13. 39. 2; 13. 109. 11; 13. 154. 32;

(12) Yudhiṣṭhira 1. 156. 5; 1. 187. 26; 2. 13. 67; 2. 34. 9; 2. 42. 46; 3. 15. 15; 3. 22. 17; 3. 34. 42, 77; 3. 70. 16; 3. 72. 23; 3. 73. 21; 3. 83. 100; 3. 89. 12; 3. 90. 9; 3. 93. 27; 3. 128. 5; 3. 129. 8; 3. 163. 1; 3. 185. 44; 3. 261. 13; 5. 8. 19; 6. 41. 37, 39, 44; 6. 103. 50; 7. 58. 27; 9. 6. 31; 9. 16. 51; 9. 30. 2, 41; 9. 55. 41; 12. 25. 7; 12. 41. 8; 12. 49. 8; 12. 56. 20; 12. 69. 6, 24, 61, 63; 12. 72. 24; 12. 122. 10; 12. 265. 7; 12. 273. 14, 59; 12. 274. 16; 12. 306. 102; 13. 22. 13; 13. 42. 4; 13. 47. 25, 35, 47, 51; 13. 52. 35; 13. 57. 42; 13. 69. 30; 13. 83. 3; 13. 94. 7; 13. 98. 2; 14. 90. 16; 15. 5. 17; 15. 6. 16; 15. 8. 1; 15. 9. 8; 15. 45. 10; 17. 3. 32; 18. 4. 4, 6;

(13) Vidura 3. 7. 16;

(14) Sahadeva 2. 28. 15, 32; 4. 9. 2; 5. 149. 8; kurupati:

(1) Duryodhana 8. 40. 36;

(2) Pāṇḍu 15. 32. 2;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 2. 14; 11. 27. 23; 14. 86. 18; 14. 90. 27; kurupitāmaha: Bhīṣma 1. 103. 10; 2. 37. 2, 5; 2. 41. 29; 3. 241. 12; 5. 86. 7; 6. 14. 4; 6. 17. 5; 6. 48. 9, 22; 6. 52. 2; 6. 91. 3; 6. 102. 37; 6. 103. 52, 55, 60. 83; 6. 113. 20; 6. 114. 42, 89, 91-92; 7. 124. 23; 7. 169. 37; 12. 38. 6; 12. 278. 1; 14. 51. 15. kurupuṁgava:

(1) Abhimanyu 6. 54. 23;

(2) Arjuna 4. 54. 17; 14. 51. 36; 14. 77. 12; 16. 7. 1; 16. 9. 31;

(3) Duryodhana 5. 5. 8; 6. 112. 8; 7. 133. 13;

(4) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 60. 21;

(5) Bhīṣma 7. 2. 11; 13. 58. 1;

(6) Bhūriśravas 7. 117. 41, 50;

(7) Yudhiṣṭhira 8. 69. 18; 9. 16. 20, 86; 13. 117. 41;

(8) Somadatta 7. 131. 21; 7. 137. 7; kurupuṁgavāgraja: Janamejaya 1. 40. 7; kurupuṁgavāgrya: Dhṛtarāṣṭra 7. 94. 1; kurupṛtanāpati: Karṇa 8. 26. 70; kurupravīra:

(1) Arjuna 6. 33. 48; 8. 45. 64;

(2) Janamejaya 1. 40. 6, 9;

(3) Duryodhana 4. 60. 14; 4. 61. 22; 8. 57. 51;

(4) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 49. 25; 8. 4. 97;

(5) Pāṇḍu 1. 184. 18;

(6) Bhīṣma 5. 2. 5; 12. 51. 14;

(7) Yudhiṣṭhira 1. 182. 6; 1. 183. 6; 3. 24. 8; 3. 190. 82; 5. 2. 9; 12. 161. 47;

(8) Vikarṇa 4. 49. 9; kurumitra: Duryodhana 8. 4. 97; kurumukhya:

(1) Arjuna 14. 80. 9;

(2) Citrāṅgada 1. 95. 8;

(3) Durmukha 7. 19. 31;

(4) Duryodhana 6. 43. 18; 9. 57. 1;

(5) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 44. 22; 15. 2. 9;

(6) Bhīmasena 6. 43. 18; 9. 57. 1;

(7) Bhīṣma 1. 94. 66; 5. 58. 18; 6. 103. 100; 6. 113. 35; kururāja(-rājan):

(1) Duryodhana 1. 125. 1, 2; 2. 62. 28; 5. 46. 9; 5. 150. 27; 6. 69. 18; 6. 117. 15; 7. 38. 23; 7. 92. 12, 14, 22; 7. 117. 4; 8. 4. 105; 9. 5. 25; 9. 51. 10; 9. 55. 7; 9. 60. 51; 9. 61. 7; 10. 4. 15; 10. 9. 55; 11. 17. 28; 14. 17. 32 (-rājan);

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 52. 7; 7. 119. 28; 15. 15. 6; 15. 27. 2; 15. 36. 6; 15. 45. 34;

(3) Parikṣit 10. 16. 15; 17. 1. 8;

(4) Yudhiṣṭhira 1. 2. 43, 201; 1. 158. 34; 2. 42. 32; 3. 173. 7; 3. 181. 1; 4. 3. 3; 4. 9. 11; 4. 63. 52; 9. 15. 33; 10. 13. 5; 11. 26. 44; 13. 152. 2; 14. 15. 29; 14. 59. 24; 14. 70. 17; 14. 84. 13; 14. 91. 35; 14. 93. 87; 15. 1. 16; 15. 30. 5 (-rājan), 7; 15. 32. 5; 15. 35. 18; 15. 36. 10; 15. 45. 2; 16. 1. 7; 17. 3. 26; 18. 1. 19; 18. 3. 2, 41;

(5) Śaṁtanu 9, 55. 24; kururājaputra:

(1) Arjuna 1. 180. 14;

(2) Pāṇḍavāḥ 3. 161. 24;

(3) Bhīmasena 1. 180. 14;

(4) Yudhiṣṭhira 15. 30. 5; kururājarṣisattama: Bhīṣma 12. 308. 1; kuruvaṁśakara: Vyāsa 13. 18. 30; kuruvaṁśaketu: Bhīṣma 6. 22. 15; kuruvaṁśavivardhana:

(1) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 1. 61. 77;

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāṇḍu and Vidura 1. 100. 30;

(3) five Pāṇḍavas 1. 115. 25;

(4) Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas 1. 115. 28; kuruvaraśreṣṭha: Bhīṣma 3. 80. 88, 93; 3. 82. 28; kuruvardhana:

(1) Durjaya 6. 74. 23;

(2) Duryodhana 6. 11. 3;

(3) Parikṣit 1. 38. 15;

(4) Yudhiṣṭhira: 14. 15. 31;

(5) Vikarṇa 6. 74. 23; kuruvīra:

(1) Arjuna 14. 73. 20; 14. 80. 7;

(2) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 15. 24. 19;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira 5. 33. 10; kuruvṛddha:

(1) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 5. 23. 7;

(2) Bhīṣma 4. 29. 16; 5. 137. 10; 5. 145. 7; 5. 160. 12; 5. 162. 5; 6. 23. 12; 6. 47. 22; 6. 50. 105; 6. 103. 30; 6. 108. 20; 6. 116. 4; 6. 117. 6; 7. 4. 1; 11. 1. 25; kuruvṛddhatama:

(1) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 2. 61. 13;

(2) Bhīṣma 2. 61. 13; kuruvṛddhavarya: Dhṛtarāṣṭra 15. 32. 17; kuruvṛṣa: Bhīmasena 2. 26. 13; kuruśārdūla:

(1) Arjuna 1. 159. 7; 6. 43. 10; 12. 330. 40; 12. 336. 37; 16. 7. 7; 16. 9. 25;

(2) Janamejaya 12. 47. 2; 12. 336. 37;

(3) Duḥśāsana 7. 38. 21;

(4) Bhīmasena 2. 41. 4;

(5) Bhīṣma 5. 176. 7; 6. 43. 10; 13. 90. 1; 13. 153. 22; 13. 154. 30;

(6) Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 13. 52; 2. 37. 6; 3. 16. 10; 3. 83. 97; 5. 8. 30; 12. 272. 20; 14. 1. 7; 15. 7. 3; kuruśreṣṭha:

(1) Arjuna 4. 67. 10; 6. 32. 19; 6. 115. 39; 7. 27. 2; 7. 121. 28; 14. 61. 10; 14. 72. 9; 14. 78. 12; 14. 84. 16;

(2) Janamejaya 9. 36. 54; 13. 152. 13;

(3) Duryodhana 2. 62. 28; 3. 240. 15; 3. 241. 21; 5. 122. 19; 5. 194. 8; 7. 120. 30; 9. 54. 32; 10. 9. 41;

(4) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 6. 13. 42; 6. 79. 7; 6. 103. 6; 8. 69. 21; 9. 30. 2; 9. 62. 48; 15. 9. 6; 15. 20. 12; 15. 44. 43;

(5) Parikṣit 1. 46. 16;

(6) Bhīmsena 3. 149. 22; 3. 150. 4; 9. 54. 32;

(7) Bhīṣma 3. 80. 21; 5. 162. 14; 5. 176. 32; 5. 180. 15; 6. 55. 49; 6. 78. 5; 6. 102. 40; 6. 115. 38; 6. 117. 5; 12. 93. 1; 12. 125. 7; 12. 136. 3; 13. 39. 12; 13. 49. 1; 13. 68. 1; 13. 154. 15;

(8) Yudhiṣṭhira 2. 4. 4; 2. 34. 10; 3. 1. 43; 3. 14. 15; 3. 16. 18; 3. 24. 5; 3. 27. 6; 3. 87. 14; 3. 109. 18; 3. 144. 21; 3. 156. 8; 5. 24. 1; 7. 102. 30; 8. 45. 65; 10. 12. 11; 12. 56. 12, 46; 12. 59. 59; 12. 128. 29; 12. 153. 14; 12. 200. 44; 13. 116. 75; 14. 64. 11; 14. 89. 13; 14. 91. 19; 15. 11. 3; 15. 12. 20; 15. 23. 21; kuruśreṣṭhatama: Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 254. 7; kurusattama:

(1) Arjuna 1. 164. 2; 1. 207. 6; 6. 26. 31; 7. 67. 18; 8. 59. 6;

(2) Citrāṅgada 1. 95. 9;

(3) Janamejaya 1. 101. 5; 2. 30. 31; 9. 43. 14;

(4) Duryodhana 3. 240. 13; 5. 122. 6; 7. 128. 33; 7. 134. 4; 9. 56. 20, 47; 9. 57. 35; 9. 58. 19; 12. 124. 66;

(5) Droṇa 8. 5. 107;

(6) Dhṛtarāṣṭra 1. 124. 3; 3. 225. 5; 3. 227. 24; 5. 54. 9, 25; 5. 93. 8; 6. 11. 5; 7. 150. 55; 7. 165. 4; 8. 37. 11; 11. 2. 14; 11. 8. 1;

(7) Pāṇḍavas (pl.) 13. 27. 14;

(8) Bhīmasena 3. 158. 45; 9. 56. 20;

(9) Bhīṣma 1. 196. 2; 2. 39. 20; 3. 227. 15; 5. 30. 13; 5. 54. 21, 25; 6. 116. 2; 7. 3. 11; 8. 5. 107; 12. 38. 10; 12. 289. 1; 13. 47. 5;

(10) Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 28. 9; 3. 79. 3; 3. 120. 20; 3. 229. 14; 5. 9. 45; 8. 45. 59; 12. 1. 5; 12. 31. 25; 12. 55. 20; 12. 58. 27; 12. 76. 35; 12. 251. 26; 12. 270. 2, 3; 12. 310. 13; 13. 8. 22; 13. 58. 28; 13. 66. 11; 13. 144. 2;

(11) Śaṁtanu 1. 92. 19; kurusiṁha: Duryodhana 7. 164. 35; kurūttama:

(1) Arjuna 7. 79. 1;

(2) Duryodhana 7. 120. 23;

(3) Yudhiṣṭhira 3. 214. 15; 6. 22. 8. [See Kurukṣetra-Kurujāṁgala, Kaurava-Kauraveya-Kauravya ].


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Vedic Index of Names and Subjects[सम्पाद्यताम्]

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पृष्ठभागोऽयं यन्त्रेण केनचित् काले काले मार्जयित्वा यथास्रोतः परिवर्तयिष्यते। तेन मा भूदत्र शोधनसम्भ्रमः। सज्जनैः मूलमेव शोध्यताम्।


Kuru.--The Kurus appear as by far the most important people in the Brāhmaṇa literature. There is clear evidence that it was in the country of the Kurus, or the allied KuruPañcālas, that the great Brāhmaṇas were composed.[१] The Kurus are comparatively seldom mentioned alone, their name being usually coupled with that of the Pañcālas on account of the intimate connexion of the two peoples. The Kuru-Pañcālas are often expressly referred to as a united nation.[२] In the land of the Kuru-Pañcālas speech is said to have its particular home;[३] the mode of sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas is proclaimed to be the best;[४] the Kuru-Pañcāla kings perform the Rājasūya or royal sacrifice;[५] their princes march forth on raids in the dewy season, and return in the hot season.[६] Later on the Kuru-Pañcāla Brahmins are famous in the Upaniṣads.[७] Weber[८] and Grierson[९] have sought to find traces in Vedic literature of a breach between the two tribes, the latter scholar seeing therein a confirmation of the theory that the Kurus belonged to the later stream of immigrants into India, who were specially Brahminical, as opposed to the Pañcālas, who were anti-Brahminical. In support of this view, Weber refers to the story in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā[१०] of a dispute between Vaka Dālbhya and Dhṛtarāṣṭra Vaicitravīrya, the former being held to be by origin a Pañcāla, while the latter is held to be a Kuru. But there is no trace of a quarrel between Kurus and Pañcālas in the passage in question, which merely preserves the record of a dispute on a ritual matter between a priest and a prince: the same passage refers to the Naimiṣīya sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas, and emphasizes the close connexion of the two peoples.[११] Secondly, Weber conjectures in the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā.[१२] that Subhadrikā of Kāmpila was the chief queen of the king of a tribe living in the neighbourhood of the clan, for whose king the horse sacrifice described in the Saṃhitā was performed. But the interpretation of this passage by Weber is open to grave doubt;[१३] and in the Kāṇva recension of the Saṃhitā[१४] a passage used at the Rājasūya shows that the Kuru-Pañcālas had actually one king. Moreover, there is the evidence of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[१५] that the old name of the Pañcālas was Krivi. This word looks very like a variant of Kuru, and Zimmer[१६] plausibly conjectures that the Kurus and Krivis formed the Vaikarṇa[१७] of the Rigveda, especially as both peoples are found about the Sindhu and the Asiknī.[१८]

The Kurus alone are chiefly mentioned in connexion with the locality which they occupied, Kurukṣetra, We are told, however, of a domestic priest (Purohita) in the service of both the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas,[१९] who must therefore at one time have been closely connected.[२०] In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad reference is made to the Kurus being saved by a mare (aśvā),[२१] and to some disaster which befel them owing to a hailstorm.[२२] In the Sūtras, again, a ceremony (Vājapeya) of the Kurus is mentioned.[२३] There also a curse, which was pronounced on them and led to their being driven from Kurukṣetra, is alluded to.[२४] This possibly adumbrates the misfortunes of the Kauravas in the epic tradition.

In the Rigveda the Kurus do not appear under that name as a people. But mention is made of a prince, Kuruśravaṇa (‘Glory of the Kurus’),[२५] and of a Pākasthāman Kaurayāṇa.[२६] In the Atharvaveda[२७] there occurs as a king of the Kurus Parikṣit, whose son, Janamejaya, is mentioned in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[२८] as one of the great performers of the horse sacrifice.

It is a probable conjecture of Oldenberg's[२९] that the Kuru people, as known later, included some of the tribes referred to by other names in the Rigveda. Kuruśravaṇa, shown by his name to be connected with the Kurus, is in the Rigveda called Trāsadasyava, ‘descendant of Trasadasyu,’ who is well known as a king of the Pūrus. Moreover, it is likely that the TṛtsuBharatas, who appear in the Rigveda as enemies of the Pūtus, later coalesced with them to form the Kuru people.[३०] Since the Bharatas appear so prominently in the Brāhmaṇa texts as a great people of the past, while the later literature ignores them in its list of nations, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they became merged in some other tribe. Moreover, there is evidence that the Bharatas occupied the territory in which the Kurus were later found. Two of them are spoken of in a hymn of the Rigveda[३१] as having kindled fire on the Dṛṣadvatī, the Āpayā, and the Sarasvatī--that is to say, in the sacred places of the later Kurukṣetra. Similarly, the goddess Bhāratī (‘belonging to the Bharatas’) is constantly mentioned in the Āprī (‘propitiatory’) hymns together with Sarasvatī.[३२] Again, according to the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, one Bharata king was victorious over the Kāśis,[३३] and another made offerings to Gaṅgā and Yamunā,[३४] while raids of the Bharatas against the Satvants are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa.[३५] Nor is it without importance that the Bharatas appear as a variant for the Kuru Pañcālas in a passage of the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā,[३६] and that in the list of the great performers of the horse sacrifice the names of one Kuru and two Bharata princes are given without any mention of the people over which they ruled, while in other cases that information is specifically given.[३७]

The territory of the Kuru-Pañcālas is declared in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa to be the middle country (Madhyadeśa).[३८] A group of the Kuru people still remained further north--the Uttara Kurus beyond the Himālaya. It appears from a passage of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa that the speech of the Northerners-that is, presumably, the Northern Kurus--and of the KuruPañcālas was similar, and regarded as specially pure.[३९] There seems little doubt that the Brahminical culture was developed in the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that it spread thence east, south, and west. Traces of this are seen in the Vrātya Stomas (sacrifices for the admission of non-Brahminical Āryans) of the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa,[४०] and in the fact that in the Śāṅkhāyana Āraṇyaka it is unusual for a Brahmin to dwell in the territory of Magadha.[४१] The repeated mention of KuruPañcāla Brahmins is another indication of their missionary activity.[४२]

The geographical position of the Kuru-Pañcālas renders it probable that they were later immigrants into India than the Kosala-Videha or the Kāśis,[४३] who must have been pushed into their more eastward territories by a new wave of Āryan settlers from the west. But there is no evidence in Vedic literature to show in what relation of time the immigration of the latter peoples stood to that of their neighbours on the west. It has, however, been conjectured,[४४] mainly on the ground of later linguistic phenomena, which have no cogency for the Vedic period, that the Kurus were later immigrants, who, coming by a new route, thrust themselves between the original Āryan tribes which were already in occupation of the country from east to west. Cf. also Kṛtvan. For other Kuru princes see Kauravya.

Kuru-śravaṇa Trāsadasyava is alluded to as dead in a hymn of the Rigveda,[४५] which refers also to his son Upamaśravas, and his father Mitrātithi. In another hymn[४६] he is mentioned as still alive. His name connects him on the one hand with the Kurus, and on the other with Trasadasyu and the Pūrus.

  1. For the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, Cf. Hopkins, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 15, 49, 50, with Weber, Indian Literature, 67, 68;
    for the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the Śāṅkhāyana Brāhmaṇa, Weber, loc. cit., 45;
    for the Aitareya and Sāṅkhāyana Āraṇyakas, Keith, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 387;
    for the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, Weber, loc. cit., 132, Transactions of the Bcrlin Academy, 1895, 859. The Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa refers repeatedly to the Kuru-Pañcālas, whose name also occurs in the late and confused Gopatha Brāhmaṇa. For the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, see i. 8, 4, 1. 2, and for the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, iv. 2, 6.
  2. Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, iii. 7, 6;
    8, 7;
    iv. 7, 2;
    Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad, iv. 1;
    Gopatha Brāhmaṇa, 1. 2, 9;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, x. 6;
    Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, xi. 3, 3 (Kāṇva recension).
  3. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, iii. 2, 3, 15.
  4. Ibid., i. 7, 2, 8;
    cf. Kuru-vājapeya in Sāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xv. 3, 15;
    Lāṭyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, viii. 11, 18.
  5. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, v. 5, 2, 3. 5.
  6. Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, 1. 8, 4. 1, 2.
  7. Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 78;
    Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, iii. 30, 6;
    iv. 6, 2;
    Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, iii. 1, 1;
    9, 20, etc.
  8. Indische Studien, 3, 470;
    Indian Literature, 114.
  9. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 602-607;
    837-844.
  10. x. 6. Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 12, xli.
  11. See Keith, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 831-836;
    11381142.
  12. xxiii. 18.
  13. Eggeling. Sacred Books of the East, 44, 322.
  14. xi. 3, 3. Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 114, note *.
  15. xiii. 5, 4, 7.
  16. Altindisches Leben, 103.
  17. vii. 18, 11.
  18. Keith, loc. cit., 835.
  19. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, ii. 4, 4, 5.
  20. Cf. Weber, Indian Literature, 123.
  21. iv. 17, 9: for aśvā Bo7htlingk in his edition reads akṣṇā, followed by Little, Grammatical Index, 1.
  22. i. 10, 1.
  23. Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xv. 3, 15.
  24. Ibid., xv. 16, 11. Cf. Weber, Indian Literathre, 136.
  25. Rv. x. 33, 4.
  26. Rv. viii. 3, 21.
  27. xx. 127, 7 et seq.;
    Khila, v. 10.
  28. xiii. 5, 4.
  29. Buddha, 403, 404.
  30. Ibid., 406-409.
  31. iii. 23.
  32. Cf. Scheftelowitz, Die Apokṛyphen des Ṛgveda, 145.
  33. xiii. 5, 4, 11.
  34. Ibid., 21.
  35. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, ii. 25 (cf. Haug's edition, 2, 128, n. 3);
    Oldenberg, Buddha, 407, note*.
  36. xi. 3, 3. See note 14;
    Oldenberg, Buddha, 408, 409.
  37. Oldenberg, 409, note*.
  38. viii. 14. Cf. Oldenberg, 392, 393.
  39. iii. 2, 3, 15. This is the sense which it appears to bear, as the KuruPañcālas can bardly be reckoned as being northerly (Oldenberg, 395), and the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, vii. 6 (Indische Studien, 2, 309) in independent evidence for the puro speech of the north. Cf. Eggeeling Sacred Books of the East, 12. xiii. Weber, Indian Literature, 45;
    Indische Studien, 1, 191.
  40. xvii. 1, 1. See also Av. xv. with Whitney's and Lanman notes;
    Weber, Ind the Studien, 1, 33 et seq.;
    Indian Literature,
    67, 78, 80.
  41. vii. 13. Cf. Oldenberg, Buddha, 400, note*;
    Weber, Indian Literature, 112, n. 126.
  42. See e.g. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xi. 4, 1, 2, and note 6.
  43. This is recognized, e.g., by Oldenberg, Buddha, 9, 391, 398, 399;
    Lanman, Sanskrit Keader, 297, etc. The narrative of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, i. 4, 1, 10 et seq. (Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 170), rather implies that the KosalaVidehas are offshoots of the KuruPañcālas, but Oldenberg and Macdonell (Sanskrit Literature, 214 interpret this as referring to the spread of Vedic tradition and culture, not of nationality.
  44. Cf. Grierson, Languages of India, 52 et seq.;
    Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society,
    1908, 837 et seq. On the other hand, it is probably an error to assume that the Bharatas were originally situated far west of Kurukṣetra, and that the main action of the Rigveda was confined to the Panjab. When Vasiṣṭha celebrates the crossing of the Vipāś and Śutudrī (Rv. iii. 33), he probably came from the east, as Pischel, Vedische Studien, 2, 218, points out, and not from the west. Adopting the ordinary view, Hopkins, India, Old and New, 52, finds it necessary to suggest that Yamunā is only another name in the Rv. for the Paruṣṇī. But the necessity for this suggestion, which is not in itself plausible, disappears when it is realized that the Bharatas held a territory roughly corresponding to Kurukṣetra, and bounded on the east by the Yamunā. On the other hand, Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 1, 142, 143. places the Kurus near the Ārjīkīyā in Kaśmīr, which puts them too far north. So also Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 103, and Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 12, xlii. It seems probable that the Kurus were at a very early period widely scattered to the north of the Himālaya, in Kurukṣetra, and about the Sindhu and Asiknī.

    Cf. Oldenberg, Buddha, 400 et seq.;
    Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, 152-157;
    von Schroeder, Indiens Literature und Cultur, 164 et seq.;
    Weber, Indische Studien, 1, 187 et seq.;
    Indian Literature,
    114, 135, 136;
    Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 27;
    Pargiter, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1908, 333 et seq.;
    Hopkins, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 13, 205, n.
  45. x. 33, 4. Cf. Bṛhaddevatā, vii. 35, 36.
  46. x. 32, 9. Cf. Ludwig, Translation of the Rigveda, 3, 165: Geldner, Vediscke Studien, 2, 150, 184;
    Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, 386.
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